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meats, and sup with roasted meats, each having his several sauce: but their feasts are more sumptuous than ours, and consist, for the most part, of made fantastical meats and sallads, and sumptuous compositions, rather than of flesh and birds. And the cooks are most esteemed, who have best intention in new made and compounded meats. And as in all things the French are chearful and nimble, so the Italians observe that they eat or swallow their meat swiftly, and add, that they are also slovenly at meat, but I would rather are negligent or careless, and little curious in their feeding. And to this purpose I remember an accident that happened to a Frenchman, eating with us at the master's table in a Venetian ship governed by Greeks, and sailing from Venice to Jerusalem, who turning his foul trencher to lay meat on the clean side, did so offend the master and all the mariners, as well the best as common sort, as they hardly refrained from offering him violence. For mariners in general, but especially the Greeks, are so superstitious, as they took this his negligence in turning bis trencher, (being of like opinion for the turning of any thing in the ship upside down,) as if it had been an ominous sign, that the ship should be cast away.

“In a village of Normandy, half way between Rouen and Dieppe, called Totes, and, in like sort, in all the inns of those parts, before the civil war, as soon as passengers lighted from their horses, the host gave them water to wash, and bread and wine ; for the French have not the patience to expect their supper without some refection. Then, at supper, the table was served with mutton, a capon or pullet, partridges and like meats, with a kind of banquet, as, in summer, apples, cherries, and grapes, and in winter, chestnuts, rice, raisins, and stewed prunes. Then they gave their guests clean sheets, drying them at the fire in their presence, and, in the morning, gave them for breakfast some buttered toasts, or morsel of meat, and for all this, together with horsemeat, each man paid some twenty-two or twenty-five sous; as likewise the bating at noon, for horse and man, cost each some ten sous. After the civil war I passed through these parts, and commonly, each meal, paid twelve or fifteen sous, with worse entertainment, and, for breakfasts, paid severally, but no great rate. Towards the confines of Fland ers, the hosts only cover the table, and a side table, upon which every passenger hath his glass, for the French are curious not to drink in another man's cup, and the hosts are only to be paid for this service. Otherwise, at times of eating, they call the cooks dwelling near the inns, who bring the best meat they have, and when the guests have chosen their meat, and agreed for the price, they carry it back to dress it, and so send it warm, with sauces. In general, through the cities of France, passengers seldom dine at their inns, but, with some companions go to the taverns or cooks' shops : but, at night they must eat with the host that gives them beds, where they shall have clean sheets, and see them dried before their faces, but they are of coarse cloth, and very few chambers are private, but most have three or four beds, wherein they lie not single, but, for the most part, with bedfellows. Also the guests, as well merchants and gentlemen, as those of common sort, eat at an ordinary table, and for

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supper, commonly large, with divers roasted meats, each man pays some fifteen sous. He that hires a chamber in cities, which he may

have well furnished at Paris for some two crowns a month, he must buy his meat at cooks' shops, which are frequent and very cleanly, neither is it any disgrace, as with us, to buy a morsel of meat there, and to agree for the price before it be eaten. And they that hire chambers can have no better conveniency for diet, either at Paris, or in other cities, But he that stays long in a city, may agree in a citizen's house, or an inn for his diet and lodging by the year, which he may have at Paris in extraordinary sort for some one hundred and fifty crowns yearly, and ordinarily for less; and at Rome for one hundred twenty, or one hundred crowns, and in many cities for eighty crowns, and in many good inns for sixty crowns yearly. Drunkenness is reproachful among the French, and the greater part drink water mingled with wine, and always French wines, not sack or Spanish wines (which are sold as physic only by apothecaries), or other foreign wines, whereof I remember not to have seen any in the northern parts of France. Yet mariners, soldiers, and many of the common sort, used to drink perry and cyder to very drunkenness; yea, I have seen many drink wine with like intemperance, and when these kinds of men set at drinking, they use much mirth and singing (in which art they take great delight); as the French in general are by nature cheerful and lively. Women for the most part, and virgins always (except by stealth they offend against the cutom) used to drink water, except it be in the provinces yielding perry and cyder, which all sorts used to drink without exception. And at Paris I remember to have seen a poor woman to beg a cup of water, which being given her, she drunk it off and went away merrily, as if she had received a good alms.”

