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—or they may have landed at Joppa [Jaffa), as in the days of Hiram, and from thence by Camel conveyance to Jerusalem. In either case the words of NEHEMIAH prove that Tyrians themselves were at the Holy-City as merchants and traders ; and that consequently their commercial intercourse, at this time, was by land, as well as by water, with distant countries. The same spirit of Monopoly which had actuated the early Tyrians, was still professed and practised by their descendants —but, with Sidon, their Parent, and Carthage, their Daughter, were they on terms of friendship and reciprocity. This continued throughout the following century, when the sympathy and gratitude of both Nations were evinced upon the last solemn occasion of Tyrian Nationality in Asia. With every other country, and especially with Rome, they betrayed their envy and growing jealousy. The incident related [Vol. i., Book ii., ch. iii.] in reference to the ingenious stratagem of the Tyrians in entrapping the Roman Galley, whereby it and the crew were totally lost, while they themselves were saved, and the secret of their discovery secured, is but one of many proofs of the National character. This same feeling would naturally lead them to conceal from all foreign countries their previous discovery of the Fortunate Isles, they were their own, and none but the Tyrians knew of their locality;-which knowledge gave them the means of finding a temporary resting-place, from the devastating effects of an approaching whirlwind.

335 B. c.] Allowing twenty years as the average reign of the Sovereigns, AZELMIC would be the eighth king in the present family, including STRATO, the original founder of the last line of Tyrian Monarchs.

We have now approached to the great National event, which led a portion of the Asiatic family to become the Aborigines of the Southern (or Mexican) division of the Western Hemisphere.

As we believe that the reader will have admitted that the Tyrians are identified as the original Builders of the ruined edifices in America, and that this was sufficiently established in the first Book of this Volume, —the chief circumstances then to be established, are the time and means in which, and whereby, they reached the Western Continent. And, also, is it essentially required to prove a sufficient cause leading to these eventful incidents in a Nation's History. In the following chapters we believe that the Veil of Mystery— woven even by the hands of the Prophets—will be raised from that creating cause,_and by so doing, it will not only unfold Time's Romance in Ancient America, but uphold the truth of Prophecy, and therefore of the past: explain the latest wonder of the present age; and we would feign indulge the hope, that, with the preceding pages, and those to follow, not without some beneficial reflections for that of the

future.

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WE have now to investigate and delineate the most remarkable Siege in ancient record, not remarkable from its duration of time, but from its important consequences, the ingenuity employed in its final success, —the courage of the attack and defence,—and from the demoniac horrors and cruelties practised by the Conqueror upon its eventful termination. The destruction of Jerusalem by Titus was 400 years after this total annihilation of Tyrus as a Nation,-and, therefore, to the period of which we are now writing, Alexander's Siege of Tyrus stands unequalled for courageous assault, heroic resistance, and for refined cruelty practised upon

VOL. I. Z

the defeated. Upon this great National event is founded the essential basis of this History, it is the absolute commencement of the Annals of Ancient America. Is AIAH, Plutarch, and Arrian are our authorities, the description of the Invasion and the Siegehowever humble the delineation, is our own ;-we mention this, that in case it should fail to reach the full imagination of the reader, that the demerits may fall upon the right party, or should it be the reverse, there may then be an inclination to render the opposite tribute of justice —not to the writer-but to the reader-that from the horrors of War, he may turn with a Christian's feeling to contemplate the Divine blessings of Peace,—and as a consequence, practical good-will and deeds to all In 161). It will be necessary to present a review of the political and commercial position of Tyrus at the time that Alexander of Macedon (at the age of 201) commenced his victorious march from his throne in Europe, through the great capitals of Asia and Africa. 336–5 B. C. 335 B. c.] Azelmic, the descendant of Strato, wielded the Sceptre with patriotic energy and justice, and at this period Tyrus was at the very height of splendour and renown. The “Queen of the Sea” had extended her navigation beyond any other period of her past history. Her throne being now upon the Island only,–which was citadelled and bastioned, with the Mediterranean itself fora water-moat,(and thatnearly half a mile in width,) and flowing between the mainland and the outward walls, and they proudly rising to an elevation of one hundred and fifty feet, this combination for defence caused her to defy every assault from man, or even the warfare of elements Upon the Island arose her gorgeous Palaces and Edifices, and conspicuous above them all, soared the lofty and brilliant Temple of Hercules-Apollo, the chosen Deity of the Tyrians. In the centre of the Mansion of their Religion, stood a Statue of pure and beaten gold, sacred to the glowing Sun-God; in the front of Apollo's image was the Altar of the Country, composed of precious stones and metals,-of engraved and sparkling gems, sculptured gold and silver, wrought by the descendants of the Hiramic artists, whose renowned works gave extended and lasting fame to the truly Sacred Temple of Jerusalem. Upon the authority of the foredooming Prophet, — EZEKIEL–who spoke of Tyrus two centuries and a half prior to this period, her Commerce (and which now was of the Phoenix character, and from which fact writers have traced her name of Phoenice)—her Commerce and Shipbuilding were as renowned as her adventurious spirit was proverbial. Even in that time her builders had perfected her beauty. The Tyrian Galleys were of peculiar strength andelegance, and their “means and appliances” are especially dwelt upon by the Prophet. Senir furnished the fir-wood for planks and decks,—Lebanon the cedar for masts, yards, and timber-Bashan the oak for the powerful oars, the Rowers' benches were of Ivory

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