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conclude, that Adam's state was such as served to take away from him all excuse; for he received so much, that of his own will he wrought his own destruction; q because this act of his was a wilful transgression of a law, under the precepts whereof he was most justly created; and unto the malediction whereof he was as necessarily and righteously subject, if he transgressed: for, as being God's creature, he was to be subject to his will; so by being God's prisoner, he was as justly subject to his wrath; and that so much the more, by how much the precept was most just, the obedience more easy, the transgression more unreasonable, and the punishment more certain.

$ 3. Nom. And was Adam's sin and punishment imputed unto his whole offspring ?

Evan. Yea, indeed; for says the apostle, Rom. v. 12, “Death passed upon all men, for that all have sinned ;" or, in whom all have sinned, that is, in Adam. The very truth is, Adam by his fall threw down our whole nature r headlong into the same destruction, and drowned his whole offspring in the same gulf of misery.s And the reeson is, because, by God's appointment, he was not to stand or fall as a single person only, but as a common public person, representing all mankind to come of him:t therefore as all that happiness, all those gifts, and endowments, which were bestowed upon him, were not bestowed upon him alone, but also upon the whole nature of man, r and as that covenant which was made with him, was made with the whole of mankind; even so he by

he could only be made sinful or evil by himself, and not by any other. If he had been made immutable in the latter sense, that immutability behoved either to have been woven into his very nature, or else to have arisen from confirming grace. Now God did not create man thus immutable in his nature; which is it at the first question aims ; and that for this very good reason, viz. that, at that rate man would have obeyed by fatal necessity and absolute determination, as one not having so much as a remote power in his nature to change himself. And neither glorified saints, nor angels are thus immutable; their immutability in goodness entirely depending on confirming grace. As for immutability by confirming grace, which is it that the second question aims at, it is conferred on glorified saints and angels ; but why it was not afforded to Adam at his creation, our author wisely declines to give any reason.

" The reason, says he, why the Lord did not create him immutable was, because, &c. ; but why he did uphold him with strength of stedfast continuance, that resteth hidden in God's secret counsel." ?

That is, he received so much strength, that it was not of weakness, but wilfulness, that he destroyed himself. That is, all mankind.

$ With himself. + By virtue of the blessing of fruitfulness given before the fall.

breaking covenant lost all, as well for as as for himself. As he received all for himself and us, so he lost all both for himself and us.

Nom. Then, sir, it seemeth, by Adam's breach of covenant, all mankind were brought into a miserable condition ?

Evan. All mankind by the fall of Adam received a twofold damage : First, A deprivation of all original goodness. Secondly, An habitual natural proneness to all kind of wickedness. For the image of God, after which they were created, was forth with blotted out; and in place of wisdom, righteousness, and true holiness, came blindness, uncleanness, falsehood, and injustice. The very truth is, our whole nature u was thereby corrupted, defiled, deformed, depraved, infected, made infirm, frail, malignant, full of venom, contrary to God; yea, enemies and rebels unto him. So that, says Luther, this is the title we have received from Adam : in this one thing may we glory, and in nothing else at all; namely, that every infant that is born into this world, is wholly in the power of sin, death, Satan, hell, aud everlasting damnation. Nay, says Musculus, “ The whirlpool of man's sin in paradise is bottomless and unsearchable."

Nom. But, sir, methinks it is a strange thing that so small an offence, as eating of the forhidden fruit seems to be, should plunge the whole of mankind into such a gulf of misery.

Evan. Though at the first glance it seems to be a small offence, yet, if we look more wistfully v upon the matter, it will appear to be an exceeding great offence ; for thereby intolerable injury was done unto God; as first, His dominion and authority in his holy command was violated. Secondly, His justice, truth and power, in his most righteous threatenings, were despised. Thirdly, His most pure and perfect image, wherein man was created in righteousness and true holiness, was utterly defaced. Fourthly, His glory, which, by an active service, the creature should have brought to him, was lost and despoiled. Nay, how could there be a greater sin committed than that, when Adam at that one clap broke all the ten commandments ?

Nom. Did he break all the commandments, say you? Sir, I beseech you shew me wherein.

Evan. 1. He chose himself another God when he follows the devil.

2. He idolized and deified his own belly; w as the apostle's phrase is, "He made his belly his God."

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3. He took the name of God in vain, when he believed him not.

u That is, all mankind. 2. That is, earnestly,

w That is, as the apostle's, &c.

4. He kept not the rest and estate wherein God had set him.

5. He dishonoured his Father who was in heaven; and therefore his days were not prolonged in that land which the Lord his God had given him.

6. He massacred himself and all his posterity.

7. From Eve he was a virgin, but in eyes and mind he committed spiritual fornication.

8. He stole, like Achan, that which God had set aside not to be middled with; and this his stealth is that which troubles all Israel, - the whole world.

9. He bear witness against God, when he believed the witness of the devil before him.

10. He coveted an evil covetousness, like Ammon, which cost him his life, x and all his progeny. Now, whosoever considers what a Dest of evils here were committed at one blow, must needs, with Musculus, see our case to be such, that we are compelled every way to commend the justice of God, y and to condemn the sin of our first parents, saying concerning all mankind, as the prophet Hosea does concerning Israel, "OIsrael, thou hast destroyed thyself," Hos. xiii. 9.

§ 4. Nom. But, sir, had it not been possible for Adam both to have holpen himself and all his posterity out of this misery, by renewing the same covenant with God, and keeping it so afterwards?

