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apparent to belief, that the custom was received among the Phoenicians owing to their juxtaposition with a Tribe of Israel. The Egyptians received the custom in a similar manner-viz., during the sojourn of Israel in Egypt. The Tribe of Asher,-and its customs, gradually encroached upon the Idolatry and manners of the Phoenicians,—for we find (upon the authority of Malte Brun) that the members of that Tribe (Asher) were driven back from all the sea-coast to the interior, by the Sidonians and Tyrians;–the custom, however, in an optional character, remained with the Tyrians,— and in that manner it was practised by the Mexican Aborigines. In viewing the above analogy, it must be evident to the reader,-that in the fact of optional Circumcision (no matter from what motive) another proof is seen of the two distinct races in Ancient America, for in the North, as stated heretofore, where it is practised, it is only in the form of a Religious rite. The tradition of the ancient Mexicans as to where they came from, is directly in favour of this work. Upon Cortez asking Montezuma the Second, the origin of the Mexican race,—the Monarch answered,—that many ages ago they came from “The East”—(i. e. from where the Sun rises)—and as he then was speaking in Mexico, “ The East,” is at once defined to be across the Atlantic Ocean. The coast of Phoenicia was always denominated “The East,”—this is absolute on the authority of Holy Writ, and in that definition, Tyrus is distinctly spoken of: viz.—

“All the nations have I destroyed before them: and in the East, I have scattered the people of the provinces, even of Tyrus and Sidon.” [Esdras ii. 12.] Sahagun the Spanish historian, who lived nearly sixty years with the Mexicans, and wrote about fifteen years after the Conquest by Cortez (1520) relates, that, from their traditional history, handed down from remote antiquity, the Aborigines of the Country, first TOUCHED at Florida, then coASTED along, until they reached the Bay of Honduras, and they then LANDED. It will be observed that the terms “ touched” “coasted” and “landed” are phrases belonging exclusively to Navigation,-this confirms the reply of Montezuma, that his ancestors originally came FROM the East, for by Navigation only could they come from that quarter-and as a consequence they sailed towards the West, and across the Atlantic Ocean The tradition of having “first touched at FLORIDA,” is as remarkable, as the means of Nature whereby it was accomplished, which will be investigated and established in the last pages of this Volume. Cortez wished to sail around the Bay of Honduras, the Point of Yucatan, and thence into the Gulph of Mexico, and inquired if there were descriptions of those coasts. Montezuma instantly presented to the Spaniard Maps and Charts of the entire Coast, and from these, Cortez steered, and sailed in his perilous voyage around Honduras, and by the correctness of the Charts, he accomplished his expedition in safety. This account he wrote home to his Emperor and Master,

Charles the Fifth, it is consequently history:—no argument is, therefore, required to prove their Knowledge, and that of their ancestors in the Science of Navigation ;-and what people in the Asiatic world were such “pilots and mariners” as the ancient Tyrians? If the Mexican Aborigines had sprung from a race (like the Israelites of the North) having no knowledge of navigation, it would have been impossible to have had Maps and Charts from their remote ancestors, and to have continued the scientific practice of that knowledge among themselves. This is another strong proof of the two races of Aborigines on the Western Continent; and of the different means whereby their migrations were accomplished. Sahagun, also, relates that from testimony of tradition, and their historical Paintings, that their ancestors, as a Colony—arrived on the American coast (first touching at Florida) before the Christian AEra ! It should be observed that this account by the Spaniard was written over three hundred years ago, it was then laughed at-but the time was computed both by the Aborigines and Sahagun-the former, as well as the latter, had a knowledge of the Christian AEra, as will be proved in the third volume, That knowledge was conveyed to them after the arrival of the colony; and nearly fifteen centuries before the conquest by Cortez' The Ruins in Ancient America, together with relative facts, prove that Sahagun's account in regard to time is correct ; and that their original ancestors did arrive before the Christian AEra. The same Historian

says, that from their historical traditions, the Mexican Aborigines were originally a Colony;-which term may be received as explanatory of their small number, and that only,–for had they been “a Colony” according to the modern and general acceptation of the word, there would have been some Mother-land to claim her foreign Children,--but, none appears upon the Books of History. They then arrived “before the Christian AEra,”—this then places them in a positive position,-for the Nation from whence they came, must have existed before that sacred period, and the Nation (as a people) must have had knowledge of, and the means of Navigation, since it is already established that they arrived in that manner. The “mind's eye” must instantly glance at the Tyrians, as the people having those means, and being in existence anterior to the Christian AEra. The Tyrians did compose that “colony,”—not sentforth from their own land by care and affection; but, driven forth (as we will prove) by terror and despair l—They were the “ pilots and mariners,” and the “merchant princes” of the desperate hazard:—their knowledge and skillin navigation, were the champions daring the united powers of Neptune and Boreas, and upon a Naumachian arena, where a prow had never cut through a liquid track: Neptune permitted the refugees to pass on to freedom, for the Ocean-God remains now, as when he first received from Creation upon his broad breast, the panoply of Light, scarless:—and for all the wild wars of Elements and Manupon that panoply—the lightning's

rapid shafts, the iron-tempest from earth's artillerystill that bright armour—reflecting Heaven on its surface—retains no impress from the fierce battery of the Storm-cloud, or from Man's weaker power, or ambition'




THE Architecture and Sculpture of the Ruins, in order to support this Epoch, must possess an undeniable existence, and founded upon data, and strong analogy, of having a character traceable centuries before the Christian AFra. Four Sciences are required to be possessed by the original nation,-viz., Architecture, Sculpture, Painting, and Navigation. If we view for these purposes Hindoostan, China, and Japan, the characteristics of the first-named Sciences are totally different, while the latter is wanting to the extent necessary. Rome and Greece would present the marine power, but the Architecture of those countries would claim no affinity with that in America; for at Copan, Palenque, and Uxmal, and all the Ruins, the Arch and Pediment are wanting. Egypt claims at once the general character of the Architecture, but not sufficient to establish that it is strictly of a National order, as practised on the borders of the Nile;—but, enough is shown to prove,

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