The next chapter relates to England : from his description of the counties, it appears that several of them differed then, in many particulars, very much from their present characteristics. Cornwall then had such abundance of corn, that great quantity of wheat was annually exported thence to Spain. On the other hand, in no part of England did the ground require more expense then in Devonshire, " for in many places it is barren, till it be fatted with the ooze or sand of the sea, which makes it wonderfully fruitful ;" at present Devonshire is more of a corn county than Cornwall; and sea sand is much more used in the latter than the former. He gives a different account of the junction of the sees of Bath and Wells, from that commonly received. After describing the medicinal waters at Bath, he adds, “The Bishop of Wells, buying this city of Henry I., removed his episcopal seat thither, yet still keeping the old name of Bishop of Wells, and there built a new cathedral church.” Bristol, he represents, as next to London and York, being preferred to all other cities of England, on account of its fair buildings, and its public and private houses.

Malmsbury was, at this time, celebrated for its woollen cloths : Rye, in Sussex, as the most frequented passage into France ! “The town of Romney, one of the five ports, in our grandfather's time, lay close upon the sea, but now is almost two miles distant from the same.” “The town of Stony Stratford, is well known for its fair inns and stately bridge of stone.” “ The little city of Westminster, of old, more than a mile distant from London, is now, by fair buildings, joined to it. The city of London hath the sumptuous church of St. Paul, beautified with rich sepulchres, and the Bourse, or Exchange, a stately house, built for the meeting of merchants ;'a very sumptuous and wonderful bridge, built over the Thames; rich shops of goldsmiths, in Cheapside, and innumerable stately palaces, whereof great part lie scattered in unfrequented lanes.” Lynn, in Norfolk, he represents as famous for the safety of its haven, most easy to be entered, for the concourse of merchants, and the fair buildings." Cambridgeshire was famous for its barley, " of which, steeped till it spring again, they make great quantity of malt, to brew beer, in such quantity, as the beer is much exported even into foreign parts, and there highly esteemed." The ale of Derby is, for goodness, proverbially preferred before that kind of drink in any other town. Coventry

is, at this day, the fairest city within land, whereof the chief trade of old was, making round caps of wool, but the same being now very little used, the trade is decayed. Towards the South of Staffordshire there are pit coals, and some veins of iron; but the greatest quantity and best kind of pit coals is in Nottinghamshire. No other county has so many knights' houses as Cheshire : it is rich in pastures, and send great quantities of cheeses to London.” “I know that Worcester cheeses are most esteemed, but there is not such quantity to transport them.I know that Suffolk, and the fens of Essex, yield huge cheeses, in great number, to be exported, but they are not so pleasing to the taste as these. Whereas, Cheshire yields great quantity of very good cheeses, comparable to those of Holland, serving the greatest part of London therewith, and exporting the same into other parts."

“Herefordshire so much aboundeth with all things necessary for the life of man, as it is not content, in that respect, to have the second place among all the counties of England. Leicester justly boasteth of the sheeps' wool, feeding in those grounds, with which no part of Europe can compare, excepting Apulia and Tarentum. It yields excellent flax, and so good wheat, as the bread of Leicester and drink of Weably (a neighbour town) are proverbially praised above all others.” Red deer, which are now found only in the moors that border on Cornwall and Devonshire, in the New Forest, and in the woods and hills of Martindale, near Ulswater, and there in such numbers, our author represents, as existing in great herds in Richmondshire, the northern district of Yorkshire. “ Manchester is an old town, fair, and well inhabited, rich in the trade of making woollen cloth, and the cloths called Manchester cottons are vulgarly known.” These cottons, however, were, in fact, woollen goods. The manufacture of real cotton goods was not begun there till about the middle of the

17th century (Anderson's History of Commerce ii. 115.) Cumberland has mines of brass and veins of silver, in all parts yielding black lead, used to draw black lines. “ The empiric surgeons of Scotland come yearly to the fieids near the Pict's Wall, to gather herbs, good to heal wounds, and planted there by the bordering soldiers of the Romans, the nature of which herbs they wonderfully extol.”