Evan. No, by no means; for the covenant of works was a covenant no way capable of renovation. z When he had once broke it, he was gone for ever; because it was a covenant between two friends, but now fallen man was become an enemy. And besides, it was an impossible thing for Adam to have performed the conditions which now the justice of God did necessarily require at his hands; for he was now become liable to the payment of a double debt, viz. the debt of satisfaction for his sin committed in time past, and the debt of perfect and perpetual obedience for the time to come; and he was utterly unable to pay either of them.

x 2 Sam. xii.

y That is, to justify God, z The covenant of works could by no means be renewed by fallen Adam, so as thereby to help himself and his posterity out of this misery, the which is the only hing in question here; otherwise, indeed, it might have been renewed, which is evident by this sad token, that many do actually renew it in their covenanting with God, being prompted thereto by their ignorance of the high demands of the law, their owo utter inability, and the way of salvation by Jesus Christ. And from the same principle our legalist here makes no question but Adam might have renewed it, and kept it too, for the after-time; only, he questions whether or not Adam might thereby bave helped himself, and his posterity too, out of the misery they were brought into by his gin.

Nom. Why was he unable to pay the debt of satisfaction for his sin committed in time past?

Evan. Because his sin in eating the forbidden fruit (for that is the sin I mean,) a was committed against an infinite and eternal God, and therefore merited an infinite and eternal satisfaction; which was to be either some temporal punishment, equivalent to eternal damnation, or eternal damnation itself. Now Adam was a finite creature, therefore, between finite and infinite there could be no proportion; so that it was impossible for Adam to have made satisfaction by any temporal punishment; and if he had undertaken to have satisfied by an eternal punishment, he should always have been satisfying, and never have satisfied, as is the case of the damned in hell.

Nom. And why was he anable to pay the debt of perfect and perpetual obedience for the time to come ?

Evan. Because his former power to obey was by his fall utterly impaired; for thereby his understanding was both enfeebled and drowned in darkness: and his will was made perverse, and utterly deprived of all power to will well; and his affections were quite set out of order; and all things belonging to the blessed life of the soul were extinguished, both in him and us; so that he was become impotent, yea, dead, and therefore not able to stand in the lowest terms to perform the meanest condition. The very truth is, our father Adam falling from God, did, by his fall, so dash him and us all in pieces, that there was no whole part, left, either in him or us, fit to ground such a covenant upon. And this the apostle witnesseth, both when he says “ We are of no strength;" and, “ The law was made weak, because of the flesh,” Rom. v. 6, and viii. 3.

Nom. But, sir, might not the Lord have pardoned Adam's sin without satisfaction ?

Evan. O no! for justice is essential in God, and it is a righteous thing with God, that every transgression receive a just recompense:b and if recompense be just, it is unjust to pardon sin without satisfaction. And though the Lord had pardoned and forgiven his former transgression, and so set him in his former condition of amity and friendship, yet, having no power to keep the law perfectly, he could not have continued therein.c

a That being the sin in which all mankind fell with him, Rom. v. 15.

6 2 Thess. i. 6, “Seeing it is a righteous thing with God, to recompense tribulation to them that trouble you." Heb. ii. 2, “Every transgression and disobedience received a just recompense.”

< But would have sinned again, and so fallen under the curse anew.

Nom. And is it also impossible for any of his posterity to keep the law perfectly?

Evan. Yea, indeed, it is impossible for any mere man in the time of this life to keep it perfectly; yea, though he be a regenerate man; for the law requireth of man that he “love the Lord with all his heart, soul, and might;" and there is not the holiest man that lives, but he is flesh as well as spirit in all parts and faculties of his soul, and therefore cannot love the Lord perfectly. Yea, and the law forbiddeth all habitual concupiscence, not only saying, “ Thou shalt not consent to lust,” but, “ Thou shalt not lust:" it doth not only command the binding of lust, but forbids also the being of lust: and who in this case can say, My heart is clean ?

Ant. Then, Nomista, take notice, I pray, that as it was altogether impossible for Adam to return into that holy and happy estate wherein he was created by the same way went from it, d so is it for any of his posterity; and therefore I remember one says very wittily, “ The law was Adam's lease when God made him tenant of Eden;

the conditions of which bond when he kept not, he forfeited himself and all of us.” God read a lecture of the law to him before he fell, to be a hedge to him to keep him in paradise; but when Adam would not keep within compass, this law is now become as the flaming sword at Eden's gate, to keep him and his posterity out.

§ 5. Nom. But, sir, you know, that when a covenant is broken, the parties that were bound are freed and released from their engagements; and, therefore, methinks, both Adam and his posterity should have been released from the covenant of works when it was broken, especially considering they have no strength to perform the condition of it.

Evan. Indeed it is true, in every covenant, if either party fail in his duty, and perform not his condition, the other party is thereby freed from his part, but the party failing is aot freed till the other release him; and, therefore, though the Lord be freed from performing bis condition, that is, from giving to man eternal life, yet so is not man from his part; no, though strength to obey be lost, yet man having lost it by his own default, the obligation to, obedience remains still; so that Adam and his offspring are no more dis

d Walking back by the way of the covenant of works, which he left by his sinping.

Object. “Do we then make void the law,” (Rom. iii. 31.) leaving an imputation of dishonour upon it, as a disregarded path, by pretending to return another way? Answ. Sinners, being united to Christ by faith, return, being carried back the same way they came ; only their own feet never touch the ground, but the glorious Mediator, sustaining the persons of them all, walked every bit of the road exactly, Gal. iv. 5. Thus, in Christ, the way of free grace, and of the law, sweetly meet together ; and through faith we cstablish the law,

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