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Tribe when they march to battle-a similitude is here to Joshua at the siege of Jericho. When it is in their peaceful encampment, it is surrounded by twelve stones, indicative of the original number of the Tribes of their ancestors;–this is strictly in analogy with the twelve statues (probably rude blocks of stone) erected by Moses around the Altar of the Covenant to personify the twelve tribes of Israel. Josh UA, also, after the passage of the Jordan, erected twelve stones in his encampment at Gilgal, and the same number in the river at the place of the passage. They select their “medicine men" (i.e. priests or prophets) from among a portion of the tribe not warriors; here is the custom of the Levites, or descendants of AARON being in the sacred office of priesthood, for with the Israelites they were not to be taken from the ranks of the soldiery. These Aborigines “ dwell in booths," as when “brought out of the land of Egypt,” for they are still wanderers. [Lev. xxiii.] They offer a flesh, or burnt-offering from the chase, which is first cast into the flames, before even a starving family may eat. They have their corn and harvest feasts; also, one in observance of every new moon,_another in festivity of the first-fruits, and the great feast in direct analogy with the Hebrew Passover, even to the blood being stained upon the posts and lintels, and the mingling of the most bitter herbs! Then their fastings and purifications are practised with the greatest severity. The breastplate, or ornament worn by their religious prophets, containing twelve shells, or stones of value, is in direct imitation of the ancient Pectoral worn by the Hebrew highpriest, and which contained twelve precious stones, inscribed with the names of all the twelve original tribes of Israel. They have their cities of refuge, or huts of safety, where the most deadly foe dare not enter for his victim. They never violate a female captive, and upon the Hebrew principle, that their blood shall not be contaminated by interunion;–this has been strictly followed in all their wars with the Europeans. They also reject the savage practice of civilization upon the lofty principle of manly virtuel The “medicine-bag" or pouch is carried by every member of the Tribe;—it is suspended to a bead-belt, which crosses the breast by passing over the left shoulder, and hangs on the right side; it contains, as they say and believe, preservatives to keep them from sickness or defeat. These are essentially the phylacteries referred to by THE SAVIOUR, and previously condemned by Moses; for the word phylactery is derived from the Greek tongue, and denotes a preservative; and in the time of MoSEs they were worn by his people in great excess; and so by the Northern native. Moses checked the excessive use of the “preservatives" and changed the custom; for by his command the priesthood alone wore the phylactery, which was at last a frontlet of parchment for the forehead, upon which was written an extract from the laws, that “those that run might read." Then the absence of all idols or symbolical devices, and the worship of the One God (i. e. Great Spirit);

their never pronouncing the name, JEHOVAH, but in syllables, and those separated by long ceremonies, thus truly fulfilling the Hebrew law, “Thou shalt not take the name of the LORD THY GOD in vain.” The name with them sounds as if written, Ye-hoh-vah, and is only pronounced by the Aaron of the tribe. In their hymns of rejoicing, the word Hal-le-lu-yah is distinctly uttered. To the foregone analogies is to be added the general and firm belief in the Immortality of the soul! But beyond all this as proof of their origin, is the practice of the great covenant between the ALMIGHTY FATHER and the Patriarch Abraham— viz., Circumcision / And it does not exist, as in parts of Egypt and the Asiatic nations, for the purpose of supposed health, (in which belief it was practised in ancient Egypt by both sexes,) but as a religious custom, handed down from time immemoriall The custom now is not general, but it does exist; and we must be understood as referring back at least two hundred years in our review, to the period of the Pilgrim Fathers, when the Northern Aborigines numbered fifteen millions,—now they scarcely number two and a half All the customs, however, noticed, are practised at the present period by the uncontrolled Aboriginal. If all other evidences were not received, that of Circumcision, as a religious ceremony, must be viewed by the most sceptical, as direct proof of identity between the Northern Aborigines and the ancient Hebrews. The custom we have written is not general, it is only found in the more settled tribes; this even supports our belief, for in this very fact is traced again the precedent ordained by MOSES; for circumcision was discontinued by the great Lawgiver for forty years, during his journeying with his followers through the wilderness; the custom was re-established by Joshua. May not this innovation by MoSEs in the covenanted custom be imitated by these descendants? Are they not still wanderers in the wilderness in the western, as their ancestors were in the eastern hemisphere? The affirmative has existed for ages, and it even now continues. They have not yet returned to Jerusalem! One fact is of great importance in proof of their great antiquity—viz., they have no knowledge or tradition in the North of the Life or Crucifixion of CHRIST, yet they have a knowledge of the Deluge, and actually practise the laws of Moses. Again we must repeat, that we are writing of these Aborigines as they were at the time of European colonization. The above singular fact enables us at once to place them in a chronological position. It must be after Moses but before THE SAVIOUR; but another fact brings their circle of time still narrower—viz., they have no tradition of the destruction of the first Temple of Jerusalem. This event occurred 588 years before CHRIST, it must, therefore, be anterior to that national calamity, that they trace their origin. Of this, hereafter, when in the next volume the history of the Israelites will be given; but, even now, justice to this race compels us to offer a few words in their defence as a people, for being already sufficiently shewn that WOL. I. C

they are of the great Hebrew family, they may fall in the estimation of some readers upon religious principles. It has been shewn that they have no tradition of the Crucifixion, or of the desolation of the Temple. Is there no sentiment in the mind of the Christian reader as the first fact is unfolded, other than that of historical data? Upon a moment's thought it must be apparent that, the blood of CHRIST cannot be upon them or their children / Their ancestors never shouted in the streets of Jerusalem, “Crucify him crucify him!" The Aborigines of the North are Israelites, and of the house of Jeroboam, not Jews, i. e., of the House of Judah; a distinction of all importance, as the pages of the subsequent volume will prove. The custom of Scalping cannot be said with truth to be original with the Northern native : it has, however, been so asserted, as proof that they are more modern as a people than this theory would establish ; but the declaration “melts into air, into thin air.” from the fact, that both Herodotus and Polybius mention scalping as being practised among the most ancient nations of the world. The assertion, therefore, has only brought forward its refutation. Scalping was introduced originally by the ancients for the express purpose of counting and recording the number of the foe slain in battle: and especially was this custom practised by the Scythians: this is established upon the authority of the accurate Herodotus. For the same reason is the custom followed by the Aborigines of the North—viz., to number the slain of the enemy. Again, Scythia

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