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Conqueror' Thorpe's edition speaks of "agweit purpensé," i. e., premeditated lying in wait. But another reading is prepensed (see Littré, s.v. "Pourpenser," and Schmid's 'Die Gesetze der Angelsachsen,' p. 322). This makes it tolerably clear that the above-mentioned confusion existed. At the same time it is certain that the usual Anglo-French verb for premeditate was purpenser. Cf. the phrase "felonie purpense in Britton, vol. i. p. 15, and the long note in Elyot's 'Governour,' ed. Croft, vol. ii. p. 375. WALTER W. SKEAT.
ARROW THROWING. As I believe that the only places where the old English sport of arrow throwing still exists are a few villages in the West Riding, the following extract from the Leeds of June 9 may be of interest :
"At Quarry Gap Grounds, Laisterdyke, on Saturday: A. Ray, of Laisterdyke, and C. Hinchcliffe, of Horton, threw 30 arrows each on level terms for 201. There was a fair company of spectators. A shade of odds were laid on Ray, who won a very closely contested game by 4 score. The following are the detailed scores:-Ray, 12, 12, 10, 8, 12-54; 11, 12, 11, 11, 11-56; 10, 11, 11, 11, 12-55; 8, 11, 11, 12, 12-54; 12, 10, 11, 9, 10-52; 8, 11, 13, 7, 10-49; total, 320. Hinchcliffe, 10, 11, 13, '12, 10-56; 11, 11, 11, 12, 10-55; 13, 12, 10, 11, 12-58; 10, 10, 12, 9, 10-51; 10, 11, 11, 6, 10-48; 11, 7, 10, 11, 9-48; total, 316."
FOLK-LORE: EARS BURNING.-I have been acquainted with the first part of the following as long as I can remember. The latter part is new to me, and has reached me from Hampshire. If your ears burn, the sign is :
Left for love, and right for spite :
In the case of the right ear I have been advised to pinch it, and the person who is speaking spitefully of me will immediately bite his or her tongue. S. ILLINGWORTH BUTLER.
Whalley, in the Visitations of Nottingham,' 1569 and 1614, Harleian Society's Publications, vol. iv. p. 118, shows that he had two daughters, Elizabeth and Jane, the former of whom married William Tiffin, of London, mercer. The famous Roger Williams, the founder of Rhode Island, then chaplain to Lady Barrington's son-in-law, Sir William Masham, of Otes, solicited of her, about the year 1629, the hand of her niece; but the niece's name it not mentioned in the correspondence on the subject, which is printed in the New England Historical and Genealogical Register, vol. xlii. Lowndes, the owner of the original letters. I have (1889), pp. 315-20, from a copy furnished by Mr. queried whether it was not the niece mentioned in Mr. Whalley's letter whose hand Williams aspired to. A brother of Miss Whalley, Major-General Edward Whalley, one of the king's judges, came to New England and died here. Jane, the youngest daughter of Richard Whalley, named in the pedigree, married Rev. William Hooke, a graduate of Oxford University, who was vicar of Axmouth, in Devonshire, but as early as 1639 came to New England. He preached a few years at Taunton, in Plymouth colony, and from 1644 to 1656 at New Haven, Conn. He then returned to England, and was private chaplain to Oliver Cromwell. Some letters of Mrs. Jane Hooke to friends in New England are printed in the Massachusetts Historical Collections,' vol. xxxviii. pp. 260-68. If this was the niece of Lady Barrington whom Roger Williams wished to marry-and I think it not unlikely that it was-though one clergyman failed to obtain her hand she became the wife of another. JOHN WARD DEAN,
18, Somerset Street, Boston, Massachusetts.
In the Catalogue of Pamphlets in Harleian Library' (1746), p. 939, occurs the following:-"A Declaration of the Notable Victory given of God to Queen Mary shewed in the Church of Luton 22 July, in the First Year of Her Reign" (1553). It is a sermon by J. Gwynneth, Vicar. It has never been printed in either of the sets of volumes published by the British Museum, nor, as they assure me that it is not be found on their shelves, does it seem ever to have come into their possession. Can any one tell me where it is likely to be found?
Maulden Rectory, Ampthill.