But the length to which this article has run, warn us to bring it to a conclusion, (though there is much curious matter in store,) by giving our author's account of the mode of living and manners of the Scotch.

“ Myself was at a knight's house, who had many servants to attend him, that brought in his meat with their heads covered with blue caps, the table being more than half furnished with great platters of porridge, each having a little piece of sodden meat; and when the table was served, the servants did sit down with us; but the upper mess instead of porridge, had a pullet with some prunes in the broth. And I observed no art of cookery, or furniture of household stuff, but rather rude neglect of both, though myself and my companion, sent from the governor of Berwick about bordering affairs, were entertained after their best manner. The Scots living then in factions, used to keep many followers, and so consumed their revenue of victuals, living in some want of money. They vulgarly eat hearth cakes of oats, but in cities have also wheaten bread, which for the most part was bought by courtiers, gentlemen, and the best sort of citizens, When I lived at Berwick, the Scots weekly upon the market day obtained leave in writing of the governor to buy peas and beans, whereof, as also of wheat, their inerchants at this day send great quantity from London into Scotland.

“They drink pure wines, not with sugar as the English, yet at feasts they put comfits in the wine, after the French manner, but they had not our vintner's fraud to mix their wines. I did never see nor hear that they have any public inns with signs hanging out; but the better sort of citizens brew ale, their usual drink (which will distemper a stranger's body), and the same citizens will entertain passengers upon acquaintance or entreaty. Their bedsteads were then like cupboards in the wall, with doors to be opened and shut at pleasure, so as we climbed up to our beds. They used but one sheet, the sides and top, but close at the feet, and so doubled. Passengers did seek a stable for their horses in some other place, and did there buy horse-meat, and if, perhaps, the same house yielded a stable, yet the payment for the horse did not make them have beds free as in

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England. I omit to speak of the inns and expences therein, having dilated the same in the itinerary of the first part, and a chapter in this part, expressly treating thereof. When passengers go to bed, their custom was to present them with a sleeping cup of wine at parting. The country people and merchants used to drink largely, the gentlemen somewhat more sparingly; yet the very courtiers, at feasts, by night meetings, and entertaining any stranger, used to drink healths not without excess, and, to speak truth without offence, the excess of drinking was then far greater in general among the Scots than the English. Myself being at the court invited by some gentlemen to supper, and being forewarned to fear this excess, would not promise to sup with them, but upon condition that my inviter would be my protection from large drinking, which I was many times forced to invoke, being courteously entertained, and much provoked to carousing, and so for that time avoided any great intemperance. Remembering this, and having since observed in my conversation at the English court with the Scots of the better sort, that they spend great part of the night in drinking, not only wine, but even beer, as myself will not accuse them of great intemperance, so I cannot altogether free them from the imputation of excess, wherewith the popular voice chargeth them."

Art. VIII.-The Totall Discourse, of the Rare Adventures, and

painefull Peregrinations of long Nineteene Yeures Truvailles from Scotland, to the most famous Kingdomes in Europe, Asia, and Affrica. Perfited by three deare bought Voyages, in surveying forty eight Kingdomes, Ancient and Modern; twenty one Rei-publicks, ten absolute Principalities, with two hundred Islands. The particular Names whereof are described in each Argument of the ten Divisions or Parts of this History; and is also divided into three Bookes : being newly corrected, and

aug. mented in many severall places, with the addition of a Table thereunto annexed of all the chiefe Heads. Wherein is contayned an exact Relation of the Lawes, Religions, Policies and Governments of all their Princes, Potentates and people. Together with the grievous Tortures he suffered by the Inquisition of Malaga in Spaine: his miraculous Discovery and Delivery. And of his last and late Returne from the Northern Isles, and other Places adjacent. By William Lithgow. Imprinted at London by I. Okes, 1640.

William Lithgow belongs to a class of travellers which, though not exceedingly rare in his own times, had become extinct, until Captain Cochrane, and, later still, the blind traveller, Holman, have once more afforded specimens of it. Without

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