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is the legend "Saecvlvm_sextvm pie avspicatvr A.D. MDCCCLXXXVI."; and around, "Vniversitas Heidelbergensis a Rvperto condita a Carolo Friderico instavrata." Diameter, three inches.

times its present size, and when its chalky coasts (now washed away, leaving nothing but the rocky nucleus they surrounded) were being perceptibly hollowed out by the sea, it was fittingly called Hallaglun (Hallig-Land). A note upon this subauthority upon philological questions would, I think, be valued by many readers of 'N. & Q. HENRY ATTWELL.

In 1888 Bologna, mother of universities, was eight hundred years old, and a medal was struck.ject by Dr. Murray, Prof. Skeat, or some other I shall be glad of a description. Can the medal be obtained?

During the present century the following universities, at least, held centenary or jubilee commemorations:-1809, Leipzig, four hundred years; 1858, Jena, three hundred; 1860, Berlin, fifty; 1865, Vienna, five hundred; 1875, Leyden, three hundred; 1877, Upsala, four hundred; 1877, Tübingen, four hundred; 1877, Marburg, three hundred and fifty; 1877, Innsbruck, two hundred; 1879, Copenhagen, four hundred; 1882, Würzburg, three hundred; 1886, Harvard, two hundred and fifty; 1890, Montpellier, six hundred. Did medals appear in connexion with any of these? Doubtless some correspondents can add other names to the list. P. J. ANDERSON. Aberdeen,

THE REAL SHAPE OF THE EARTH.-Pythagoras, and after him Aristoteles and Archimedes, are said to have already asserted and geometrically proved the spherical figure, or globular shape of the earth. What are the main arguments on which they based their conclusions?

X.

[The spherical form of the earth must have early suggested itself by the fact that the visible portion, when seen at sea or on a large plain, always looks round, it being obvious, from the distinctness of objects in the offing, that it is not the mere distance which prevents us from seeing further. Thales is said to have been the first to teach its globular shape; but, of course, correct views on the point prevailed only by degrees as more and more of the surface was known, Aristotle, in his treatise on the heavens (bk. ii.), gives several reasons for believing in the earth's sphericity; of these the principal is the necessary symmetry of its parts about the centre, which can only obtain in a sphere, but he mentions others, particularly that its shadow, as seen in eclipses of the moon, is always circular. It is true that in his Meteorologics' (ii. 5) he speaks of it as drumshaped (olov TVμrávov); but it is evident that he means to compare the two hemispheres, considered separately, to two drums of the form we should call kettle-drums. That the actual shape is not exactly a sphere, but an oblate spheriod, is a discovery of modern times, concluded by Newton from theory, and proved by many measurements of long arcs of the meridian taken in different parts of the world.]

HELIGOLAND. Is not the generally accepted etymology of Heligoland-"holyland"-doubtful? Among other traditions of St. Willibrord ('N. & Q.,' 7th S. ix. 381) is one to the effect that the island received its name immediately after the death of this saint, who was instrumental in the conversion of its inhabitants, devotees of the goddess Hertha. It seems, however, not improbable that at an age when the island was a hundred

Barnes.

'ADVENTURES OF YOUNG JOHN BULL.'-Some

fifty or sixty years ago I knew the whole of a poem The Adventures of Young John Bull' it was, I think, called. The youth leaves home with his father's advice, of which I only remember a line and a half :Of this take particular care, That whatever you do or whatever you say the name of a Briton you bear.

Young John reaches foreign parts; and then come the lines:

The follies of Paris we stop not to mention, Bull Junior soon left them behind;

Those wonders of Nature quick caught his attention. which tourists in Switzerland find.

Our hero goes to Italy, and his Protestant soul is pained by much he sees in Rome; and at Naples he meets a lovely English maiden, but under what circumstances, and what he says and does, is, alas! an absolute blank. Somewhere on the way home they see a strange ship, and the captain cries out: 'Tis a pirate as sure as a gun.

Soon after I remember that the poet tells us that John felt like a Briton and fought like a man, But the victory was gained by the foe. Again I must confess to oblivion as to his immediately subsequent fate; but eventually come the cheering lines

About three o'clock he arrived by the coach, and his friends were all waiting to meet him, "He's returned," said his father, "without self-reproach," and his mother was ready to eat him. conclusion follows rapidly :—

The

To

Emma, the maid who at Naples he saw, his heart and his hand he then plighted,

And here is the church where, according to law, this amiable pair were united.

Can any of your readers help me to the remainder of this touching tale of adventure, love, and marriage? A. H. CHRISTIE.

