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an apple with a red side. Norfolk wiles (for crafty litigioụsness :) Essex stiles, (so many as make walking tedious,) Kentish miles (of the length). Northumberland men (exercised inroads upon the Scots) are accounted best light horsemen. Cornish men, best horse-riders wrestlers, and most active men. Lincolnshire bells and bag-pipes, Devonshire whitepots, Tewkesbury mustard, Banbury cakes, King'sNorton cheese, Sheffield knives, Darby ale, are proverbially spoken of."
The first chapter of the second Book“ of the fit means to travel, and to hire coaches and horses," exhibits the most curious and instructive particulars, by means of which we may contrast the style and facilities of travelling in different European countries in the beginning of the seventeenth century, and at present. Great as are the advances that England has made, during this period, before all the continental nations, in manufactures and national wealth, perhaps her advances in quickness, facility, and comfort of travelling, are the most extraordinary of all: and it would be an interesting enquiry, how far these advances have resulted from her progress in mạnufactures, and how far they have contributed to it: their action is undoubtedly reciprocal. We shall not extract any thing from this chapter respecting the means of travelling in foreign countries in the time of our author, because not much improvement has taken place, and we are not so well qualified to judge of that improvement, nor so interested about it: but we shall extract the passage which relates to travelling in England, and beg our readers carefully to compare it with our present means of travelling.
“ In England towards the south, and in the west parts, and from London to Berwick upon the confines of Scotland, post-horses are established at every ten miles or thereabouts, which they ride a false gallop after some ten miles an hour sometimes, and that makes their hire the greater: for with a commission from the chief postmaster, or chief lords of the council (given either upon public business, or at least pretence thereof) a passenger shall pay two pence half-penny each mile for his horse, and as much for his guide's horse; but one guide will serve the whole company, though many ride together, who may easily bring back the horses driving them before him, who know the way as well as a beggar knows his dish. They which have no such commission, pay.
for each mile. This extraordinary charge of horses' hire, may well be recompenced with the speed of the journey, whereby greater expences in the inns are avoided; all the difficulty is, to have a body able to endure the toil. For these horses the passenger is at no charge to give them meat, only at the ten miles end the boy that carries them back, will expect sume few pence in gift. Some nobleman hath the office of chief postmaster, being a place of such account, as commonly he is one of the King's council.' And not only he, but other lords of the council, according to the qualities of their offices, used to give the foresaid commission, signed with their hands jointly or severally; but their hands are less regarded than the post-master's, except they be favourites, and of the highest offices, or the business be important. In the inns men of inferior condition used to eat at the host's table, and pay some sixpence a meal : but gentlemen have their chambers, and eat alone, except, perhaps, they have consorts and friends in their company, and of their acquaintance. If they be accompanied, perhaps their reckoning may commonly come to some two shillings a man, and one that eats alone in his own chamber with one or two servants attending him, perhaps upon reckoning may spend some five or six shillings for supper and breakfast. But in the northern parts, when I passed towards Scotland, gentlemen themselves did not use to keep their chambers, but to eat at an ordinary table together, where they had great plenty of good meat, and especially of choice kinds of fish, and each man paid no more than sixpence, and sometimes but four-pence a meal. One horse's meat will come to twelve-pence, or eighteen-pence the night for hay, oats, and straw; and in summer time commonly they put the horses to grass, after the rate of threepence each horse, though some who ride long journeys, will either keep them in the stable at hard meat, as they do in winter, or else give them a little oats in the morning when they are brought up from grass. English passengers, taking any journey, seldom dine, especially not in winter, and withall ride long journeys. But there is no place in the world where passengers may so freely command as in the English inns, and are attended for themselves and their horses as well as if they were at home, and, perhaps, better, each servant being ready at call, in hope of a small reward in the morning. Neither did I ever see inns so well furnished with household stuff. Coaches are not to be hired
