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carrying on a war against Carthage, and which denial led to the abandonment of the proposed warfare. It will be remembered that Carthage was originally founded by a Tyrian Princess and her countrymen. The Patriotism of the Tyrians was as powerful as their knowledge of Science was universal. For thirty-five years Tyrus enjoyed the freedom of an independent nation, when all Phoenicia was laid under contribution by the Monarch of Persia:—He was content, however, with a mere nominal tribute from the Tyrians in return for their aid against the Greeks, —and perhaps from a distant belief that that assistance might again be required. In furtherance of this design or policy, he did not depose the reigning king, but recognised in him the exercise of full powers (except the tribute) as a monarch of an independent nation. 480 B. c.] This nominal tribute was during the reign of Marten. The king and nobles were willing to flatter the vanity of the Persian by the nominal payment, for by his forbearance from any further action against the Islanders, it enabled them to increase their power, and retain their “places” both at home and abroad;—they, therefore, could well afford to spare from their rich and overflowing treasury of Pride, so small a portion of a superfluity. ZECHARIAH wrote [ch. ix.] “And Tyrus did build herself a strong hold [the Island-Citadel], and heaped up silver as the dust, and fine gold as the mire of the street;"—but her Pride was as subtle, “as broad and general as the casing air,”—it was in and around her, —it was her nature, to have been otherwise would have destroyed her identity and nationality. It was, however, upon one occasion, exerted as a noble spirit, and atoned for her errors past,-it proved that Freedom was not dead within the walls of Tyrus;–and the now noble exertion of the only Pride justifiable in any country, that of National Freedom, led to the first and only Revolution in the annals of the Tyrians in Asia. [475 B. C.] Justin states that it was an insurrection among the Slaves / We do not presume to contradict the record of any Historian, but would rather use every effort to support their statements by facts and evidence, as in the instance of Herodotus concerning the first Voyage around Africa;-but the record of Justin cannot be founded in truth, so far as relates to the supposed class of human beings rising against their Monarch and his Council. Tyrus had no Slaves, in the usual acceptation of the word, for she had no foreign conquests, and her subjects were too proud to allow of any but themselves to pilot or man their galleys, either for merchandise or warfare;—nor would she allow foreigners to live within her walls, especially of the lower ranks of life, lest they should obtain the secret of ship-building, and so convey intelligence to other nations bordering upon the Mediterranean. But ancient writers have generally viewed the tiers état-or the third class of despotic Empires and Kingdoms as Slaves, and so have written of them. Even to so late

a period as half a century ago, the same was done in France, till her Revolution (although it moved in blood and tyranny, and brought to light human-monsters) established that the People were to enjoy rights and liberties, in analogy with those claimed and exercised by the Islanders of Britain, or their descendants in the Western Hemisphere. The great National lesson was first taught the World by the Rebellion of the Patriot, -Jeroboam, and the Ten Tribes, from the “whip” and “scorpion” Son of Solomon The Rebellion of Jeroboam was but 500 years before this period, [475 B. c.] and from the great intercourse between the Judaeans and Tyrians, the event must have been familiar to the latter, and may have had its natural influence, therefore, in forwarding a similar action of their own. It is more than probable that the People disapproved of the payment of the nominal tribute (which was more degrading than any other), and made a remonstrance to the Throne upon the subject, for their just pride had been aroused, and while they continued to pay to the Persian for mere political existence, they ceased to be a Nation of Freemen, and Justin might consequently have written that all the Tyrians,—King, Nobles, and People, were Slaves,—for they were so, while their golden manacles rattled, and echoed along the distant shores of the Euphrates. Tyrus was, also, safe now from any attack by land,-and by water the Capital defied apparently both man and elements. The tribute had been originally imposed and levied upon the National weakness, it was now to be thrown offin its day of strength. The King who would cowardly surrender, and continue to submit a Nation's liberty to a foreign yoke, while he had power to be free-and yet was willing to wear and hold the mere shadows of a Crown and Sceptre, must have been, at heart, no fit guardian, or steward, of a People's honour or prosperity ;-and especially, when in the very rank of life, the rights of which he continued to betray, there was a Spirit—like the Sun—ready to disperse the clouds lowering upon, and obscuring his Country's freedom! This Tyrian Patriot was STRATO,-who, upon the successful issue of the Rebellion, and breaking of the foreign yoke imposed by Persia, was instantly elected Sovereign-the Royal title continued to his descendants, even to the last King of the Tyrians.

475 B. c.] From this time forward, Tyrus continued not only to enlarge her Navigation, but to increase her inland commerce. One of the chief complaints made by the Prophet NEHEMIAH against his countrymen was, that their Sabbath was desecrated by buying merchandise of the Tyrians upon the Holy-Day. NEHEMIAH caused the traffickers to be thrust out of Jerusalem more than once, and the Gates to be closed upon them ; but they still lingered around the walls in order to sell their commodities on the Jewish Sabbath, upon which the Chief Ruler of the restored House of Judah, instantly threatened to have recourse to violence, and drive the Tyrian merchants from their locality. This event [434 B. c.] was forty-one years after the accession of the new dynasty. It was no sin in the estimation of the Tyrians to sell upon the Sabbath Day of Israel, for they being heathens they did not esteem that Seventh day —the crime was, that of buying by the Jews upon their own Sacred Sabbath.-In this manner is it justly reproved by NEHEMIAH: viz. – “There dwelt men of Tyrus also therein [i. e. in Jerusalem], which brought fish, and all manner of ware, and sold on the Sabbath unto the Children of Judah, and in Jerusalem. Then I contended with the nobles of Judah and said unto them, What evil thing is this that ye do, and profane the Sabbath Day? And it came to pass that when the gates of Jerusalem began to be dark before the Sabbath, I commanded that the gates should be shut, and charged that they should not be opened till after the Sabbath ; and some of my servants [guards] set I at the gates, that there should be no burden brought in on the Sabbath Day. So the merchants and sellers of all kinds of ware [i. e. the Tyrians] lodged without Jerusalem once or twice. Then I testified against them, and said unto them, ‘Why lodge ye about the wall? If ye do so again, I will lay hands upon you !' From that time forth came they no more on the Sabbath.” [Jeremiah xiii. 16–21.] Jerusalem is about 80 miles from Tyrus, and the Merchants of the latter Capital must have had communication with the former by land conveyance only,

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