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without any fear of contradiction or denial. The only nation is the Tyrian s—that name is used in its triple or Phoenician sense, and comprehends Sidon, Tyrus, and Carthage,_not a remnant remains whereby the slightest form can be traced, save the mere foundations of their former greatness 1 Egypt was the neighbour of the Tyrian, and consequently imparted her knowledge through commercial communion. The inhabitants of Tyrus from their small locality [i. e. the Island] were essentially a practical people,_ they had no space to build idle or useless edifices, like those of Egypt, they had no captives! The Tyrians were of all people of the ancient world, best adapted to imitate what was of utility and stability, thence their selecting pyramidal bases, as foundations for their Temples in America, and which have preserved those edifices, and the judgment of the builders, even to this day, through a period of time beyond two thousand years l It also evinced that acuteness and skill, in applying means to ends, for which, as a Nation, they were so renowned. In Section 3, of the Analogies, we will establish from Scriptural History the early Architecture (as to its style) of the ancient Tyrians. The Ruins in Ancient America (and by that term we mean anterior to the re-discovery by Columbus) do indeed “stand alone :"—a “new order” to the modern eye they may be—but over two thousand years ago, the “order” might have been termed the EgyptoTyrian :—and reason, research, and analogies of

Religious and National Customs, will prove that the WOL. I. K

name now given to this newly-discovered ancient order is correct –and that the moderns may not only repeat the term, but, even aid the Science of Architecture, by the application of the rules and principles of utility and solidity, now discovered in the Western Hemisphere ! Our review of his “conclusions" has advanced sufficiently far for our purpose; for it must be evident that a complete refutation of his deductions has been given, and founded upon his own descriptions, and illustrations,—apart from Baron Humboldt's and Waldeck's works, or any humble commentaries of our own. It will naturally be asked—“What could have been the motive of such contradiction, and against himself?" A hidden motive has more than once been hinted at in the foregoing pages. O! love of Country ! how inherent is thy power in the human mind l—but, never before was it exerted to the same extent as by our favourite Traveller, as evinced in the motive for rejecting all Nations—except his own, as claimants for the builders of Copan, and her muralled companions of the Western Continent. Talk of the Dacii, and the Curtius, impaling themselves upon the spears of the enemy, or plunging into a gulph to close it, why, our devoted Traveller does more than all this—for he survives the shock and fall ! The devotional lines unfolding the long concealed motive for rejecting all other Nations, must not be

withheld, he writes—

“I invite to this subject the special attention of those familiar with the Arts of other countries ;-for, unless I am wrong, we have a conclusion far more interesting and wonderful than that of connecting the builders of these cities with the Egyptians, or any other people. It is the Spectacle of A PEOPLE skilled in Architecture, Sculpture, and Drawing, and beyond doubt, other more perishable arts ; and possessing the cultivation and refinement attendant upon these,_NOT DERIVED FROM THE OLD WORLD, but ORIGINATING AND GRowing up here, [America] without models or masters, having a distinct, separate, independent eristence :—LIKE THE PLANTS AND FRUITs of THE SOIL–INDIGENous !”

Temples and Pyramids defend your rights Pericles and Phidias protect the Arts l—for in the Western Continent, without “models or masters,"—Edifices, Architects, and Sculptors, as “plants and fruit"— or like—

“Foul deeds will rise,
Though all the earth o'erwhelm them to men's eyes!”

He brings forward different Nations to father the Architecture in Ancient America, he calls for “spirits from the vasty deep;" but they will not come-he calls to the Hindu, Chinese, and Japanese, to claim the Child,—they reject it. Europe does the same.—Greece is not claimed,—although the meander border is on the Sculptured drapery of the offspring. It must then belong to Asia 1—No 2–well then certainly to the great Nation of Africa—Egypt l—what the negative again?—the writ to find the Parent is about to be returned endorsed non est inventus, and the Architectural Child to be declared fatherless-for he passes by the only Nation of all others that should have been selected,—from their means of accomplishing the migration,-their knowledge of art, skill in imitation,-their neighbourhood and communion with Egypt, every circumstance proclaims—Tyrus :—but, nothis would not answer the purpose of the fascinating Traveller-his “conclusion" had a peculiar end in view, something National,—and with that love of country so conspicuous (God be praised ') in the Anglo-Saxon race, he discards Europe, Asia, and Africa as the Builders, to him there is a nobler idea, —that the Temples, Palaces, and Altars, Priests, Kings, and People,_Architects, Sculptors, and Painters belonged to America only,–that they were as the “ plants” “indigenous to the Soil,"—or, that they sprung like Minerva, ready armed and equipped, as the law of art directs, from the mental citadel of Jove himself! His “conclusion,” which gives no distant antiquity to these Ruins (but which is absolutely apparent), is somewhat in analogy with that which may be supposed to have been offered to a travelling Astronomer, by a homestead-loving Cottager-who declared that the Moon could not be ancient and inhabited, because the freshness would prevent both propositions. “Freshness How so, my good woman 2" asked the Newtonian disciple. “How so !” she replied. “How wise you gentlemen with long telescopes are l—how so?— why because there is a NEw moon every month, and, consequently, there would not be time enough for people to be born,-Or if they were to grow up like ‘plants, they would be cut down every month l—and consequently they could not be ancient, any how !" But to be serious.-Our just pride of native land 1 England,-as expressed in “The First Oration upon the Life, Character, and Genius of Shakspeare,” and our impartial love (as a Citizen of the United States) for the Nation claiming Washington as its founder, is too well known and recorded in our humble Oration upon her History and Independence, f-and in public debate, discourses, and speeches, both in England and America ;—together with the feelings of duty ;-and gratitude founded upon hospitality and the Medallic presentations received in both Countries, to admit even of a question, as to our resolution to uphold their glory and amity, at home or abroad, and that without fear or favour, from foe or friend It was the very spirit of that love for the country, which has graced us by its Citizenship, that led us to detect the erroneous “conclusions” of Mr. Stephens in reference to these Ruins :—for the errors must be evident even to himself, should these fervent but honest pages, ever meet

* Pronounced at Stratford-upon-Avon, England, before, and at the invitation of the Royal Shaksperean Institution, April 23, 1836.

f Pronounced in the Capital of Virginia, U. S. A., at the invitation of the Franklin Society, and before the Municipal Authorities, July 4, 1840.

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