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Edifice it will be found that the square-or four-sided, —columns and bases prevailed, to the exclusion of the circular-even the door-posts of the Temple were square : —the same are seen at Palenque ! “So also made he for the door of the Temple posts of olive trees, a fourth part of the wall,”—[1 Kings vi. 33]—defined to be—“four-square.” The two brazen Pillars of the Porch of the Temple were square, and about five feet sir inches on each side,-(what are the Pillars at Copan?)—and the capitals covered with carved “ nets of checker work” and “wreaths of chain-work,”—upon these were suspended “two rows of pomegranates.” The celebrated “bases” were distinctly square, and about seven feet on each side. “And he (the Tyrian Artist) made ten bases of brass, four cubits (21 inches and a fraction each cubit, Scripture measure,) was the length of one base, and four cubits the breadth thereof.” [this is a perfect square]. “And there were four undersetters to the four corners of one base,”—“And also upon the mouth of it (the laver) were gravings with their borders, foursquare, not round.”—“And after this manner he made the ten bases [i.e. square columns]: all of them had one casting [Hebrew: “fashioning”], one measure and one size.” [1 Kings, ch. vii.] Now the square style of Architecture in Solomon's Temple may distinctly be claimed as Tyrian Architecture —for the Tyrians were the Architects, Sculptors, and Builders, directed by Hiram the Artist,-and it is self-evident, since they were so, that they followed that style generally adopted in their own country — here then is a direct proof of the Tyrian Architecture being in Ancient America, for the reader will instantly recognise that the Square-columns form the “doorposts" also at Palenque, and that the Idol-Obelisks at Copan are “four-square, not round” and covered with “gravings”—(i. e. Sculptures). The superficial measure of the “square piers,”—or columns at Palenque, does not vary in a great degree from the square Porchcolumns and bases at Jerusalem,--while the Hebrew “pomegranates” at the latter Capital, were varied,—yet the florid style of Tyrian Sculpture imitated in the “compositions of leaves and flowers” at Uxmal.
It is not necessary to prove that the measurement of the Temple on Mount Moriah, and that at Palenque, are identical, in order to establish the analogy now under consideration, because local applications of their respective dimensions would create essential variations. In the previous reign (that of David) King Hiram sent his Tyrian Architects to Jerusalem, and built a Palace for the Monarch of Israel,-and in the reign of Solomon, (who resolved to erect the Temple) the same King of Tyrus was applied to for artists to build the great Mansion of Religion,-Solomon did not command how it should be built-or in what order or style of Architecture;—that he left to the Tyrians, who were practical artists,--THEY gave HIM the design, upon his expressing to the Chief Architect the “wants” of the edifice.
“Now these are the things wherein Solomon was instructed for the building of the house of GoD,” &c. [2 Chron. iii. 3.] We have expressed in the previous pages, that no Tyrian Ruins in Asia or Africa are found, whereby the style of that Nation's Architecture could be identified,—none exist in Sidon, Tyrus, or Carthage;—but, the never-decaying Volume of Religion, contains a living picture of Tyrian art and style at Jerusalem, that never can be in Ruins:—though the identifying marbles of Phoenician architecture, like the first stone-tablets of the Decalogue, are broken and lost “beneath the Mount” of Time, yet upon the page of Holy-Writ do they both appear as new, as perfect, as when first erected by Tyrians for the Son of David, or traced by the finger of GoD for the instruction, and civilization of mankind l The Temple of Solomon, upon the authority of the Bible, was of Tyrian Architecture, (for the Israelites, we repeat it, had no knowledge of the Arts at that time,) built and adorned by the Tyrians,—the same Architecture is found in the Ruins of Ancient America, and consequently Tyrian,—while the substructure being a portion of a Pyramid, justly authorizes (we submit) the new term of Egypto-Tyrian. We cannot dismiss this interesting discovery of an analogy between the Architecture of the Temples of Jerusalem, Palenque, and Copan,—thus proving the two latter to be Tyrian,—without the remark, that if no other similitude could be found in this volume in order to identify the Mexican Aborigines as Tyrians, we think that the analogy of the Temples alone, would satisfy the reader upon that point; as also, that this History has not been written without that due regard to testimony, and undeniable evidence, demanded by the importance of the subject;-and which, being novel and surprising, requires more than usual proof to convince the mind, that it is analyzing a proposition of truth, and not one of sophistry. The ignorance of the Israelites in reference to the practical arts will be enlarged upon in the next volume.*
* While these pages devoted to the Analogies are passing through the Press, Mr. Stephens has published his second visit to Yucatan. Upon an investigation of the engravings of the Volumes, we find nothing to change any portion of this History; but, on the contrary, as we predicted in this Volume (see note to page 120), the additional Ruins and Cities discovered, actually support our conclusions, and confirm, consequently, this Tyrian aera. This is especially visible in the Ruins of Labnah, which are directly in analogy with those of Uxmal. We feel some pleasure that our artistical prediction has been literally fulfilled,—otherwise it might have injured a portion of the present Work—yet so slight, as not to have interfered with the principle of this History. The time of their erection (i. e. the Temples in Yucatan) therefore, still remains unchanged in the order in which we ventured to place them ; viz., that they were built after the Temples of Copan, Ocosingo, Palenque, &c. Up to this time (May 1843), there have been discovered in Central America twenty-sir Ancient Cities, Ruins, and Temples:—yet with these additional witnesses against him, the persevering Traveller still clings to the belief, that all the Aborigines of the entire Continent were one People, and that they sprung up like the plants, “indigenous” to that land,-and no other We have proved the fallacy of these propositions in our first pages, and in the Chapter devoted to his artistical Refutations.
Having stopped the Press to insert these remarks upon Mr. Stephens's second visit to Yucatan, we cannot refrain from offering a few observations upon a paragraph by one of the most learned and accomplished Reviewers of the present day,"—and one who has the distinguished honour of having first brought the Ruins of Ancient America to the general notice of Europe, through the medium of his talented periodical. In reviewing + Mr. Stephens's volumes upon “Incidents of Travel in Yucatan,” (2d Visit,)—the Editor writes as follows:— “The difference in declension between Central and North America offers a problem worthy of philosophical consideration. In the former case, the Mexican Indian, notwithstanding massacres of merciless atrocity, has been allowed to remain, albeit scattered on the soil of his ancestors, and to enter into a combination (i. e. Marriage) whence another race of mankind has sprung: in the latter [the Northern] the white invader (Anglo-Saxon) has chased him from his native possessions and driven him to limits, where utter eartermination seems to be his doom. The comparison could hardly be made without indicating a conclusion highly favourable to the iron-clad Spaniards of what we choose to call an ignorant and a barbarous age (1520), and against the more modern offspring (1620) of our country and enlightened times. Though the thirst of gold was the same in both instances, it does appear, and it is melancholy to reflect upon it, that something of nobler impulses belonged to the elder (or Spanish) aera.” We have quoted the entire paragraph to which attention is desired, and shall now review the several parts, -and trust in a few remarks to remove the unintentional stain upon the Anglo-Saxon race, which the above extract has placed upon them :—as also, affording an additional opportunity of supporting our previous assertions, that the Aborigines were two distinct People. “The difference in declension [i. e. of the existing Aboriginal population] between Central and North America offers a problem worthy of philosophical consideration.” We had already solved this problem in the first pages of this volume, before the above was brought to our observation. The solution is founded upon historic truth, viz., that the Aborigines of the North will not intermarry, or cohabit, with any
* The Editor of the London Literary Gazette, William Jerdan, Esq. f Literary Gazette, Saturday, April 22, 1843.