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race but their own, they have a Religious abhorrence even at the supposition of such a sacrilege,_for in their minds it is one. This principle of the House of Israel is even followed in European Society by the Jewish family,–and that after ages of intercourse with the Christian. It seems impossible to eradicate the prejudice with the Aborigines of the North, and this has been one of the greatest barriers to the propagation of the Christian Religion among them. As a most convincing proof of the above, we offer an historic fact not generally known even in America, and certainly not in Europe, but it is given upon the authority of the late President of the United States, General Harrison, and it is, therefore, unimpeachable. In writing the forthcoming Life and History of that distinguished Patriot, it came under our observation during the required researches, and is found in a document of his as late in date as 1838,-viz., At the commencement of the American Revolution in 1775,-the government of Great Britain (through the influence of her traders), engaged all the North-western Aborigines in her cause, for the purpose of laying waste the frontiers. The Continental Congress, most anxious to destroy this junction and impending calamity,+sent delegates to convince them that they were not a party to the quarrel, and therefore should be neutral. The application met with no success, for the Aborigines viewed the Colonists as their enemies and invaders,—because they were the actual possessors and occupiers of the land and homes of their ancestors. The Congress knowing that from the time of the Pilgrimslanding at Plymouth, (1620) the Aborigines would never associate as a community with the Anglo-Saxon race—by the great family bond of Intermarriage;—the Congress then had recourse to the following novel proposition,-and it was actually embodied in a treaty concluded with the Delaware Tribes in 1778,-viz., That the Aborigines of the North, by remaining neutral in the War, should be consolidated into a State by themselves, and upon the achievement of National Independence, should be incorporated into the Republic of the United States / The following are President Harrison's words,viz., “Nothing can shew the anxiety of Congress to effect this object in stronger colours, than the agreement entered into with the Delaware Tribes, at a treaty concluded at Pittsburgh in 1778. By an article in that Treaty, the United-States proposed that a State should be formed, to be composed of the Delawares and the other Tribes of the North, and contracted to admit them, when so formed,—as one of the members of the Union.”—[Historical Discourse, Ohio, 1838.] The above fact of History certainly proves the anxiety of the Congress, not only to avoid their enmity, but to provide at a future day for their conti inse as a People, and not their “extermination.” The same policy of the United-States has now placed all the Tribes on the West of the Mississippi, (for they would form no community founded upon intermarriage), and there to be protected by the Government of the United-States against all invaders. In vain shall we search the Spanish Annals for an instance (in their Mexican Conquests,) of humanity like these acts of American commiseration and Christian policy. In the second sentence of the paragraph quoted from the Literary Gazette, the Editor has given the identical cause why the Mexican Aborigines are still found upon their lands, –not as owners, but as Slaves, viz., that they did intermarry—(“enter into a combination,” &c.)—thence the two races are apparent upon the strongest ground of argument, viz., Religious principles, and which, with all Aborigines are the guides to their actions. Therefore, the Editor by his remarks upon the Mexican race, actually solved, though unconsciously, the problem proposed in his first sentence. In forming a “comparison” between the Spanish invasion by Cortez, in 1520, and the landing of the Pilgrim-Fathers in 1620, any writer must fail,—for without similitude there can be no comparison ; contrast is the word, and never in the history of nations was there a greater contrast than between the Spanish and Anglo-Saxon races, in their motive in landing in Mexico and in New-England: but the Editor has written “ Though the thirst of Gold was the same in Both instances, it does appear, and it is melancholy to reflect upon it, that something of nobler impulses belonged to the elder (or Spanish) aera !” Cortez and Pizarro, and their bands of pirates, were alone possessed with an unquenchable “thirst of gold,”—it was “the god of their idolatry,”—even the humane Columbus could only hold his power with the Spanish Government by sending home the precious metal,—and when it failed, so declined his influence; and it at last compelled him to have recourse to making Slaves of the natives of Hispaniola, and each had allotted to him a task of bringing a small bell full of gold from the mountains, and if they failed, stripes were their punishment; and of all the natives, not one acre of land was purchased, or even attempted. The Spaniards found, as we will prove,