LYBE.-In the ballad of 'The Holly and the Christmas Carols, Ancient and Modern,' edited by Ivy,' temp. Hen. IV., printed in 'A Garland of Joshua Sylvester, Hotten, 1861, are these lines: Hyve hath a lybe, she caught it with the cold, So may they all have, that do with Hyve hold. lybe a misreading of kybe, chilblain; or what is J. T. F.
"(No. 156) 1628, July 28, Screaveton.-Ryc. Whalley to Lady Joane Barrington, baronettess, at her house Hatfield in Essex.-On a report of the death of her husband, Sir Francis, he condoles with her. Asks that his daughter (her niece) may still remain with her. Sends the third and last volume of Mr. Parkins's works." Can any reader of N. & Q' tell which of Mr. it? Whalley's daughters this was? The pedigree of
Bp. Hatfield's Hall, Durham,
HIGHGATE.—I am, as a matter of charity, about the other, as four acres is scrimpy measure for a to publish the somewhat interesting poetical royal garden, even for a king of the heroic ages remains of John Brown, called "the Horncastle whose daughter did the family washing. Laureate," under the patronage of Lord Tennyson, acre less, and we should have expected Alcinous, &c. They are rich in Lincolnshire and other instead of growing luscious fruits, to have pastured idioms, of which I am giving explanatory notes. a cow on his three acres ! Liddell and Scott transWriting of a man of weak intellect, he says:- late TETρáуvov, substantively, "a measure of land, as much as a man can plough in a day," but in their smaller Lexicon,' ed. 1849, they also define TETρáуVos, "as large as four acres of land." The whole description of the glorious garden seems to me inconsistent with so scanty a measure as four acres. What do your classical readers say ?
"They laughed, and sed he won't reight, His mind was mazzled, or his nut; He should have gone to Highgate streight, And for the simples there be cut. The expression "to be cut' or "bled for the simples" is proverbial, probably surviving from the days of plentiful blood-letting as a sovereign remedy for most of "the ills that flesh is heir to." But the point which needs solving is this, Why go to Highgate for the operation? Was there any doctor, quack or otherwise, living half a century ago at Highgate to whom reference is here made? I visited Highgate a few days ago, but could not learn anything to throw a light on this subject. J. CONWAY WALTER.
Langton Rectory, Horncastle.
"WIDER HORIZONS.'-Can any reader of 'N.&Q.' give me the names of the author and of the publisher, the date of publication, and the price of a book entitled 'Wider Horizons'? F. T. SELBY.
CHAWORTH.-Can any of your readers kindly tell me the date of death and place of burial of John, second Viscount Chaworth, the owner of Wiverton Hall, Notts, in 1645 ?
THE GARDENS OF ALCINOUS: 'ODYSSEY, LIB. VII. 113.—In his glowing description of these the poet says: ἔκτοσθεν δ' αὐλῆς μέγας oрxaτos äуxi Ovрάwy TETράyvos. What measure is expressed by TETρáyvos?. Buckley translates it of four acres," as also does Crusius in his Homeric Lexicon,' and Pope adopts the same rendering. Cowper, also, I see, as quoted by Crusius, translates Terpάyvov, Odyssey,' xviii. 374, a field four acres in size." On the other hand, Messrs. Butcher and Lang, in their fine prose version, translate it "of four ploughgates," a ploughgate, as defined in Jenkins's Vest-Pocket Lexicon,' 1871, being thirty aсгев. Certainly a hundred and twenty acres would seem to be more correct than
BYRON.-I have laid before me two copies of what professes to be the third edition of Lord Byron's English Bards and Scotch Reviewers,' "London, Printed for James Cawthorn, British Library, No. 24, Cockspur Street. 1810." the back of the title of one of them is "Printed by T. Collins, Harvey's Buildings, Strand, London. This does not occur on the other. The two books are octavos of about the same size. They have each eighty-five pages. It is quite evident to any one who examines them closely that they are different editions. I have not looked them through with much care, but so far as I can tell from a
rapid and somewhat careless examination they Can any one explain the meaning of there being are, except for a misprint or two, identical in text. two third editions of this work?
[See Petherick's The Torch for lists of works on colonies.]
