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He is known in classic history as Cadmus, and has the reputation of introducing into his new territory of Thebes, the ciphers of his country, and from which were formed the letters of the ancient Grecian alphabet,_ the language in which Homer subsequently depicted the deeds of Greeks and Trojans. That the Theban Cadmus was a Tyrian, and not a Sidonian, is established by Euripides;–as, also, the worship of Apollo, and the Sacred Virgins. The Poet has made a singular local error, as will be seen in the second line about to be quoted,—for though the Isle of Tyrus was inhabited in the time of Euripides, it was not at the period contemplated by his Tragedy. It is true that the Isle (previous to Alexander) was “seagirt,” but it is evidently intended by the Poet to have reference to the Island-Capital, and therefore an anachronism. The following translation from the original Greek, will prove Cadmus to have been a Tyrian.


Bounding o'er the Tyrian flood

From Phoenicia's sea-girt Isle,

+ o + * * #
Cull'd from Tyre, its brightest grace,

Worthy of the god, I came
To Agenor's high-born race,

Glorying, Cadmus, in thy name.”

+ + * + o * Phoenicia is my country, gave me birth, And nurtured me, till, captive by the spear, Selected from the virgin train, the sons Of Cadmus led me hither, to Apollo A hallowed offering.

* + + * * *

As yet Castalia's silver wave
These flowing tresses waits to lave,
Delicious stream, where bathes the virgin train,
Serving at Apollo's fane.”

+ + + + + *
When Cadmus from the Tyrian strand
Arriving, trod this destined land.”—[i. e. Thebes.]
* # # # # #
A dragon there in scales of gold
Around his fiery eyeballs roll'd,
By Mars assigned that humid shade,
To guard the green extended glade,

And silver-streaming tide:
Him, as with pious haste he came
To draw the purifying stream,
Dauntless the Tyrian Chief repress'd,
Dashed with a rock his sanguine crest

And crush'd his scaly pride.


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Virgin queen, at whose command
Cadmus crush'd the dragon's crest.”
The Phaenician Virgins.

There can remain upon the mind of the reader, (from the previous quotation) not a doubt, that the celebrated Cadmus of Classic history was of Tyrus, and consequently it is the first name to be found having reference to Tyrian history. The chief events only of that history will be enlarged upon in these pages ;for our aim will be to obtain, and delineate the vital spirit of the Nation, and its principle of action,-that Instruction may not be forgotten, in the contemplation of History's wild romance,—for her prerogative has ever been, to prove that truth is more strange than fiction /

1444 B. c.] This date has peculiar importance from the fact, that from the words of Joshua, Tyrus was then “the strong City" consequently having its walls and means of defence; and by Joshua's not attacking either Sidon or Tyrus, it is evident that they were not regarded as Nations of Canaan,—but as a separate and independent people. It is, also, an important aera from the fact, that one of the Tribes of Israel (Asher) was portioned to possess the land of Canaan that approached to the strong City Tyre,"—thus were the Israelites in juxtaposition with the Tyrians,—and consequently it is apparent that the custom of Circumcision (optionally) must have been introduced into the Phoenician family at this time; for it is recorded in the Bible, that the great Covenant with ABRAHAM was discontinued by Moses, during the period offorty years, while journeying through the Wilderness, and that every warrior of Israel, who had left Egypt with the Lawgiver, had ceased to exist : and thereupon, Joshua, as the successor of MoSEs, was commanded to renew the Covenant with the new race of Israel born in the Wilderness. This was accomplished in the year 1451 B. c.—Now this was only seven years before the Tribe of Asher were located in the immediate vicinity of the Tyrians,—viz., 1444 B. c. The Egyptians received the above custom of the Israelites, while the latter people sojourned with the former, and consequently previous to their Exodus from the Nation of the Nile. By the Egyptians it was practised in the same manner (excepting their Priests) as by the Tyrians, —viz., optionally. The Mummies establish this fact.

The facility of the Tyrians to receive this custom was not only given by their vicinity to a Tribe of Israel, but from the apparent fact, that they both spoke the same language ;-the original language of the descendants of Abraham was not lost while they were in bondage in Egypt, because the Egyptians spoke the same language as the Israelites /—These novel and important points we shall endeavour to establish, when reviewing the original languages of Phoenicia, Egypt, Israel, and the two Aboriginal races in the Western Hemisphere, all of which languages will be found to be the same !—and if this present History is correct, those languages must be radically identical. Startling as the above may appear to the classic or general reader, we trust that his opinion will not be formed, until he has investigated the argument of the present writer upon the subject, and which will be found in the Second Volume.

From the facility then afforded by neighbourhood, and the means of communication by speaking the same language, not only was the custom of Circumcision introduced, but probably many others of a minor character. [1434 B.C.] The first war in which the Tyrians were engaged was with this very Tribe of Asher, who by their juxtaposition began to encroach upon the Tyrians, and probably upon their Religious and National Customs. In this first conflict by the Tyrians, they were completely victorious, and drove the Israelites (represented by the Tribe of Asher) from all the seacoast of Phoenicia. This event probably occurred about


ten years after the Tribe of Asher became located upon the Tyrian borders, we have, therefore, placed the date at 1434 B. c. Malte-Brun states the fact, but gives no date, or the causes that led to it. We have endeavoured to look beyond the effect, and reach the cause; for it will be remembered that the Tyrians had their “strong city” on the mainland,—the celebrated Island was not yet occupied:—encroachment was therefore easily felt, and as quickly resented ;-and like their ancestors, the Sidonians, they were resolved to live “quiet and secure." There is an importance attached to this event, as regards the History of Israel,-and to it may be traced the cause why the great Hebrew family did not become Navigators; for, being driven from the sea-coast by the jealous Tyrians, all means of practising the art were at once berest them, and it was a position they never recovered. All historians agree in according to the Phoenicians the honour of being the first Navigators. Their locality being on the sea-coast would naturally suggest to them the means of carrying on commercial intercourse with their colonies or neighbours, and they were the first of the human family so located after the Deluge;—this is proved by the third descendant from Noah, viz., Sidon, founding the first sea-coast capital. The Tyrians, as the immediate branch of the House of Sidon, may be believed to have practised the Science, in its simple and elementary forms, many years before Joshua's record, that Tyrus was a “strong city;” or the founding of

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