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CHAP. XXIII.

Of the complex ideas of substances. SECT.

1. Ideas of substances, how

made. 2. Our idea of substance in

general. 3, 6. Of the sorts of substances. 4. No clear idea of substance

in general. 5. As clear an idea of spirit

as body. 7. Powers a great part of

our complex idea of sub.

stances. 8. And why. 9. Three sorts of ideas make

our complex ones of sub.

stances. 10. Powers make a great part

of our complex ideas of

substances.
11. The now secondary qua.

lities of bodies would dis-
appear,

if we could disco.
ver the primary ones of

their minute parts. 12. Our faculties of discovery

suited to our state. 13. Conjecture about spiritse 14. Complex ideas of sub.

stances.
15. Idea of spiritual sub-

stances, as clear as of
bodily substances.

16. No idea of abstract sub.

stance, 17. The cohesion of solid

parts, and impulse, the

primary ideas of body. 18. Thinking and motivity

the prinary ideas of spirit. 19-21. Spirits capable of mo.

tion. 22. Idea of soul and body

compared. 23—27. Cohesion of solid parts in

body, as hard to be conceived, as thinking in a

soul. 28, 29. Communication of motion

by impulse, or by thought,

equally intelligible. 30. Ideas of body and spirit

compared. 31. The notion of spirit in

volves no more difficulty

in it than that of body. 32. We know nothing beyond

our simple ideas. 33-35. Idea of God. 36. No ideas in our complex

one of spirits, but those
got from sensation or re.

flection.
37. Recapitulation.

CHAP. XXIV.
Of collective ideas of substances.

CT.

1. One idea. A 3

2. Made

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2. Made by the power of

CHAP. XXVII.
composing in the mind.

Of identity and diversity.
3. All artificial things are

SECT.

collective ideas.

1. Wherein identity con-

sists.

CHAP. XXV.

2. Identity of substances.

Identity of mudes.

Of relation.

3. Principium individuati.

onis.

SECT.

4. Identity of vegetables.

1. Relation, what.

5. Identity of animals.

2. Relations, without corre-

6. Identity of man.

lative terms not easily

7. Identity suited to the

perceived.

idea.

3. Some seemingly absolute

8. Same man.

terms contain relations.

9. Personal identity.

4. Relation different from

10. Consciousness makes

per.

the things related.

sonal identity:

5. Change of relation may

11. Personal identityinchange

be without any change in

of substances.

the subject.

12-15 Whether in the change of

6. Relation only betwixt two

thinking substances.

things.

16. Consciousness makes the

7. All things capable of re-

same person.

lation,

17. Self depends on conscious.

8. The ideas of relation

clearer often, than of the

18--20. Objects of reward and pu.

subjects related.

nishment.

9. Relations all terminate in

21, 22. Difference between iden.

simple ideas.

tity of man and person.

10. Terms leading the mind

23--25. Consciousness alone makes

beyond the subjects deno-

self.

minated, are relative.

26, 27. Person a forensic term.

II. Conclusion.

28. The difficulty from ill use

of names.

29. Continuedexistencemakes

CHAP. XXVI.

identity.

Of cause and effect, and other

relations.

CHAP. XXVIII.

SECT.

Of other relations,

1. Whence their ideas got. SECT.

2. Creation, generation,

1. Proportional.

making alteration,

2. Natural.

3, 4. Relations of time.

3. Instituted.

5. Relations of place and

extension.

5. Moral good and evil.

6. Absolute terms often stand 6. Moral rules.

for relations,

8. Divine

ways two ideas.

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8. Divine law, the measure

9. Thirdly, or are matable

of sin and duty.

or undetermined.

9. Civil law, the measure of 10. Confusion, without re.

crimes and innocence.

ference to names, hardly

10, 11. Philosophical law, the

conceivable.

measure of virtue and 11. Confusion concerns al.

vice.

12. Its inforcements, com- 12. Causes of Confusion.

mendation, and discredit. 13. Complex ideas may be

13. These three laws the

distinct in one part, and

rules of moral good and

confused in another.

evil.

14. This, if not heeded, causes

14, 15. Morality is the relation of

confusion in our argu-

actions to these rules.

ings.

16. The denominations of ac. 15. Instance in eternity.

tions often mislead us.

16. Divisibility of mat.

17. Relations innumerable.

ter.

18. All relations terminate in

simple ideas.

19. We have ordinarily as

CHAP. XXX.

clear (or clearer) notions Of real and fantastical ideas.
of the relation, as of its SECT.
foundation.

1. Real ideas are conforman

20. The notion of the rela.

ble to their archetypes.

tion is the same, whether

2. Simple ideas all r al.

the rule, any action is

3. Complex ideas are volun.

compared to be true or

tary combinations.

false.

4. Mixed modes, made of

consistent ideas, are real.

CHAP. XXIX.

5. Ideas of substances are

Of clear and distinct, obscure and

real, when they agree

confused ideas.

with the existence of

SECT.

things.

1. Ideas, some clear and

distinct, others obscure

CHAP. XXXI.

and confused.

2. Clear and obscure, ex-

Of adequate and inadequate

ideas.

plained by sight.

3. Causes of obscurity.

SECT.

4. Distinct and confused, 1. Adequate ideas are such

what.

as perfectly represent their

5. Objection.

archetypes.

6. Confusion of ideas, is in

2. Simple ideas all ade.

reference to their names..

quate.

9. Defaults which make

3. Modes are all adequate.

fusion. First, complex 4, 5. Modes in reference to seta
ideas made up of too few

tled names, may be in.

simple ones.

adequate.

8. Secondly, or its simple 6,7. Ideas of substances, as re.
ones jumbled disorderly

ferred to real essences, not

together,

adequate,

SII,

or false.

to agree to real existence,

2. Metaphysical truth con.

when they do not.

tains a tacit proposition. 23. Thirdly, When judged
3. No idea, as an appear-

adequate without being so.

ance in the mind, true 24. Fourthly, When judged to

represent the real essence.

4. Ideas referred to any

25. Ideas, when false.

thing, may be true or 26. More properly to be call.

false.

ed right or wrong.

n's ideas, real

27. Conclusion.
existence, and supposed
real essences, are what

men usually refer their CHAP. XXXIII.

G8. The cause of such re-

Of the association of ideas.

SECT.

9. Simple ideas may be false 1. Something unreasonable in

in reference to others of

the same name, but are 2. Not wholly from self.

least liable to be so.

love.

10. Ideas of mixed modes 3. Nor from education.

most liable to be false in 4. A degree of madness.

this sense.

5. From a wrong connexion

11. Or at least to be thought

of ideas.

false.

6. This connexion howmade,
12. And why.

7, 8. Some antipathies an effect

13. As referred to real exist-

of it.

ences, none of our ideas 9. A great cause of errours.

can be false, but those of 10-12. Instances.

substances.

13. Why time cures some dis.

14, 16. First, Simple ideas in

orders in the mind, which

this sense not false, and

reason cannot.

why.

14--16. Farther instances of the

effects

5. Other

ideas to.

ferences.

most men.

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