'RECUEIL DE DIVERSES POESIES DE SIEUR D***, Londres, 1731.-Who is the author of

this?

340, Wilton Road, Aston, Birmingham.

F. M.

it in no bibliographical works, French or English.] [Is it not an edition of Boileau Despréaux? We trace

"PRO OLLA."-This phrase occurs in the Sacrist Rolls of Ely Cathedral, in connexion with "O Sapientiâ." Can any correspondent versed in

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[We always understood the phrase to imply a rump steak and a dozen of port. The consumption of this at a two o'clock dinner by four well-known worthies, one an admiral and the other three lawyers, constituted a much discussed, but not unprecedented feat in a Northern town somewhere near half a century ago.]

ST. GEORGE-To which family of the name did Sir George St. George, of Carrick, co. Leitrim, belong; and whom did he marry? His daughter Eleanor married, in the seventeenth century, Sir Arthur Gore, great-grandfather of the first Earl of Arran (cr. 1762). KATHLEEN Ward.

THE TELEPHONE.-I have been informed by a Belgian gentleman that an electric telephone was invented in Belgium in 1858, and might have been seen in operation at the College of the Josephites at Melle, in East Flanders, a few years ago. Is this correct? J. MASKELL. Emanuel Hospital, S.W.

'HOW TO CATALOGUE A LIBRARY.'-In the Spectator of April 19 it is stated, in a review of Mr. Henry B. Wheatley's interesting work, that "it is becoming a question whether it is worth while to have a library at all." What was the reason that induced the reviewer of the book in question to give expression to this sweeping opinion? HENRY GERALD HOPE.

Freegrove Road, N.

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wedlock, to speak of her as Elizabeth Boleyn. Is this correct? I have an impression, not far removed from certainty, that illegitimate persons can assume either the father's or the mother's surname, whichever is the more in accord with their taste. In fact, it is now generally held that a person, whether legitimate or not, can change his or her surname at will. In Elizabeth's case a surname would not be wanted. So far as I remember, both before and after she was queen she used her Christian name only. ANON.

JOSEPH BOUCHIER SMITH.-Can any one inform me of the marriage and death of Joseph Bouchier Smith, son of Dr. Joseph Smith, LL.D., of Oxford? He was lord of the manor of Kidlington until 1800, and his hatchment is in the church there. His wife's arms are upon an escutcheon of pretence upon her husband's shield, viz., Quarterly azure and gules, a cross engrailed ermine. Mr. Smith did not die at Kidlington. M. H. STAPLETON.

ROBERT WARCOP, M.P. for Southwark in 1654-55, Cromwell's second Parliament. Who W. D. PINK. was he?

CORNELIS TROMP.- Will some kind correpondent give me the date when Cornelis Tromp, son of Admiral Tromp, was created Earl of SalisHUGH OWEN, F.S.A. bury?

DIVORCE OF GEORGE I.-In a recent issue of N. & Q.' a correspondent pointed out a somewhat serious slip made by a writer in the Edinburgh Review for January last. The reviewer, however, seems to know what he is writing about, and I should like to learn what is his authority for the following statement, contained in a foot-note to p. 250:

"Sophia Dorothea died seven months before her husband; bad she survived him, the daughter of Madame Queen of England, for Queen of England she indubitably d'Olbreuze might have been recognized as Dowager was during the reign of George J., there having been no divorce to deprive her of her rank and title."

A writer in the Quarterly Review for July, 1885, referring to this subject, says :

"It is, perhaps, hardly necessary to add that Horace Walpole was unacquainted with the documentary history of the affair. Thus, he declares it to be a doubtful point whether George I. was ever divorced from his wife."

BRAY.-Is anything known of a Republican In Leslie Stephen's Dict. of National BioCapt. Bray, who held a commission in Col. Rey-graphy' it is stated (vol. xxi. 147):— nolds's regiment of horse, and was imprisoned at Windsor by the Parliamentary general in 1648, apparently for supposed complicity in a general mutiny? A. HALL.

SURNAME OF QUEEN ELIZABETH.-It has become a custom with certain writers, who consider Queen Elizabeth to have been born out of lawful

"Against this princess [Sophia Dorothea] who had previously attempted to quit Hanover, and had manifestly meditated a flight with Königsmark's help, sentence of divorce was pronounced on the ground of malicious desertion."

