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from Ethiopia and India, the sails were of embroidered fine linen from Egypt, and the awning canopies of blue and purple cloths, tinted with the renowned colour of her robes of royalty. Mariners were constantly received from Sidon and Arvad, the important business of the caulkers was confined to the “wise men" of Gebal,—but the builders and pilots were Tyrians only. To all the Nations enumerated by EzEKIEL from whence riches were received in exchange for merchandise, are now [335 B. c.] to be added the Islands in, and the capitals bordering upon, the Mediterranean,—viz., Rhodes, Sardinia, Sicily, Melita, Corsica, and the Baleares; Ægina, Crete, Candia, Cyprus, Corcyra, and all the Grecian and Ionian Isles; the newly-discovered lands of Britain and Hibernia, the former being named by the Tyrians;–every Port from the mouth of the Menander to the “Pillars” at Gibraltar; from the borders of Dalmatia to the opposite shores of the Adriatic;-from the shores of Gaul and Iberia to the harbours of Etruria, and to all these commercial tributaries of Tyrus, are to be added those giants of antiquity, Athens, Rome, and Carthage! Truly, then, in the language of the inspired writer, ZECHARIAH,“Tyrus did build herself a strong hold; and heaped up silver as the dust, and fine gold as the mire of the street.” The same false Commercial policy was pursued by the Tyrians, as in their more ancient days, when Pride and Envy were their injurious counsellors. Their hands were raised against every nation seeking to enrich itself through the means of Navigation;–those countries were viewed by the Tyrians as the mere instruments of their own advancement. Sidon and Carthage were alone excepted from the National jealousy; and even this exception to the rule was founded upon selfishness, arising from the memory of blood and kindred, and not from any sentiment of liberal policy. The Metropolis being now on the Island, they felt safe from the approach of an enemy by land, while their surrounding walls rendered them “quiet and secure" from every assault by Naval warfare as then practised. In this imperial state of confident security, founded upon Pride, locality, but above all by commercial Monopoly, stood the Island-Kingdom of Tyrus, as her death-knell was sounded from afar by the rising Monarch of Macedonia. Throughout the surrounding Nations the Islanders had “sown the wind,”—they were now, as a consequence, “to reap the whirlwind,” and no one to check, or blight, the pride-harvest of the hurricane ! Alexander commenced his triumphant march in the year 336 B. c., and not having a sufficient cause for his foreign invasions (Persia and Media excepted), may be justly looked upon, at this day, as the human Juggernaut of Antiquity! The Prophet DANIEL, two centuries before the period of which this event treats, stigmatized this vaunted hero, when comparing him with the Kings of Media and Persia, the latter to the horns of

the Ram, while the former is likened unto the brute Goat of the mountains. “And the rough goat is the King of Grecia.” [Daniel viii. 21.] It is not necessary to trace the progress of Alexander in Asia, only so far as it may have had an influence upon the fate and fall of Tyrus. After the Passage of the Granicus, and in the next year, the great victory at Issus, whereby the Persian kingdom was shaken, the lesser nations begun to contemplate the increasing power of Alexander with alarm, and to reflect upon the best means of averting impending ruin. The only alternative from battle was to become tributary, or to obtain the special favour of the Invader. Sidon made application, through ambassadors, to Alexander for his protection, and was thus saved from destruction by anticipating the conflict through a tributary surrender:—and which voluntary act satisfied the Macedonian, who stipulated, however, that he should place a new King upon the throne. This was agreed to, and Byblos and Aradnus joined in the humiliating surrender. In compliment to his favourite-Hephæstion,-the Conqueror allowed him to appoint whom he pleased for King of Sidon. Hephæstion, thereupon, selected a poor man of the Capital by the name of Strato, and instantly raised him to the dignity of Sidonian Sovereign. The mendicant was a remote branch of the Royal House, but had been unjustly degraded by the reigning Monarch. When the new-raised King had his first interview with Alexander, his grateful remark was “I pray that Apollo will enable you, Alexander, to bear prosperity with the same fortitude, with which I have struggled with adversity s” The Macedonian highly applauded the philosophical point of the remark, and secured him in his new possession. As no great gift can be without a referential motive, either to the past, or for the future, the donation by Hephæstion, where no past service had deserved it (and there were nearer branches of the Royal House than Strato), must have had, therefore, some deep meaning. It is only long after historic events are passed and analyzed, that they can be calmly or correctly judged; and in tracing Alexander's approach to the celebrated “Daughter of Sidon,” this donation of a throne,—and to the party receiving it, was in direct flattery to Tyrus; as in like manner, at a subsequent period, Marcus Antonius presented provinces to Egypt to secure the sun-clad and voluptuous Cleopatra ! The subjugation of Tyrus by policy was one of the schemes of Alexander-for avoiding its destruction,he would then be sure of Navies, Pilots, and Mariners, to carry his warfare, at a later period, to the river Tiber and to Rome itself;-for his thirst of Conquest, —had it not been allayed by the poison-draught in Asia-could only have been quenched within the great Capital of Italy. Alexander, therefore, flattered the Tyrians by raising to the throne of Sidon, a man who bore the same name, (Strato) and was of the same family as the Founder of the present dynasty at Tyrus ; and consequently, remotely related to Azelmic, whom Alexander endeavoured (by this act of apparent generosity) to circumvent and overthrow by policy, not warfare. Historians have applauded the justice of Hephæstion,-they should have analyzed the deep-laid scheming of his Master-who merely employed his favourite, to mask his own deep intent upon the great Commercial emporium of the World. The Tyrians, however, were practical merchant-princes, and were not to be deceived by any species of erchange, although Kings were the commodity. 334 B. c.] The unforeseen capitulation of Sidon, the Mother-land,-aroused the Tyrians to a sense of their own position,-Sidon, Byblos, and Aradnus, had surrendered,—these Capitals, therefore, could not aid the Merchant-Metropolis. To increase the apprehension of the Tyrians, it was reported through the continued policy of Alexander, that he was, also, attended by a fleet of Galleys to cover any retreat-or to land, and reconvey his troops from, or to any point, from the Bosphorous to the Nile,_or from thence to Carthage. The Conqueror had, however, in reality, dismissed his fleet before the victory of Issus, in order to inspire his troops with additional courage, from the then apparent fact, that they had no means of retreat from the enemies' country by the means of Galleys. He must have remembered that that feeling of safety of retreat

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