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p. 13; "Library of Entertaining Knowledge," The Menageries,' vols. i. and ii. (apparently not vol. iii.), by Charles Knight, 2, pp. 113, 117; and 'Paris and its Historical Scenes,' by George Lillie Craik, 2, pp. 143 sq. The authorities are either silent or misleading as to this matter.
J. POWER HICKS.
MARRIAGES OF THE FIFTH EARL OF ARGYLE.
I find in the 'Memoirs of Queen Mary's Time,' written by David Crawfurd of Drumsoy, historiographer to Queen Anne in Scotland, and published in 1706, the following curious passage in connexion with the adherence in July, 1571, of the Earl of Argyle and Lord Boyd of Kilmarnock to the side of the Regent Lennox :
"Everybody was surprised to find the last of these tempted to revolt, who had been hitherto indefatigable in the service of his Queen; and the first too much confirmed those suspicions raised of his honesty, from his conduct at Langside. But this treachery to the Loyalists was not to be performed for nothing, for each of these noblemen had a notable allowance out of the Church revenues; and by the Regent's and Morton's authority Argyle was, without a just cause, suddenly divorced from his wife and married to Boyd's eldest daughter, who was indeed the most beautiful young lady in her time. 'Twould appear from this that Boyd was drawn in to have his daughter preferred to the Earl's bed, because, the infected clergy being entirely in the interest of the Associators, 'twas impossible otherwise to obtain the Divorce, without being terribly cried out upon, and there zealous good men (to the scandal of their profession) could shut their eyes and wink at adultery for a friend. But however 'twas, this was matter of fact, the two Peers were well bribed, and the marriage actually followed upon an unjust divorce."-Pp. 223-4.
I can find no confirmation of the divorce and marriage so categorically asserted. Archibald, fifth Earl of Argyle, born about 1532, died of the stone, without issue, September 12, 1575, in the forty-third year of his age, having married (first) Jean, natural daughter of King James V. by Elizabeth Bethune, who afterwards married John, fourth Lord Innermeath. This countess was alive in 1566, for she acted as sponsor for Queen Elizabeth at the baptism of James VI. The Earl was censured by the general assembly that met in December, 1567, for separation from his wife, "though he alleged that the blame was not in him." She is said to have been buried in the royal vault in Holyrood House; but I can find no statement of the year of her death. It is stated in Wood's 'Douglas's Peerage,' vol. ii. p. 717, that she had letters of legitimation under the Great Seal October 18, 1580. According to the peerages, the earl's second wife was Lady Joanna (otherwise Jean, Joneta, or Janet) Cunningham, youngest daughter of the fifth Earl of Glencairn, who is said to have survived him, and remarried 1583 as first wife of Sir Humphry Colquhon of Luss, but died 8. p. 1584.
Robert, fourth Lord Boyd, born 1517, died January 3, 1589, having had four daughters, of
whom Egidia, the eldest, is said to have married by contract dated May 15, 1576, as first wife of Hugh, fourth Earl of Eglintoun. I can find no mention of her having previously married the Earl of Argyle. The other daughters were Agnes, married November 15, 1564, as second wife of Sir John Colquhon of Luss (father of Sir Humphry mentioned above); Christian, married Sir James John Cunningham of Drumquhassil. Hamilton of Avondale; and Elizabeth, married
Boyd to the Regent's side is ascribed by Drumsoy As stated above, the adhesion of Argyle and to July, 1571, and he seems to imply that the earl was made Lord Chancellor on January 17, divorce and marriage followed that event. The the Earl of Eglintoun in 1576. 1572, and died in 1575, and Egidia Boyd married
Drumsoy, though Historiographer Royal, is frequently inaccurate; but he can hardly have invented so circumstantial a story. If there is a grain of truth in it, that grain has been carefully and mysteriously concealed by peerage writers.
We must request correspondents desiring information on family matters of only private interest, to affix their names and addresses to their queries, in order that the answers may be addressed to them direct.