Burke gives Dec. 28, 1694, as the date of the divorce. As the Edinburgh reviewer must have known that this divorce has been accepted as an

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'A SAD DISAPPOINTMENT.'-Can any of your readers inform me at what date, and in what number of Harper's Magazine, some verses entitled 'A Sad Disappointment,' by Kate Kellog, appeared? It was probably before the European edition was issued. AN OLD RIFLEMAN.

"DIED OF RAGE."-On the back of a portrait, painted about 1750, is written, on a piece of paper, "Robes Sherwin, Father of Joseph Sherwin." This is followed by some words written in pencil, now very faint. They appear to be, "First husband of Mrs. Thorrold died of Rage." Can any one throw any light upon the latter part of this inscription? It is not certain that the name is Thorrold. The other words are more easy to read. I am aware that "rage," was used for "hydrophobia."

OCTOGENARIAN.

UNICORN.-Can any of your readers inform me when the unicorn first appeared as a supporter of the royal arms; and why that fabulous animal was chosen? Previous to the reign of James I. a dragon (I am told) faced the lion. G. H. R.

AUTHORS OF QUOTATIONS WANTED.

"Life is at best but a froward child, which must be coaxed and played with until the end comes." A friend writes to me, "I am anxious to chase this home to its rightful author. I have seen it attributed to Sir William Temple and also to Goldsmith."

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JONATHAN BOUCHIER,

ANON.

A dream within a dream.
None without hope e'er loved the fairest fair,
But love will hope where reason would despair.
HERBERT MAXWELL.

So to the sacred sun in Memnon's fane,
Spontaneous concords quired the matin strain;
Touch'd by his orient beam, responsive rings
The living lyre, and vibrates all its strings;
Accordant ailes the tender tones prolong,
And holy echoes swell the adoring song.
The author seems to have been thinking of the passage
in Juvenal:-

Dimidio magica resonant ubi Memnone chordæ
Atque vetus Thebe centum jacet obruta portis.
'Sat., xv. 5, 6.
JOHN PICKFORD, M.A.

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If HERMENTRUDE will permit me to say so, she appears to have formed the very common, but utterly erroneous, notion of the social status of the early London citizens. This family, she writes, had a commerical origin, their real "seat ” their draper's shop in Lombard Street. Setting aside the fact that unless, like Topsy, they "grew, they must have had a previous origin, and that origin would certainly have been no ignoble one, the citizens of London having been invariably drawn, until the end of the sixteenth century and generally until the middle of the eighteenth, from the aristocratic and governing classes. So rigid were the civic authorities in enforcing the rule to exclude all but those of gentle blood from the free-. dom, that any one convicted of obtaining it by misrepresentation was deprived of it.

I have been at considerable pains in investigating birth to a single member of the Corporation of so this point, and positively I cannot assign an ignoble early a date. Take the case of two doubtful ones. Sir Nicholas Brembre is stated to have been a man of low parentage-more on account of the obscurity of his origin than anything I can discover-but his position in the City and the influence he obtained at Court (being admitted to the Privy Council) are sufficient to refute this, taking into consideration the extreme aristocratic feeling of the time. The little that is known of this man throws no light upon his social status. He owned the manor of Northall, in Middlesex, but this he may not have inherited. Sir William Sevenoke is variously stated to have been a foundling and to have been the illegitimate son of William Rumshed, his patron; yet his connexions must have heen of some consideration to have procured his apprenticeship and freedom. The bend sinister was viewed in those days with a liberality we might well adopt.

Does HERMENTRUDE fancy, when she speaks of their draper's shop, that the De la Poles had an open stall, and stood behind a counter measuring out stuffs with a yard-measure? No one in those days could carry on any business without attaching himself to one of the guilds. He might be a merchant, importing or exporting all manner of merchandise, and attending, or being represented, at all the large fairs and markets throughout the kingdom; which by special favour were free of toll to the citizens of London. He would live actions would be effected in the open market, in a princely house, and his business transat those spots set apart for the exchange of the different commodities; in the same way as merchants do much of their business, every afternoon, at the Royal Exchange, to the present day.