ALLUSION IN DE QUINCEY.-Can any of your readers inform me precisely to what De Quincey alludes in the passage in his essay on the Essenes ? By the Bible statement we mean, of course, nothing which any inspired part of the Bible tells us-on the contrary, one capital reason for rejecting the old notion is the total silence of the Bible; but we mean that little explanatory note on the Essenes which our Bible translators under James I. have thought fit to adopt, and, in reality, to adopt from Josephus, with reliance on his authority which closer study would have shown to be unwarranted."
It has been suggested that De Quincey refers to an explanation of the terms Essenes, Pharisees, &c., which occurs in some copies of the Bible between the Old and the New Testament, but his own words seem to imply an actual passage of Scrip
HASSELL.-In the Visitation of Yorkshire, 1665,' there is a pedigree of Hassell, of Huttonupon-Darwent, commencing with Thomas Hassell, of London, who married a daughter of De la Motte, Governor of Gravelines. De la Motte was shot about 1580. Can any one give further information respecting the above Thomas Hassell? LEO C.
THE GAME OF POLO.-Can any of your learned Indian correspondents light upon the derivation of the name given to the game of polo? It is supposed by some to be of Persian, by others of Thibetan origin, and was first introduced into England from India about the year 1872, as stated in reply to a query (N. & Q., 6th S. x. 501). No information is wanted on the nature of the game itself, which, I am told, is fully described by Mr. G. J. Younghusband in a work quite recently published, which bears the title 'Polo in India.'
was a speciality ('The Newcomes,' oh. i.), takes care to improve the word into "Welsh rarebit." This is all a mistake, I believe. Welsh rabbit occurs in Grave's 'Spiritual Quixote,' bk. vii., ch. ix. But what early writer can be quoted for Welsh rarebit? A. SYMTHE PALMER.
SPURS.-The gingling spur, or "ginglers," asthey were called, appear, from 'Every Man in his Humour,' II. i., to have come up circa 1599. In his note on the passage Gifford, rather laughing at Whalley's and Theobald's explanations, says that "the gingling was produced by the large loose rowels then worn." Having had reason to doubt his confident statements, I took leave to doubt this, and wrote to Mr. A. W. Franks, of the British Museum. He courteously told me that they had no specimen, but referred me to the Hon. Harold Dillon's edition of Fairholt's 'Costume in England,' vol. i. p. 259, and also to the Tower Armouries. In the latter I, assisted by Mr. Barber, found none, but in Fairholt there is depicted a spur with a small barred rod suspended from the axis of the rowel on the outside of the spur, and this in walking would necessarily strike against the blades of the rowel or against the spur-bar itself, and cause a gingling. In all probability, however, there were more ways than this of proElizabethan or Jacobean spurs, or others, to deducing the gingle, and I would ask possessors of scribe any such which they may possess or know of. While, also, I am somewhat inclined to think that Gifford evolved his explanation from his inner consciousness-for I have found his statements not always accurate or unbiassed-I would be glad to hear of a specimen of a spur so loosely rowelled as to produce an audible gingle.
CHRISTOPHER NORTH'S ARITHMETIC.-In Prof. Wilson's charming 'Noctes Ambrosiana' (November, 1834), I notice the following sentence, spoken by the Ettrick Shepherd: "There, wall Q.'ye believe me-were lyin' five-and-twunty eels and five-and-twunty pikes-in all saxty." Is North's arithmetic at fault, or is the blunder intentional ? W. W. DAVIES.
ROYAL POETS.-Can any reader of 'N. & give me information as to what foreign potentates, if any, before 'Carmen Sylva, the present Queen of Roumania, have written in verse? W. B.
ST. PATRICK.-In an article in the Tablet of March 29, by Mr. Wilfrid Robinson, p. 486, St. Patrick is spoken of as the patron of the deaf and dumb. What event in the saint's life has caused him to be so regarded? ANON.
"WELSH RABBIT."-In a recent review of cookery books a Saturday reviewer (May 17, p. 615) says: "To call Welsh rabbit (confusion on the rarebit wait) is only M. Filippini's fun, or his American patrons' ignorance." More recently still the Standard, while expressly referring to Thackeray's "Cave of Harmony," where "Welsh rabbit
Glenmore, Lisburn, near Belfast.
Like souls that meeting pass,
W. E. BUCKLEY.
(7th S. ix. 309.)