CHURCHMEN IN BATTLE.-What was the last occasion on which churchmen fought in battle? I do not mean as volunteers, as in the case of George Walker at Londonderry and the Boyne, but as part of the regular forces. According to Scott, Tales of a Grandfather,' chap. xxiv., the Scotch at Flodden (1513) left on the field two bishops and two mitred abbots. Also, is it the case that churchmen went into battle armed only with a mace, in order to avoid the text, "He that taketh the sword shall perish with the sword"? At the battle of Bouvines (1214), "the English on the right were broken by a fierce onset of the Bishop of Beauvais, who charged mace in hand, and struck the Earl of Salisbury to the ground" (J. R. Green, 'Short History of the English People,' ed., 1889, p. 126). If the following is to be understood literally, it would seem that if medieval bishops did not take the sword they had no scruple Mr. Green, in his account about taking the lance. of the peasant revolt in 1381, says, "The warlike Bishop of Norwich fell, lance in hand, on Litster's camp, and scattered the peasants of Norfolk at the first shock" (Ibid., p. 254). What badge or crest, if any, did churchmen wear in battle, in order to distinguished them from lay warriors?
"TRUCKLE CHEESE": "MERLIN CHAIR."These are both mentioned in a letter written by the Rev. Edward Smedley, dated May 4, 1835
(Smedley's Poems, with a Selection from his Correspondence,' &c., 1837, pp. 428-9). What G. F. R. B. are they?
THE CHURCH OF SS. ANNE AND AGNES.-Mr. Wood says, in his Ecclesiastical Antiquities of London and its Suburbs,' p. 121, that the Church of SS. Anne and Agnes, to the north of the Post Office (that is in Gresham Street), formerly known as S. Anne-in-the-Willows, was in the gift of the Dean of S. Martin's. It is mentioned under its present title in the Valor Ecclesiasticus of Henry VIII. A. J. Kempe has no notice of it in his 'Historical Notices of the Collegiate Church or Royal Free Chapel and Sanctuary of S. Martin-leGrand,' London, 1825. When was it built? To what guild or company did it belong?
A. FRADELLE PRATT.
9, Prideaux Road, Clapham Rise, S.W. FOREST GATE.-Can you or any of your readers inform me where I can obtain or inspect an authentic picture or drawing of the old (fivebarred) gate, and its then immediate surroundings, from which the village of Forest Gate, Essex, took its name? CLAUDE TREVELYAN.
letter from "George Hickes, to his father."
Emanuel Hospital, Westminster.
GENEALOGICAL.-Can any reader of 'N. & Q.' suggest the best means of ascertaining what has become of the pedigree advertised in the Times, September 16, 1824, as under ?—
"To Genealogists.-By Mr. Caudsell, on the premises No. 5, Spital Square, tomorrow, September 17, at one precisely, by direction of the administrators of the late Geo. Terry, Esq., an Historical and Genealogical Scroll of immense production and antiquity entitled a Genealogical History of the Serene and Illustrious Family of Giffard, or Gifford, with the issue of that noble stock to the year 1710, especially that line which is now united to the ancient British family of Vaughan, &c. May be viewed, with catalogues (price 18. each), during the whole of both days' sale, by applying to Mr. Caudsell, 10, Norton Folgate." H. F. G.
Ugborough Vicarage, Ivybridge.
UGBOROUGH CHURCH. I should be much obliged if you or any of your readers could give JORUM.-Can this word be traced further back me any information about the dedication and early than to John Cunningham's little poem, 'New-history of Ugborough Church, near Ivybridge, castle Beer'? And is there anything to corroborate South Devon. W. E. WINDLE. the conjecture that it is simply a corruption of jordan? The latter is, I believe, nearly obsolete; but, so far as my experience goes, jorum differs now from it in this respect, that it is applied to mean an allowance or quantum of food of any kind as well as drink. W. T. LYNN. Blackheath.
MONTEAGLE.-In the parish of Yateley, Hants, is an ancient farmhouse called Mount Eagle. Tradition connects this with the discoverer of the Gunpowder Plot. Till a few years ago a black eagle was to be seen over the porch of the house. Can any one throw light on the above tradition? O. S. WARD. Wootton St. Lawrence, Basingstoke.
PLESHEY CASTLE.-A stone slab was discovered underneath a house at Pleshey some years since carved in old English, "Ricardus Rex II." Can any of your readers ascertain whether King Richard II. was imprisoned at Pleshey Castle, and where he was buried?