Whittington I need hardly refer to. The notings I stated that I could see no marks of nursery romances which cling around his name Chapman, neither in wording nor rhythm, in the belong to children's books, and are refuted by his "Sonnet-Dedication " to Sir Th. Walsingham set well-known descent from a Gloucestershire knight. forth by Mr. J. P. Collier as found by him in a Poor he may have been, but without his gentle unique copy in his possession of the edition of blood he would have had no chance of rising in 1605. Now I would further quote Chapman's the City of London-a most exclusive oligarchy. prose dedication before his 'Conspiracie and TraWhat families, not being titled nor ennobled gedie of Byron,' two plays published together in ones, could have stood higher socially than the 1608, to the same Sir Thomas, and to his son:Cornhills, Gisors, Frowyks, and Sandwiches, to mention a few familiar names not at all exceptional in their standing. They were territorial landlords, sheriffs of counties (other than London and Middlesex), custodians of some of the kings' most important castles and fortresses, and admitted to the highest offices in the state. Why, so late as in King James's reign Sir Baptist Hicks was objected to by the Court of Aldermen, as a member of their own body, because he held a retail shop; which so disgusted him that when, a few years later, he was elected by the ward of Bread Street, he employed the king's personal influence in order to obtain the acceptance of his resignation.

As for the De la Poles, Richard de la Pole, Vintner, is described as of Edmonton in 1310; and was elected Alderman of Bishopsgate in 1330 (Riley's 'Memorials '), whilst John de la Pole purchased a house, called Gisors House, at the same place, of William de Gisors, in the reign of Edward III., 1326-77 (Lysons's 'Environs'). Even the Michael de la Pole alluded to as insisting upon his right to the "de la," held such offices as Admiral of the Fleet and the Chancellorship, and, no doubt from his being a favourite of the king and concerned with Tresillian and Brembre, made many enemies, and had numerous detractors as the tide of the king's popularity began to ebb.

JOHN J. STOCKEN.

3, Weltje Road, Ravenscourt Park, W. HERMENTRUDE is always so exact that one would like to ask the authority for the statement that the De la Poles sprang from "their draper's shop in Lombard Street." The evidence seems quite conclusive that this merchant family sprang from Hull, their only connexion with Lombard Street being that some houses in that street, belonging to the Bardi, were granted to William de la Pole by Edward III. in 1340 (Frost, p. 113). There does not appear to be anything contemptuous in the designation "atte Pool," which is used indifferently for "de la Pole' in a large number of instances; e. g., Walsingham, ii. 141, 146, 147, 149, 309; Annales,' 312;Registrum Roffense,' 555; Rot. Parl.,' v. 397, 401. The name is no doubt a local designation, like "del see," or " atte see," ""atte welle," &c.

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J. HAMILTON WYLIE.

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CHAPMAN'S ALL FOOLS' (7th S. vi. 46; vii. 177, 513).—In the second, I think, of the above

"Sir, though I know, you ever stood little affected to these uprofitable rites of Dedication; (which disposition in you, hath made me hetherto dispence with your right in my other impressions) yet, least the world may repute it (having heard your approbation of these in their prea neglect in me, of so auncient and worthy a friend; sentment) I could not but prescribe them with your name."

Here not merely the words I have italicized, but the tenour of the whole passage, make against his ever having dedicated one of his previous works to him, even had he withdrawn it before the whole impression had been worked off. In no way am I able to take them as the words of one who had already, and but three years before, set forth a sonnet-dedicatory to his friend and patron. Nay, it seems to me that had he done this and then withdrawn it he would have naturally alluded to it, as emphasizing both his patron's little affection for these unprofitable rites, and also his own desire to withhold what he had done, in accordance with his friend's known opinions. In the third place, having applied to Messrs. Robson & Kerslake, as kindly suggested by COL. PRIDEAUX, they tell me that they have neither record nor remembrance of having either purchased or sold the copy of 'All Fools in the sale catalogue of Mr. Ouvry's books. Fourthly, I have asked in vain in these columns and privately as to the whereabouts of this supposed copy, as also for the name of its present possessor: Fifthly, there is nothing in the said catalogue proving that the copy therein set forth was the one from which Mr. Collier took his "reprints," and this, and what it fetched, viz., 17. 128.-a price much too small for a unique copy sure to have been bid for by the British Museum and by others render it more probable that it was a copy of 1605, with one of Mr. Collier's alleged reprints inserted. Sixthly, in accordance with this, no scholar or other, either during Mr. Collier's lifetime, or since his death, or at or since Mr. Ouvry's sale, has, so far as can be ascertained, ever seen this 1605 copy. And with this I may join the fact that no one has ever seen an all but unique copy of a map which Collier stated-I think in the Athenæum-that he had so soon as the possessor of the unique copy had announced his treasure trove. One person who called to see this Collier copy was told that it had been mislaid in some of his old folios; but neither he nor any other has seen it from that day to this. Seventhly, Dr. Garnett, who on my asking him about the ‘All

Fools' kindly and of his own accord examined the sale catalogue of Mr. Collier's books after his death, could find no entry of it. And here I would remark that Mr. Collier had not very long before announced in the Athenæum the theft from his room of several valuable books, curiously omitting as it occurred to me at the time, and without a thought of the interpretation I would now put on it-any mention of their names. I thought, and naturally thought, that he would have mentioned what they were, if only to aid in the detection of the thieves, and to set purchasers on their guard.

as a suite of rooms, an application of the word absent from dictionaries, not only French but English, although in England the term has long been applied in practice to the mess premises. KILLIGREW.