The earliest explanation of this term, so generally employed by the grammarians, with which I am acquainted is in the "Glossarium Grammaticum at the end of the 'Public School Latin Primer' (p. 162, first edition, 1866), where there is the following definition: "Vox, voice that form by which verbs are shown as doing or suffering." Sec. 39, p. 24: "The verb has two Voices, (1) the Active Voice, as amo, I love; (2) the Passive, as amor, I am loved." Before this the 'Eton Latin Grammar' had, “Verbs have two Voices; the active, ending in o; the passive, ending in or." "The Short Introduction of Grammar,' written by John Colet, Dean of St. Paul's, and dedicated to William Lily, the first high master of St. Paul's School, in 1510, does not employ the term voice, but in the section "Of a Verb states, "Of verbs personal there be five kinds, active, passive, deponent, neuter, and common," although at the end of the book (I quote an edition of 1758), in 66 a Table of the Terminations of the Verbs," use is made of the terms "Active Voice," " ," "Passive Voice." The 'Institutio Græcæ Grammatices Compendiaria in usum Regiæ Scholæ Westmonasteriensis,' London, 1754, compiled by Edward Grant in 1575, and revised by Camden, under "Verbum " has this sentence: Verborum tres sunt voces, activa, passiva, et media utriusque particeps." This grammar being a compilation from preceding works, the term vox was probably in use before that date. I do not, however, find it, in the grammatical sense, in the Catholicon,' nor in Ducange. The ancient grammarians do not use it. Donatus says :—
"Verbum est pars orationis cum tempore et personâ, sine casu, aut agere aliquid aut pati aut neutrum significans. Verbo accidunt septem: qualitas, conjugatio, genus, numerus, figura, tempus, persona."-Sec. xii. 1. "Genera verborum, quæ ab aliis significationes dicuntur, sunt quinque, activa, passiva, neutra, communia, deponentia."-5.
This is repeated by Asper Junior, sec. vii.; by Phocas Grammaticus, sec. vii.; by Pompeius in his Comment on Donatus,' secs. xx. and xxii.; and by Servius, sec. vi. 2, 8. Priscian says the same nearly:
"Verbo accidunt octo, significatio sive genus, tempus, modus, species, figura, conjugatio, et persona cum numero, quando affectus animi definit."-viii, 2.
"Significatio vel genus, quod Græci diálov vocant, verbi in actu est proprie, ut dictum est, vel in passione." -viii. 2.
Still earlier Quintilian, 'Inst. Orator.,' i. 4, 27: "Sed in verbis quoque quis est adeo imperitus, ut ignoret genera et qualitates, et personas et numeros,"
on which passage Spalding, in his edition, Lips., 1798, notes:
"Genera verborum quæ et significationes appellant Diomedes et Priscianus, etiam nostri ævi Grammatici audiunt activum, passivum, neutrum, deponens." Isidorus, 'Hispal. Episc.,' says much the same :"Verba autem sunt mentis signa quibus homines cogitationes suas invicem loquendo demonstrant. Sicut autem nomen significat personam, ita verbum factum dictumque personæ. In persona verbi agentis aut patientis significatio est. Verborum species sunt formæ, modi, Genera-ideo autem ipsa conjugationes et genera. dicuntur activa quia agunt, ut verbero, et passiva quia patiuntur, ut verberor.”—Origin., i. viii. § 2, 8. In the above passage both verbum and vox are implied, for, as Augustine says, the verbum may be in the mind of the thinker, but it needs the vox to convey it to others; hence vox comes to be equal to significatio in the grammatical sense, the verb (nua) being in that form or kind (genus) which declares or tells that the speaker is acting or being acted upon; and a passage in Priscian He says:may have suggested this use of vox.
"Si quis altius consideret in activis vocibus passionem, et in passivis actionem fieri inveniat, ut audio te, video te, tango te. Ostendo enim pati me aliquid in ipso actu. Cum enim dico, audio te, ostendo quod vocis tuæ actum patiuntur aures meæ. Et e contrario, audior a te, dico quod vox mea agit aliquid in aures tuas. Sed tamen quia nobis agentibus, id est sentientibus, et aliquid facientibus, et oculi vident et aures audiunt, et tactus corpori evenit, non irrationabiliter activorum et vocem et constructionem habuerunt."-viii. ii. 7.
