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noticed whenever the first voyage was made, as it will be whenever the last voyage shall be accomplished around the Continent of Africa. This Expedition was at the expense of the Egyptian King, Pharaoh-Necho, who slew in battle Josiah, King of Judah, as recorded in Scripture. [2 Kings xx. 3..] The Monarch of the Nile ascended the throne 616 B. C. The ships of the Expedition were built by the Tyrians;–piloted, manned, and equipped by them, and consequently the voyage belongs to their history conjointly with that of Egypt. Let us review the circumstance which led to the Expedition, and the means of defraying the expense:—the latter will be found to emanate from the coffers of Judaea, and not from those of Egypt. Pharaoh-Necho possessed a mind of no ordinary character, not only in regard to government, but for scientific pursuits. Six years after his ascension to the throne he declared war against the King of Babylon, and marched an army towards the Euphrates. It was at this time that Josiah “the pious,” King of Judah, followed the Monarch of Egypt, for the purpose of making warfare upon him and his army, and thus prevent his approach upon the Babylonians. Pharaoh used every entreaty to Josiah to entice him to return to his own nation, as he had no wish to make battle with Judaea, but rather desired the amity of that country. Josiah, however, still followed on the rear of the Egyptian army, when Pharaoh suddenly turned upon the Judaean force, before the approach of the army of Babylon. The two enemies met in the plain of Megiddo. Josiah was mortally wounded, carried from the field in his chariot, and shortly after died at Jerusalem. His son Jehoahaz succeeded him, but reigned only three months, when he was dethroned by the indignant Pharaoh, and Josiah's eldest son crowned by orders of the Egyptian, and Judaea placed under an annual tribute “of an hundred talents of silver, and a talent of gold.” [i. e. 41,425l.] This event occurred 610 B.C.; and returning victorious to Egypt, Pharaoh probably contemplated how he might best employ the Judaean tribute, and make it available in the paths of peace. From relative circumstances we are led to reason that such were his thoughts, for we now find that he resolved to attempt the joining of the Red Sea with the Mediterranean, or with the River Nile, by means of a Ship-Canal between either of the two waters. Egypt would then receive merchandise direct from India, passing through the Straits of Babelmandeb, and so through the Red Sea and the Gulf of Suez; and by means of the proposed Canal to some harbour, or commercial emporium to be erected on the banks of the Nile, at the fork of the Delta, or at one of the mouths of the river on the Mediterranean. This policy of a commercial connexion between the Nile and Suez, and so to India, is again revived at the present day, after a lapse of nearly 2500 years l At this time, 610 B.C., Egypt had no commerce of her own, and had always despised the merchant's pursuit. She had no navy or vessels of her own, except her river boats, yet she was willing to receive from other na
tions the rich commodities derivable from their commercial energy, and in earchange for her corn and linen cloths; consequently the Egyptians were merchants at the very time they affected to despise the means whereby merchandise was acquired. To the fact of the Egyptians really despising and rejecting Navigation, may be attributed the land wonders of the Nile, the Pyramids and Temples:—for not being engaged upon the Ocean, or the Mediterranean in any manner (and to leave the river Nile for other waters was esteemed a sacrilege), they of a necessity could turn their at tention only to the grandeur of the Earth, naturally or artificially,–i. e. to Agriculture, or the Arts, and they were content to leave the domain of Neptune to those who were willing to become the bold subjects of his treacherous empire In the attempt to form a Canal from the Red Sea the King of Egypt completely failed, probably owing to the drifting sands; and it was this defeat in one path of Science, that led him instantly to pursue another, in which he would not have the same difficulties of Nature to contend with; and in this resolve he was actuated by the safety of his reputation,-for the new idea had precisely the same object in view, as that in which he had so signally failed;—viz., to bring the riches of India and the Nile together by means of water communication. The only way whereby this could be accomplished was by a circumnavigation of the Continent of Africa. There seems to be truth upon the entire subject of this Voyage, from the fact, as already expressed, that the second scientific attempt, had for its object the same as the first. This is a proof that the Voyage was not attempted or accomplished in the time of Solomon and Hiram;for if it had been, it would no longer have been a question, but a repetition of a “foregone conclusion.” The primitive undertaking of Pharaoh did not require Pilots or mariners, the expedition now to be attempted not only demanded both, but also Galleys and “all the appliances and means” of Navigation,-these the Egyptians, like the Israelites, did not possess, nor had they any practical Knowledge of the Science. There was but one Nation in the world to which Pharaoh could apply, for carrying into effect this bold and original undertaking-that Nation was Tyrus:— and with the Monarch of that country the Sovereign of Egypt was on terms of amity. Herodotus states that the Voyage did take place,— that the Phoenicians (i. e. Tyrians) were the mariners, and of course the Pilots, that they were three years [609 to 606 B.C.] in accomplishing this then extraordinary expedition. The glory of this victory over the elements was claimed (and justly) by the Tyrians,—for without them it could not have been even attempted: and upon this occasion it was natural that both the King of Tyrus and his subjects, would hail the opportunity for such an expedition with every feeling of national enthusiasm, and to that may be attributed its consequent success. The proofs of the successful termination of the Voyage will now be established. The negatives will be first reviewed. These rest entirely upon the silence of several authors upon the subject during the time of the early Caesars: and because they were silent, subsequent writers have taken upon themselves the responsibility of contradicting it entirely: but that very silence of the Roman writers (who desired only to advance themselves) should be received as a direct acquiescence, since they did not contradict it, and they would have done so if the negative truth had been on their sidefor they must have read, or heard, the original statement of the occurrence as made by the Greek Historian, written in his description of his visit to Egypt nearly five centuries before:–by being the first Historian of the Egyptian Nation, Herodotus, or his work, could not have been unknown to the Romans. Upon the absolute refutation of a negative, and proving the reverse, an affirmative, as a necessity, is directly established. Here, then, follows one upon that ground of reasoning: viz. – Some writers have affirmed that the Fleet could not have been built and manned by the Naval Architects and Pilots of Tyrus, because their city was on the coast of the Mediterranean, and consequently could not reach the Red Sea, except all the Galleys were transported over land,-i. e. across the Isthmus of Suez to the place of departure, and this, say they, would be impossible. Such annotations upon the solemnity of History, only shew those authors' ignorance of the First Book of record and Religion,-for in the Bible it is dis.