POPULATION OF SCOTLAND IN

AGES (7th S. ix. 427).-Into this large and inTHE MIDDLE teresting general question of MR. BOUCHIER'S I But I entertain a firm cannot profess to enter. belief that Scotland in the Middle Ages was not in war-time were terrible; but we know from the so very thinly populated. No doubt the sufferings COL. PRIDEAUX speaks of Collier having somefacts in France under Napoleon that protracted times been accused of forgery on slight grounds. I war increases the ratio of growth of population know not to what "sometimes" he refers, I not much smaller in early times than now, many of the marvellously. Though the towns of the Scots were having busied myself with such matters unless they came in my way. But on sure and certain rural districts, on the other hand, were far more grounds it has been proved that he was a forger; off in some country districts in course of the present populous. There has been a tremendous falling and keeping other instances in the backgroundif being so well known they can be so kept-I century. Clearances are not confined to the Highwould refer any one to the late Dr. C. M. Ingleby's home in Annandale, seven hamlets, or rows of cotlands. Within a radius of half a mile from my tractate Was Lodge a Player?' This decisively houses, have disappeared since sixty years ago. shows Collier's habitual inaccuracy in transcribing, his intentional misleadment as to the effect of the worm-holes of the original, and his introduction into his transcript of the Dulwich MS. of the words "of him as a player"-words which were not and could not have been there, and for which words, in order that they might make sense, he was obliged to omit a previous "of

me.

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Since, then, Collier did forge, I, having dispassionately considered the facts that I have set forth, have been compelled to believe that this sonnetdedicatory is not Chapman's. And till I have a sight of this unseen copy, or the concurrent testimony of more than one expert shall assure me that they have seen it, and can vouch for the sonnet having been printed in 1605, I shall place it within prison brackets. BR. NICHOLSON.

REGIMENTAL MESSES (7th S. ix. 388, 476; x. 35).-Foreign officers have not a mess" by regiment, but several. A French regiment contains so many officers that there are in it always at least two messes, that of the lieutenants and that of the higher ranks. D.

The modern migration of mess from England to France is shown by the wording of Littré's definition: "Mot anglais dont on se sert quelquefois aujourdhui chez nous pour designer une table d'officiers qui dinent ensemble." I find in a comic paper of later date a sketch which shows the novelty of the term. One of two ladies arriving at barracks addresses a soldier, who is polishing a pair of boots, "Le capitaine X. s'il vous plait.'

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Le gabidaine il être au mess."-"Gontran à la messe, est ce que ton mari reviendrait enfin à la foi de ses pères ?" DNARGEL may see in this some confirmation of his definition of a mess

is the policy of each side to deceive the other. Battle statistics are necessarily misleading. It Passing lightly over the defective information and the inevitable bias of historians of all times, is it to be wondered at that Middle Age estimates of numbers are so often glaringly astray? A battle is not a parade, and even in parades heads are hard to of meetings and demonstrations are continually count. In our own day the newspaper accounts showing by their gloriously divergent figures that the trained intelligence of the fourth estate in this century of light and leading has not yet mastered chronicler was nothing if not patriotic, whether this difficult branch of arithmetic. The early bent on magnifying the glory of a victory or minimizing the stigma of defeat. Bower tells us that at Bannockburn the defeated force consisted of 340,000 horse and nearly as many foot! Not a bad day's fighting for the men who won, being only 30,000 plus 15,000 camp followers who did not count! The estimate, however, is rather high even for a Scot's stomach. Most authorities allow from 80,000 to 100,000 as the English total. The vol. iii., preface p. xxi, is nearer the mark when he latest critic, Mr. Joseph Bain, in his 'Calendar,' gives Edward II. 50,000 and Robert Bruce 16,000. Suppose we say 20,000 for the Scottish army on that occasion. It is not probable that the average fighting strength of Scotland in the fourteenth century was more. In 1333, at Halidon Hill, assembled for a most important national campaign, the Scots (according to Wyntown, viii. ch. 37), gives an exact and sensible account, representing "Sowmyd* sexty full thowsand." But Knyghton their number to have been under 15,000. It is,

* Summed, made a total of.

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