W. E. BUCKLEY.
The French word voix was used for the first time as a grammatical term by Dumarsais, a French grammarian, celebrated for having written a Traité des Tropes.' He lived from 1676 till 1756. The following sentence is to be found in the fourth volume of his complete 'Works,' p. 68: "La voix ou forme du verbe: elle est de trois sortes: la voix ou forme active, la voix passive et la forme neutre." The English corresponding word voice must have come to be used with this meaning about the same time, or perhaps rather later, for Webster, in the new edition of 1880 of his 'Dictionary,' gives a very particular account of this meaning of the word, as if it were not generally known. Thus much for the "when"; now for the "why." The verb is the most important word in a sentence, and if Homer could give wings to the words of the language (eπeα πтeроevтa), we can with the same accuracy give being and speech to the verb that rules them, and say that he speaks in a sentence with an authoritative and active, or a submissive and passive, voice. DNARGEL.
I suppose E. G. thinks of the active, middle, and passive voices. A voice is a mode of expression, but not necessarily a sound uttered by natural or artificial organs and audible to physical ears. Doubtless this is the commonest meaning,
CHURCHES OF BRIXWORTH AND BALKING (7th S. ix. 389).-I am tempted to ask what is MR. WARREN'S authority, at the present day, for Brixworth Church " as a Roman Basilica," and "the oldest church in England." When the Archæological Institute visited it in 1878, it was the opinion of the very competent judges present that no part of the existing building is earlier than the eighth century. There is, of course, a quantity of Roman material used in Brixworth Church, but it
is not used more Romano.
Several that is, a large proportion-of the so-called Saxon churches begin with a B; but Balking is not in Rickman's list marked as of this character, nor is it in his notice of the churches of Berkshire in his Architecture,' 1835, nor in the list of Saxon churches in Parker's Glossary,' 1845. Mr. J. H. Parker ('Ecclesiastical Topography of Berks,' Ox., 1850, No. 70) has an account of a survey by himself of Baulking Church, in which the earlier portions which he specifies are the north and south doorways, which he names Transition Norman; the next to this is the chancel, which he terms Early English; while the nave has two Decorated windows on the north, and one Perpendicular on the south. ED. MARSHALL.
KEATS (7th S. ix. 370).-It is not easy to analyze beautiful poetry in work-a-day prose, but I will endeavour to explain the first stanza of the 'Ode to a Nightingale' as I understand it, in order to assist your correspondent CATTI, who I am glad is interested in this divine poem. The poet says that "his heart aches, and a drowsy numbness pains his sense," &c., not because he "envies" the nightingale's "happy lot," but through sheer excess of happiness in the bird's happiness, which happiness (namely, the bird's) consists in his "singing of summer in full-throated ease.' The four lines beginning
That thou light-wingéd Dryad of the trees
Is it possible to give the sense of this better than Keats has given it? "My heart aches: it is not through envy of thy happiness, but because I am too happy in sympathy with thee and thy song of summer." Surely this is plainly the sense of the lines! In one of his letters to Bailey, written in 1817, Keats says:
"I scarcely remember counting upon any happiness. I look not for it if it be not in the present hour. Nothing startles me beyond the present moment. The setting sun will always set me to rights, or if a sparrow come before my window, I take part in its existence, and pick about the gravel."
The italics are mine. Compare with this what he says of melancholy :
She dwells with Beauty-Beauty that must die;
Though seen of none save him whose strenuous
Can burst Joy's grape against his palate fine;
And be among her cloudy trophies hung. These two confessions (for each of them is a confession) interpret the great ode-interpret Keats himself.
'Spirit" in the line from the 'Ode on a Grecian Urn' is undoubtedly a noun. C. C. B.
ERRORS OF PRINTERS AND AUTHORS (7th S. ix. 261).-Being a lover of fair play, "the other side," or (as I believe Sydney Smith happily christered it) "the dog's story," always interests me, so I have thoroughly enjoyed the amusing treat MR. RANDALL has supplied to us. I will in fature incline to think the errors which I constantly note in print may as often be ascribable to the author as to the printer, and will begin with one I noticed an hour ago in 'Men of the Time,' where we are told that Mr. Andrew Lang is known equally well for light and humerous articles as for deeper writings.
I have a collection of most facetious printers>