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“—* * * from the river of Arnon unto Mount Her

mon, (which Hermon the Sidonians call Sirion; and the Amorites [Canaanites] call it Shenir).” [Deut. iii. 8, 9.] In the last quotation the Sidonians are distinctly stated to be a separate nation from the other branches of the Canaanites. 1444 B.C.] JoSHUA, also, defines them to be so, and a powerful one. “And the LORD delivered them [the Canaanites] into the hand of Israel, who smote them, and chased them unto great SIDON,” &c. [Joshua xi. 8.] The early character of National Independence enjoyed by the Sidonians, and the primitive character of justice among them, may be gathered from the description of the people of Laish, who are compared to the Sidonians; and the military prowess of the latter people is also expressed. 1406 B. c.] “Then the five men departed, and came to Laish, and saw the people that were therein, how they dwelt careless, after the manner of the Sidonians, quiet and secure ; and there was no magistrate in the land,” that might put them to shame for any thing;[i. e. for crimes]—and they were far from the Sidonians,

* The increase of crime in any Nation is instantly ascertained, by finding the ratio increase of Lawyers, and the purity of a People by their absence,—as at Laish, of course having regard to the relative increase of population. The same argument will obtain, in reference to the increase of physical disease, by observing the ratio increase of the members of the Medical profession.—G. J.

and had no business with any man.” “And there was no deliverer, because it [Laish] was far from Sidon.” [Judges xviii. 7, 28.]

In the course of time there were six Kingdoms or Nations of Phoenicia, viz., Sidon, Tyrus, Aradnus, Berytus, Byblos, and Carthage. The inhabitants of the kingdoms in Asia bore one general name—Phoenicians, —though each had its own name from its derivative, as Sidonians, Tyrians, &c. The great nation in Africa, was not included in the general appellation, but from its Republican character, possessed its own, viz., Carthaginians.

HISTORY OF TYRUS.

ITS RISE AND FALL, AND THE MIGRATION OF THE TYRIANS TO THE WESTERN HEMISPHERE.

CHAPTER II.

(1600–1046 B.C.)

THE FOUNDING OF TYRUS—EARLY NAVIGATION OF THE TYRIANS —Founding of THE MonARCHY-THE FIRST KING of TYRUs, &c.

THE Nation of Sidon having increased in power and population, sent one of the Cadmii with a Colony to found Paele Tyr; this was on the Continent, or main . land of the Phoenician coast,-23 miles from Sidon, and 80 from ancient Jebus (i. e. Jerusalem). The Motherland at another period sent a second Colony to aid the previous one, and from which blended circumstance, it is found in the Bible that Tyrus is called “The Daughter of Sidon.” The year in which the first Colony was sent, is not defined, but it must have been many years before the Conquest of the Canaanites by Joshua;-for not only were there in existence at that time the “great Sidon,”—but, in dividing the subdued lands among the Tribes, that of Asher received certain por

tions on the sea-coast of Phoenicia, and it is distinctly stated that Tyrus at that period was a metropolis and fortified. “And Hebron, and Rehob, and Hammon, and Kanah even unto great Sidon; and then the coast turneth to Ramah, and to the strong City Tyre,” &c. [Joshua xix. 28-29.] It is, therefore, evident that Tyrus was a “strong city" anterior to 1444 B.C., which was the time of Joshua, and the conquest of the “land of promise;"— we have, therefore, and in reference to an event previous to Joshua, placed the foundation of Tyrus as early as 1600 years B. C. Some authors have remarked that HoMER has not mentioned Tyrus, and as a consequence, that that City was not in existence at the period of the Siege of Troy. Homer mentions both Mother and “Daughter" under one name; viz., Sidonians: it was a term applied by the ancients to both Nations, and to every thing elegant in Art, until the Tyrians by their superior skill won their own, and a distinctive appellation. Nor can Homer be charged with ignorance in joining the two names;–he followed what appears from his own language to have been a received custom. This is also proved by Solomon's message to a subsequent King of Tyrus, and the Tyrians in their early days were flattered by being called Sidonians. “For thou knowest that there is not among us [i. e. Israel] any that can skill to hew timber like unto the Sidonians.” [1 Kings v. 6.]

Then to assert that Tyrus did not exist at, or before the Fall of Troy, because the Epic Poet does not men. tion it, or that it is not to be found recorded as a city, is to proclaim that which is not sanctioned by the consentient voice of acknowledged history. We will briefly review this point. The Trojan war, consequent upon the rape of the Spartan Queen, commenced in the year 1194 B. c. Now in the previous page it is proved, that Tyrus was a “strong City” 250 years before the Siege of Troy, for Joshua speaks of it as one of the boundaries for the Tribe of Asher, and this event was 1444 B. C., and that upon the authority of Holy-Writ. Again.—Had such sceptics in the antiquity of Tyrus, given a moment's consideration to the Grecian Fleet, employed to convey Agamemnon and his troops to Troy, they would have found that the Knowledge of Navigation was first introduced at Sidon, and was, as a practical science,—established by the Tyrians,—and from them the Greeks derived their nautical skill and knowledge. Homer intended both Nations in the one term, Sidonians:—but, Euripides is more defined, for his subject demanded it;-and as it has reference to this History, as being the first recorded event after the founding of Tyrus, it will be mentioned more in detail. 1493 B. c.] Forty-nine years before the period in which Joshua divided the lands of Canaan, a Tyrian Chief (i. e. a Cadmus) left Tyrus and Sidon (apparently with a colony) and founded Thebes in Greece.

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