THOMAS MESSINGHAM.-Is anything known as to the family of Thomas Messingham, the Irish priest who wrote the 'Florilegium Insulæ Sanctorum'? Messingham is a name that it is hardly possible to receive as Celtic. There is a village of Is it possible that that name in Lincolnshire. Messingham's forefathers were English folk, who COM. LINC. took their name from this place?
PORTRAIT.-I have a portrait of a gentleman in armour, and there is on the back of its frame what remains of an inscription on paper, by which gather that he was a colonel of a regiment of foot, and died on the 4th of some month in the year 1723 or 1738, apparently the latter year.
name appears to be Wills or Willis-the former, I think or it may be the contraction for William as the Christian name, but I believe not. Can any of your readers assist me to identify this portrait, and give me some particulars of the person represented? H. W. Chatham,
ST. BERNARD'S HYMN FOR THE DYING.-Of Albert Dürer's father it is said, in the May number of the English Illustrated Magazine,—
"Then the old woman quickly lighted the candle for him and set herself to recite St. Bernard's Hymn for the dying; but ere she had reached the third verse, lo! he had departed."
What are the words of this hymn? H. A. W.
TREASURE TROVE.-A Roman in digging under a house found a large treasure of money, and being in some doubt of informers, notified the fact to the emperor, and got back the laconic reply, "Use it." His heart yet failed him, so he wrote again it was a sum much larger than at first he had imagined, and the dissyllabic answer was, "Abuse it." this in Suetonius, or where? C. A. WARD. Walthamstow.
GALLEGO.-Is there any glossary of the dialect of Gallicia; or what works are there, and in what languages, on the folk-speech of that part of Spain? It is said to be like Portuguese; but probably has peculiarities of its own. ARGLAN.
EATING OF FISH PROHIBITED. In Hook's 'Lives of the Archbishops of Canterbury,' i. 175, it is stated that what Wilfrid probably did was to persuade the natives of Sussex to eat fish, "which some among the pagans supposed to be unlawful. Eels were always an exception." To what pagan rules does he refer? M.B.Cantab.
COPLEY FAMILY.-Can any one give information of the family history of a Mr. William Copley, who lived in Hunslet, Leeds, during the latter half of the last century, and of whom I have heard the following particulars? He had a woollen or worsted factory in Hunslet, and lived in the house there occupied up to about thirty years ago by Mr. William Holdsworth. He married a lady named Rose Lascelles, said to be of the Harewood family. He is supposed to have invented or adapted a "wool mill" or "teazer," now known as "the devil." On his introducing this machine into his own factory the building and plant were wrecked by his operatives; he was ruined, and migrated to America with his sons. This is said to have been about the time of the American War of Independence, and it is stated that in America Mr. Copley became a friend of George Washington. He was known in Leeds as "County Copley," and is believed to have been a member of the well-known Copley family of Yorkshire. Can any one say authorita
tively whether this was so; and, if so, whether he belonged to the Batley, Spotborough, Nether Hall, Wadworth, or Skelbrook branch of the family? J. J. HEATON.
47, Queen's Road, Manningham, Bradford.
LORD STAFFORD'S INTERLUDE PLAYERS.—In the Launceston municipal accounts for 1577 is the entry among the payments, "To the enterlude players, viz., my L. Stafford's men, 13s. 4d." (Peter's History of Launceston,' p. 211). Who were Lord Stafford's men ?
ALFRED F. ROBBINS.
JOHN GEORGE LAMBTON, First Earl of DurHAM.-Who was his first wife, and when did the marriage take place? Burke (1890), Foster (1883), and the Gent. Mag. for February, 1812, differ considerably on this point. G. F. R. B.
THE CENSUS OF ANCIENT ROME.-I should be obliged if any of your readers would furnish me with references to passages in classical authors quoting the figures of the Roman census. aware of the passages in Livy (i. 44; iii. 24; xXXV. 9; xxxviii. 36; and xlii. 10), also of Tacitus's account of the census in the reign of Claudius ('Ann.,' xi. 25). Gibbon, alluding to this, gives a different number, presumably quoting another author. G. B. LONGSTAFF.