any where but only at London; and howsoever England is, for the most part, plain, or consisting of little pleasant hills, yet the ways far from London are so dirty, as hired coachmen do not ordinarily take any long journeys, but only for one or two days any way from London, the ways so far being sandy and very fair, and continually kept so by labour of hands. And for a day's journey, a coach with two horses used to be let for some ten shillings the day, (or the way being short for some eight shillings, so as the passengers paid for the horses' meat,) or some fifteen shillings a day for three horses, the coachmen paying for his horses' meat. Sixty or seventy years ago, coaches were very rare in England; but at this day pride is so far increased, as there be few gentlemen of any account, (I mean elder brothers), who have not their coaches, so as the streets of London are almost stopped up with them. Yea, they who only respect comeliness and profit, and are thought free from pride, yet have coaches, because they find the keeping thereof more commodious and profitable, than of horses, since two or three coach-horses will draw four or five persons, besides the commodity of carrying many necessaries in a coach. For the most part, Englishmen, especially in long journeys, used to ride upon their own horses. But if any will hire a horse, at
London they used to pay two shillings the first day, and twelve, or perhaps eighteen-pence a day, for as many days as they keep him, till the horse be brought home to the owner, and the passenger must either bring him back, or pay for the sending of him, and find him meat both going and coming. In other parts of England a man may hire a horse for twelve-pence the day, finding him meat, and bringing or sending him back; and if the journey be long, he may hire him at a convenient rate for a month or two. Likewise, carriers let horses from city to city, with caution that the passenger must lodge in their inn, that they may look to the feeding of their horse, and so they will for some five or six days journey let him a horse, and find the horse meat themselves for some twenty shillings. Lastly, these carriers have long covered waggons, in which they carry passengers from city to city: but this kind of journeying is so tedious, by reason they must take waggon very early, and come very late to their inns, as none but women and people of inferior condition, or strangers (as Flemmings with their wives and servants) used to travel in this sort.
“ In Ireland, since the end of the civil war, some lords and knights have brought in coaches to Dublin, but they are not generally used, neither are there any to be hired, though the ways be most plain and generally good for coaches. They ride, for the most part, upon their own horses, but they are also to be hired for some twelvepence, or eighteen-pence the day, finding the horses meat, which in the stable will cost some twelve-pence each night, and at last little or nothing. In every city there be some known houses, where an ordinary is kept for diet, and beds may be had, and the ordinary is commonly twelve-pence each meal. By the way, in poor hamlets, at this time of peace, there be English houses, where is good lodging and diet, and where no such are, passengers must go to the houses of noblemen, gentlemen, and husbandmen, English, and Irish-English, where they cannot want entertainment in some good measure, these inhabitants much loying hospitality ; but all other houses are full of filth and barbarousness. But there are not any inns in the very cities, which hang out bushes, or any signs, only some citizens are known, who will give stable and meat for horses, and keep a table where passengers eat at an ordinary, and some citizens have cellars, wherein they draw wine, if not all the year, yet as long as their wine lasts : but they have no taverns with ivy bushes or signs hung out, save only some few at Dublin.
“ In Scotland a horse may be hired for two shillings the first day, and eight-pence the day until he be brought home, and the horse-letters used to send a footman to bring back the horse. They have no such inns as be in England, but in all places some houses are known, where passengers may have meat and lodging : but they have no bushes or signs hung out; and for the horses, they are commonly set up in stables in some out-lane, not in the same house where the passenger lies. And if any man be acquainted with a townsman, he will go freely to his house, for most of them will entertain a stranger for his money. A horseman shall pay for oats and straw (for hay is rare in those parts) some eight-pence day and night, and he shall pay no less in summer for grass, whereof they have no great store. Himself at a common table shall
pay about six-pence for his supper or dinner, and shall have his bed free; and if he will eat alone in his chamber, he may
have meat at a reasonable rate. Some twenty or thirty years ago
the first use of coaches came into Scotland, yet were they rare even at Edinburgh. At this day, since the kingdoms of England and Scotland were united, many Scots, by the king's favour, have been promoted both in dignity and estate, and the use of coaches became more frequent, yet nothing so common as in England. But the use of horse-litters hath been very
, ancient in Scotland, as in England, for sickly men and women of quality.”
