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Grecian Thebes by the Tyrian Cadmus, for that Chief must have reached the Dragon-guarded shore by means of a Galley. Euripides supports this position.—

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e Our oars brush'd lightly o'er the Ionian brine Along Cilicia's wave-wash'd strand.”

The Tyrians were early renowned for their fisheries, —and the produce from that toil became their chief object of export. This, and all discoveries by voyages, they guarded with a monopolizing and constant vigilance;—and their peculiar characteristics may be traced to the coastwise and early maritime expeditions,—for they were acknowledged by all nations to be the pilots and mariners of the ancient world. They had for many ages no rivals upon the waters of the Mediterranean;– but when by degrees other Nations were established upon the opposite shores, or Islands of the great Inland Sea, and availing themselves of the same means as the Tyrians to increase their power or wealth, then Tyrus, ever jealous of her original strength, instantly made war, or piratical crusades, against those infant navies, and crushed them even in their cradled security. Thus early in her history did the “Daughter of Sidon” put forth her hand and power, against every encroachment upon her supposed prerogative, until she was acknowledged as “Queen of the Sea;” and when Neptune had placed the naval crown upon her brow, still so jealous was this Ocean-Juno of her high station, that she would allow of no courtiers or flatterers upon that element where she had resolved to reign supreme:—nor could she fear any decision against her, for no Shepherd of Ida existed to give, at that time, a marine preference to Athens or Cyprus;–the Tyrian-Juno admitted of no argument, or comparison with her beauty, intellect, or authority: she, therefore, cast the golden apple beneath her imperious foot-it withered upon her shores;–but the seeds of discord were scattered by envious winds to distant lands, and, in after ages, she found that her rivals in fame were firmly planted, and thence enthroned at Carthage and Alexandria. The only city permitted by the Tyrians to practise Navigation was Sidon, and that permission was founded upon the remembrance of their Mother-land, and not for the purpose of promoting or encouraging the Science. The same courtesy, founded upon bloodrelationship, was extended at a later period to Carthage, —(a colony from Tyrus). From these family considerations were created the ever-existing friendship between the Sidonians, Tyrians, and Carthaginians. For about five centuries and a half, Tyrus was governed by Chiefs of the People, each succeeding Cadmus having the civil, military, and naval power, not granted to him as to a Dictator, but aided by a Council, somewhat similar to the Judge and Sanhedrim of Israel. The same causes may have led the People of Tyrus to demand a King as the Israelites, and they may have used the same argument. Not only that, but the Tyrians may have received the idea itself of a Mo

narchy from their neighbours of Israel, who obtained it only thirty-nine years before the Tyrians. There seems to be such a singular connexion in regard to the periods of the commencement of the first Monarchies of Israel and Tyrus; for, by tracing the causes of the former, a conclusion may be arrived at for the latter.

The following quotations will be found in the first

Book of Samuel [ch. viii.]: “And it came to pass that when Samuel was old, that he made his Sons Judges over Israel.” “** “And his Sons [Joel and Abiah] walked not in his ways, but turned aside after lucre, and took bribes and perverted judgment. Then all the elders of Israel gathered themselves together and came to Samuel unto Ramah; and said unto him, Behold thou art old, and thy sons walk not in thy ways:—now make us a KING to judge us like all the nations.” SAMUEL's celebrated remonstrance against the institution of an unlimited Monarchy was useless. “Nevertheless the people refused to obey the voice of Samuel; and they said, Nay!—but we will have a King over us:—that we also may be like all the Nations ; and that our King may judge us, and go out before us, and fight our battles.” Saul was consequently anointed the first King of Israel,-this was in 1095 B.C. Such an event could not pass unnoticed by the Tyrians. Israel had passed from the flowing robes of a chief Judge, to the gorgeous Mantle and Crown of Sovereignty. The Tyrians had already received some of the customs of the Hebrews, that especially of Cir

cumcision,-and they may have felt that Monarchy was becoming, in the scale of Nations, as a test of a People's power-and it would naturally lead them to exclaim, “Let us be governed like all the nations." Whatever the arguments of the Tyrians for a King, certain it is, that in a few years (39) after the election of the first Monarch in Israel, the Tyrians threw off the Cadmean Government, and elected their first King in the person [1056 B. C.] of ABIBAL-who, according to Menander of Ephesus, and Dius of Phoenicia, commenced his reign in the year 1056 B. c. This record is sanctioned by the Jewish historian Josephus, who is supported by Theophilus Antiochenus. An additional impulse would naturally be given to the Tyrians in regard to a Monarchy, from the fact, that in this very year the first King of Israel (being defeated in the battle of Gilboa) committed suicide, and DAVID (who was already in renown) was chosen to the Sovereignty of the house of Judah: not over all Israel,-that followed eight years after. Therefore the second Hebrew King, and the first Tyrian Monarch, ascended their respective thrones in the same year— (1056 B.C.)—and between whom there commenced, and continued, a lasting friendship. It would therefore seem that the ancient victory obtained by the Tyrians, in driving from the sea-coast the Tribe of Asher, had been acknowledged to the victors, without any resentment from the united Tribes of Israel. As the conflict on the part of the Tyrians was founded in justice against encroachment, the descendants of Abraham, feeling keenly the bondage they experienced in Egypt, could estimate and appreciate a victory, gained upon the very ground of argument which they themselves had resolved to resent, conquer or die Abibal reigned apparently with satisfaction to his subjects, as he did not die a violent death:—and the hereditary succession to the throne was established by the People in the reception of his Son, Hiram, who became the most celebrated of the Tyrian Monarchs. Abibal reigned ten years and died in the year 1046 B. C., and from Scripture seems to have borne the surname of Huram (i. e. Hiram), which has led some authors to style his son and successor, Hiram the Second. The following, however, is an extract from the letter written by the Son of Abibal to Solomon, after the death of the first King of Tyrus, wherein the father's name is distinctly stated to be Huram. The letter has reference to the Temple. “And now I have sent a cunning man, endued with understanding, of Huram my father's.” The Phoenician writer, Dius, and others, style the first King, Abibal, without any surname:—if it had been borne, it is likely that it would have been mentioned. It appears, therefore, evident that the National name of the first King was Abibal only,–Huram (i. e. Hiram) was perhaps the family name, and assumed by the Second Monarch in remembrance of that fact, and in affection to his Parent.

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