CHURCH OF SCOTLAND, CAMPVERE, HOLLAND. -In the account of the life and writings of the historian Robertson, by Dugald Stewart, prefixed to his 'Works,' I find this passage :
HENSHAW QUARTERINGS, &C.-After unsuccessful search in all the heraldic books at my command, I am constrained to apply for help. An armorial seal is Quarterly, 1 and 4 Henshaw, 3 Clinton, and 2 a coat of which I take the blazon to be Gules, a castle between two wings expanded argent. The cutting is so minute that the charge may be a castle between branches of laurel or palm, though I think them wings, and they may not be argent. Of what family is this the coat?
Further, What, if any, arms were borne by Richard Wistow, of London, chief chirurgeon to Queen Elizabeth; Anne Turvin, of the parish of St. Mildred, Poultry, 1698; and Anne Beverley, of Fifield (co. Essex, according to Sir B. Burke, but query co. Oxford), 1733?
FRANK REDE FOWKE. 24, Victoria Grove, Chelsea, S W.
(7th S. ix. 328, 395, 478.)
Will you permit me to take exception to the implication in MR. PICKFORD'S quotations from Sir Walter Scott's novel 'Woodstock; or, the Cavalier,' that it was invariably the "analogous custom to drink the king's health during his exile in a kneeling posture"? The reverential action alluded to by your correspondent, I may remark, was certainly not practised in every case. For instance, on reference to the Jacobite ballad entitled 'The White Rose over the Water' (Edinburgh, 1744), in G. W. Thornbury's charming edition, p. 102, of 'Songs of the Cavaliers and Roundheads, Jacobite Ballads, &c.' (London, Hurst & Blackett, 1857), MR. PICKFORD will find that the custom for all to stand during the ceremony-as at present observed when Her Majesty's health is proposed-was in vogue in Scotland in 1744. The following verses from the ballad I have already named may interest your correspondents, viz.:
Then all leap'd up, and joined their hands
"A health," they cried, "to witching eyes
"But never forget the white, white rose That grows best over the water."
Then hats flew up and swords sprang out, And lusty rang the chorus
Never," they cried, "while Scots are Scots,
Again, need I draw MR. PICKFORD'S attention to the meeting of the "English Jacobite Club," as related in Ainsworth's ever interesting tale The Miser's Daughter,' and to George Cruikshank's graphic illustration of each member standing, and holding a filled glass over a bowl of water, or to remind him of Randolf Crew's reply when asked to drink, "Here's to the king's health 'over the water""}
With regard to the opinion of DR. NICHOLSON that the word toast, as used in connexion with the drinking of healths, originated in the habit of our ancestors "flavouring their cup with toasted bread and toasted apples"; and also to the article in Chambers's 'Book of Days,' vol. ii. p. 496, 1878, in which it is stated that the word in question was acquired from Capt. Ratcliff's doggerel poem entitled 'Bacchanalia Coelestia,' published in 1680, in which "toasted" biscuit is thus referred to :
Neptune this ocean of liquor did crown,
It is an easier way to make
Love by, than that which many take, Who would not rather suffer whipping, Than swallow toasts of bits of ribbon? Relative to this quotation, it is right to mention that in a tract printed in 1659 the information is given us that French gallants "in their frolics spare not the ornaments of their madams, who cannot wear a piece of perret-ribbon, but they will cut it in pieces and swallow it in wine, to celebrate their better fortune " (vide ' Hudibras,' edited by H. G. Bohn, vol. i. p. 167, London, 1859).
While it must be admitted that the origin of the word toast is very doubtful indeed, the ladies, it may not be out of place to remark, have in drinking healths a modest way of excusing themselves, thus felicitously described by Goldsmith in his delightful poem The Deserted Village,' published in May, 1770:
Nor the coy maid, half willing to be prest,
6, Freegrove Road, N.
"maids drink healths upon their knees. vile in men, but abominable in women.'
In one of Dekker's plays, published in 1630, one of the characters is asked, "Will you fall on your maribones and pledge this health, 'tis to my mistress?" Ward also refers to "pot-wits and spirits of the buttery," who bared their knees to drink healths, and Thomas Young confesses, to his grief of conscience, that he himself had been an actor in the business of drinking healths kneeling. In 'Oxford Drollery' is a song in which the following passage occurs :
I will no more her servant be
Nor pledge her health upon my knee. Hall states that there were some who drank healths on their knees, as the scholars at the university.
of the book in question. It is said by Moule to be "confessedly an abridgment of Sandford's 'Genealogical History of our Kings,"" in which an account of the family similar to that quoted by Y. T. is given. Full particulars will be found in Belty's Memorials of the Most Noble Order of the Garter,' s.v. "Thomas, second Earl of Kent." F. R. O.