Our readers will be still more astonished at our present means of travelling, when we inform them, that about the year 1746, as we learn from the Chevalier Johnstone's History of the Rebellion, the stage coach was eighteen hours in travelling from London to Huntingdon, a distance of about fifty-nine miles : and that about twenty years later, when Epsom was in great repute, and consequently there was great demand for coaches between it and London, the stage took nearly a whole day for its journey, and the passengers dined on the road. From the lady, still living, who, gave us this information from her own knowledge, having resided all her life near the road from London to Epsom, we have learnt another curious proof of the improvement of this country within the last sixty years. In her youth she used to look forward with much pleasure to the quarter days, when the tenants dined at her father's house, because on these days only was she treated with a dish of potatoes !
In the second chapter of the sepulchres, monuments, and buildings in general, we find nothing particularly worthy of extract or notice: the third chapter treats of the geography, situation, fertility, traffic, and diet of Germany, Bremenland, and Switzerland. We extract the account of the German diet :
And in ge
“ The diet of the Germans is simple, and very modest, if you set aside their intemperate drinking; for as they are nothing mptuous, but rather sparing in their apparel and household stuff, so they are content with a morsel of flesh and bread, so they have store of drink, and want not wood to keep their stoves warm. neral, since they affect not foreign commodities, but are content with their own commodities, and are singular
' as well in the art as industry of making manual works, they easily draw to them and retain with them foreign coins. The free cities use to have always a year's provision of victuals laid up in public-houses, to serve for homely food for the people, in case the city should happen to be besieged. They commonly serve to the table sour cabbages, which they call crawt, and beer (or wine for a dainty) boiled with bread, which they call swoope. In Upper Germany they moreover give veal or beef in little quantities, but in Lower Germany they supply the meal with bacon and great dried puddings, which puddings are savory and so pleasant, as in their kind of mirth they wish proverbially for Kurtz predigen, langeworsten, that is, short sermons and long puddings. Sometimes also they give dried fishes, and apples or pears first dried, then prepared with cinnamon and butter very savourily. They use many sauces, and commonly sharp, and such as comfort the stomach of fended with excessive drinking; for which cause in Upper Germany the first draught commonly of wormwood wine, and the first dish of little lampreys, (which they call nine augen, as having nine eyes) served with white vinegar; and those that take any journey, commonly in the morning, drink a little brant wein, (that is, their aquavitæ,) and eat a piece of pfeffer kuchen, (that is, gingerbread) which useth to be sold at the gates of the city. They have a most delicate sauce (in my opinion) for roasted meats, of cherries sod and bruised, the juice whereof becomes hard like marmalade; but when it is to be served to the table, they dissolve it, with a little wine or like moisture. And as they have abundance of fresh fish in their ponds and rivers, so they desire not to eat them, except they see them alive in the kitchen, and they prepare the same very savourily, commonly using aniseeds to that purpose, especially the little fishes, whereof they have one most delicate kind, called smerling, which in Prussen I did eat, first choked, then sodden in wine, and they being very little, yet sixty of them were sold for nineteen grosh. The aforesaid sauce of cherries they thus prepare and keep; they gather a dark or blackish kind of cherry, and casting away the stalks, put them into a great cauldron of brass set upon the fire, till they begin to be hot; then they put them into a less cauldron full of holes in the bottom, and
them with their hands, so as the stones and skins remain in this cauldron; but the juice by the aforesaid holes doth fall into another vessel. Then again they set this juice upon the fire, continually stirring it, lest it should cleave to the bottom, and after two hours' space, they mingle with it the best kind of pears they have, first cut into very small pieces, and so long they boil it and continually stir it, till it wax hard, and notwithstanding the stirring begin to cleave to the vessel. This juice thus made like a marmalade, may long be preserved from moulding in this sort. They which desire to have it sweet, mix sugar with it, and others other things according to the taste they desire it should have. Then they put it into earthen pitchers, and if it begin at any time to wax mouldy, they put these pots into the oven, after the bread is baked and taken out. Also these pitchers must be close stopped, that no air may enter, and must be set where no sun or continual heat comes. Lastly, when they will make ready this sauce, they cut out a piece of the said juice, and mingle with it a little wine to dissolve it, (with vinegar, or sugar, or spices, according to their several appetites), and so boil it again some half hour.
“ In Saxony, Misen, and those parts, they sometimes serve to the table a calf's head whole and undivided into parts, which to us strangers at the first sight seemed a terrible dish gaping with the teeth like the head of a monster, but they so prepare it, as I never remember to have eaten any thing that more pleased my taste. They