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ten years after the Tribe of Asher became located upon the Tyrian borders, we have, therefore, placed the date at 1434 B. c. Malte-Brun states the fact, but gives no date, or the causes that led to it. We have endeavoured to look beyond the effect, and reach the cause; for it will be remembered that the Tyrians had their “strong city” on the mainland-the celebrated Island was not yet occupied:—encroachment was therefore easily felt, and as quickly resented ;-and like their ancestors, the Sidonians, they were resolved to live “quiet and secure." There is an importance attached to this event, as regards the History of Israel,-and to it may be traced the cause why the great Hebrew family did not become Navigators; for, being driven from the sea-coast by the jealous Tyrians, all means of practising the art were at once bereft them, and it was a position they never recovered. All historians agree in according to the Phoenicians the honour of being the first Navigators. Their locality being on the sea-coast would naturally suggest to them the means of carrying on commercial intercourse with their colonies or neighbours, and they were the first of the human family so located after the Deluge;—this is proved by the third descendant from Noah, viz., Sidon, founding the first sea-coast capital. The Tyrians, as the immediate branch of the House of Sidon, may be believed to have practised the Science, in its simple and elementary forms, many years before Joshua's record, that Tyrus was a “strong city;” or the founding of Grecian Thebes by the Tyrian Cadmus, for that Chief must have reached the Dragon-guarded shore by means of a Galley. Euripides supports this position.—

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Our oars brush'd lightly o'er the Ionian brine * Along Cilicia's wave-wash'd strand.”

The Tyrians were early renowned for their fisheries, —and the produce from that toil became their chief object of export. This, and all discoveries by voyages, they guarded with a monopolizing and constant vigilance;—and their peculiar characteristics may be traced to the coastwise and early maritime expeditions,—for they were acknowledged by all nations to be the pilots and mariners of the ancient world. They had for many ages no rivals upon the waters of the Mediterranean;– but when by degrees other Nations were established upon the opposite shores, or Islands of the great Inland Sea, and availing themselves of the same means as the Tyrians to increase their power or wealth, then Tyrus, ever jealous of her original strength, instantly made war, or piratical crusades, against those infant navies, and crushed them even in their cradled security. Thus early in her history did the “Daughter of Sidon” put forth her hand and power, against every encroachment upon her supposed prerogative, until she was acknowledged as “Queen of the Sea;" and when Neptune had placed the naval crown upon her brow, still so jealous was this Ocean-Juno of her high station, that she would

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1046 B.C.] DAVID had been King of Judah ten years, and Monarch over all Israel two years, when Hiram ascended the throne of Tyrus. The intimacy and friendship between DAVID and Abibal were continued upon the death of the latter, by his son and representative, Hiram;-for it is recorded that the Tyrian King sent to DAVID, at Jerusalem, Messengers of Peace, Architects and Sculptors, and even materials to erect a Cedar Palace for the Monarch of Israel:—a royal gift, as magnificent as it was original, and (in our reading) we do not remember that it was ever imitated. He was indeed “a lover of David.”

1043 B.C.] “And Hiram king of Tyresent messengers to David, and cedar trees, [from Lebanon] and carpenters and masons; and they built David a house.” (i. e. Palace.) [2 Samuel v. 11, 12.] In the Hebrew the word “masons” is defined to be “hewers of the stone of the wall,”—i. e. Sculptors:— the common workmen are identified by a term, as expressive as can be desired for illustrating the rudiment of the art, viz., stone-squarers. [1 Kings v. 18.] “And Hiram's builders did hew them, and the stoneSQUARERS.” For two years previous to the death of the warlike DAVID, he gathered material for building the Temple of Jerusalem, which by Prophecy was to be erected by his son SoLoMON, [i. e. the peaceable]—for no Sovereign whose life had been passed in the battle-field, and amid scenes of warfare and carnage, could erect (except in mockery) a Temple to The Peaceful God. During this period DAVID commanded that the Sculptors, who were “strangers” in the land of Israel, should be gathered for the purpose of commencing the Sculpture for the great edifice. These “strangers” were, without doubt, Tyrians. They had furnished Cedar for the building, and they were, also, the skilful artists to work in all kinds of metals. This calling forth of foreign artists to build and decorate The Temple, is a conclusive proof that the Israelites were not practical Architects or Sculptors. The Tyrians had already built for DAVID his regal Palace at Jerusalem, and were, therefore, naturally received with every courtesy by the Israelites, and many probably remained in the country. In illustration of the previous remarks, the following extracts are given from the 1st Book of Chronicles [ch. xii.): “And David commanded to gather together the strangers that were in the land of Israel: and he set masons to hew wrought stones to build the house of God” (i.e. The Temple). From this quotation it would appear that the stones were “wrought,” or put into shape, by common workmen of Israel (i. e. the “Stone-squarers"); and thus subsequently the “Strangers” (i. e. Tyrians) were to “hew” the stones—i. e. Sculpture them. DAVID gathered material of all metals, and the only wood he obtained appears to have been the Cedar from Lebanon, and for this he was indebted to the Tyrians. “Also cedar trees in abundance: for the Sidonians and they of Tyre brought much cedar wood to David.” The following is part of David's address to Solomon, and refers to the accomplished Tyrians, as will be shewn hereafter. “Timber [cedar] and Stone have I prepared: and thou mayst add thereto. Moreover there are workmen with thee in abundance, hewers and workers of stone and timber, and all manner of cunning [i.e. skilful] men for every manner of work.” 1015 B. c.] Hiram of Tyrus had reigned 31 years when DAVID died. SoloMON having been anointed King during the last year of his father's life, was already in possession of the regal power. Upon the ascension of the “wise.” Sovereign of Jerusalem, the

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