branches of Christianity!—and yet with the Crucifix in one hand, and the brand or dagger in their other, they sacrificed eleven millions of human beings to their unhallowed invasions, lust, and thirst for gold: —but were the English so possessed when in the depth of dreary winter they braved the dangers of the broad Atlantic —What drove that band of Pilgrim-Fathers forth to seek an unknown wilderness for a home and shelter Was it gold —would they have dealt with money-changers in the Temple?—No –One thought alone throbbed within their hearts, viz., To worship their God and SAviour according to the solemn dictates of their conscience 1 They were Englishmen, and the first promulgators of Religious and Civil freedom in the Western Hemisphere. — Upon their landing did they enslave the Natives for gold-finders ? — No 1 — They offered the hand of amity, and in it they gave gold for acres, and obtained the land by fair and honourable purchase. Entering upon their pilgrimage upon the principle only of Religious freedom, the Northern-native has been ever permitted to enjoy the same; and not a record of that land will prove, that the English ever sacrificed a human being upon the ground of Religious belief or disbelief. It is the very principle of the Contrast between the Spanish conquest and the English landing on the Western Continent, that has made the essential difference, even to this day, in the stability of the Governments of the two European races, Spanish and Anglo-Saxon. The former was based upon injustice, lust, and avarice,—thence can be traced the eventual downfall of the Spanish principles in South America; but the latter was Freedom-founded, and based upon laws, virtue, equity,+and thence, as a consequence, the Anglo-Saxon family still remain firm and secure. Their House being built upon a Rock, and daring, like the Parent-Country, the wild elements of tyranny even to approach the foundation, they fear no “comparison” with a blood-stained Mansion erected upon the Sands; and which the waves of Time have so far swept from view, that even the false proportions would have been lost, had not History placed them in her archives as a warning to posterity Apology, we trust, is not required for this almost digressive note ;-the just defence of the character of England and the United-States has been our only motive ;-and that being our rule of action through life, either in public or private, we could not avoid it. G. J.

SECTION IV.

SEPULCHRAL ANALOGIES.

MUMMIEs of EGYPT, TENERIFFE, AND PERU, &c.

IN the previous Sections of this important chapter, the customs and analogies of the living have been reviewed and compared,—those now to be investigated have relation to the dead. In all countries the peculiar customs observed at the interment of the dead, have a distinct, and a National character:—those customs proclaim the people of a nation with as much certainty, as the Ruins of the Parthenon speak of Athens and the Athenians. At the present day “the ashes of the dead" is a strong, and a poetic phrase, and used even by Christian writers, whereas it is strictly heathen in its application:—“dust to dust” is essentially Christian, and the sentence belongs to, and identifies the modern European family;-while, “ashes of the dead,”—indicating thereby, fire as the consuming quality, points to India, Rome, and many ancient Nations as authors of the pyro-ceremony. Pompey's decapitated body, though thrown upon the shore of Egypt, was consumed to “ashes” by the humble but honest follower of Caesar's Master, that the sepulchral custom of ancient Italy should be accomplished upon, and by, a Son of Rome. The self-immolation of the widow upon the funeral pyre of her departed husband, points to the nation following that inhuman custom to be Hindoostan;–while the embalmed Mummies with their Sarcophagi, direct the antiquarian mind to Egypt, with as much certainty, as her “starry-pointing Pyramids,” or her Sphinx-guarded Temples. Upon this accredited conclusion of the identity of nations, from the manner of disposing of their dead, will be claimed authority to establish a strong argument and analogy in support of the present subject, and founded upon the Jac-simile resemblance between the ancient Mummies of the Canary Islands, and those in Mexican America.

The general reader may not be aware that Mummies have been found in any other nation than Egypt;-they have, however, been discovered (but without the Sarcophagi) at Arico, in the Island of Teneriffe, and at Arica in Peru,-a similitude is discernible even in the local name given to the districts where the Mummy-pits are found. An analogy is at once perceptible in analyzing the ancient word Guanches (the Aborigines of Teneriffe), it is derived from Guan,—i. e. Man,— consequently in his natural and uncontrolled statetherefore Freemen,_this fact is sanctioned by their escape from thraldom or SLAVERY, when they first arrived on the Island, as will be shewn in the Second Book of this Volume. Again, in Ancient America, the places where Mummies are found are called Guacas, i. e. the abode of Man in his decayed state. The Reader will instantly perceive that in the construction of the word, as used in both localities, there is a direct

VOL. I. O

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