[Other replies are acknowledged.]
ENID (7th S. ix. 448).—I cannot give Sponsura any information as to the meaning of this name; but the following note in Lady Charlotte Guest's edition of 'The Mabinogion,' 1849, vol. ii. p. 164, may interest your correspondent. With regard to the Welsh quotation, I wish to say that I have copied it literatim as it stands. I do not know the Welsh language:—
At the marriage festivities of Lady Ross, in 1693, "Throughout the broad and varied region of Romance at Belvoir Castle, there was a great cistern of sack it would be difficult to find a character of greater simposset, which after an hour's hot service had not plicity and truth than that of Enid, the daughter of Earl sunk an inch," which made my Lady Rutland call Ynywl. Conspicuous for her beauty and noble bearing, we are at a loss whether most to admire the untiring in all the family (domestics), and then, upon their patience with which she bore all the hardships she was knees, the bride and bridegroom's health, with pros-destined to undergo, or the unshaken constancy and perity and happiness, was drunk in tankards brimful of sack posset.
71, Brecknock Road.
EVERARD HOME COLEMAN.
"THOMAS DE HOLAND, COMES KANTIE" (7th S. viii. 127; ix. 214, 518).-The History of the Royal Family,' published by "R. Gosling, at the Mitre and Crown, against St. Dunstan's Church in Fleet Street, 1713," is an abbreviated copy of Sandford's famous 'Genealogical History of the Kings of England,' to whom the author (whose name does not appear) owns himself indebted. I have a copy of the work; but no one having access to Sandford would care to refer to it. The author has carefully repeated all Sandford's errors, and added some on his own account. If your correspondent Y. T. will refer to MR. FERET'S query (7th S. viii. 127) he will see that replies were requested to be sent to that gentleman's address direct. I, therefore (and doubtless others also), furnished him privately with the information requested. It is a mistake, accordingly, to suppose the query was unanswered. C. H.
If A. H. will look in Moule's Bibliotheca Heraldica,' sub anno 1713, he will find an account
devoted affection which finally achieved the triumph she so richly deserved. The character of Enid is admirably sustained throughout the whole tale [i.e., ' Geraint Ab Erbin,' 'Geraint the Son of Erbin']; and as it is more natural because less overstrained, so, perhaps, it is even ever, Chaucer has thrown a charm that leads us to forget more touching than that of Griselda, over which, howthe improbability of her story. There is a Triad in which Enid's name is preserved as one of the fairest and most illustrious ladies of the court of Arthur. thus: Tair Gwenrïain Llys Arthur: Dyfir wallt euraid; Tair Rbiain Ardderchawg Llys Arthur' (T. 10s). The Enid ferch Yniwl Iarll; a Thegau Eurfronn: Sef oeddent Bards of the Middle Ages have frequent allusions to her in their poems; and Davydd ap Gwilym could pay no higher compliment to his lady-love than to call her a Second Enid."
Dr. Charnock, in his 'Prænomina,' gives this name as another form of Enaid, a Welsh female name, signifying soul, life. Enaid, with its other forms, en, enydh, is cognate to the Cornish_enef, the Armorican ené, the Irish anam, and the Latin animus. Miss Charlotte M. Yonge, in her History of Christian Names' (1863), gives it the same etymology. The tale of Geraint and Enid was in the 'Mabinogion,' and Chrestien de Troyes put it into French verse, but it had not been admitted into the general cycle of the romances until TonnySon rescued it from unmerited oblivion.
DE V. PAYEN PAYNE.
Miss Yonge, in her 'History of Christian Names,' remarks, with reference to the names Geraint and Enid :
"These are two of the characters whom Tennyson has recently rescued from unmerited oblivion, and raised to Table. Their story was, indeed, in the Mabinogion,' their true dignity among the chivalry of the Round and Chrestien de Troyes had put them into French verse