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in purity the echoed tones which from a grosser soul come forth deadened and confused by the clashing of the man's individual impulses."

The faith of the martyr, the courage of the pioneer, the steadfastness of the hero, the love of the emancipator, the vision of the poet,—and the virtue of plain and inarticulate men and women everywhere, gain their power from this great tradition of the race. It was this idealism, sleeping but not dead, that swept America like a divine fire in the months following April of 1917. In the great war this heredity met and conquered the heredity of brute power. Other crises remain to be met, for the warfare never ends. It is the task of school and college to guard the flame.

The editors desire to express their grateful acknowledgements to the following authors and publishers for the use of copyrighted matter contained in the book: To Paul Elmer More and to the Houghton Mifflin Company, for the selection from Aristocracy and Justice; to John Dewey and to Henry Holt & Company, for the extract from German Philosophy and Politics, and to Professor Dewey and the Atlantic Monthly Company for the paragraphs from “Understanding the Mind of Germany.The extract from British Social Politics is used by the kind permission of the author, Professor Carleton Hayes. Through the kindness of the Atlantic Monthly Company the editors are enabled to include the paragraphs from Professor Münsterberg's article on “The Standing of Scholarship in America." The selection by Donald Hankey, from A Student in Arms, is included by kind permission of E. P. Dutton & Company, publishers of the book. For the right to use an extract from Viscount Morley's Recollections, the editors are indebted to the publishers, the Macmillan Company. The selections from Whitman's prose and verse are used by the kind permission of the literary executor of Whitman's works, Mr. Horace Traubel.

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THE GREAT TRADITION

THE RENAISSANCE

I. THE EXPANSION OF THE INDIVIDUAL

THE TRAGICAL HISTORY OF DOCTOR FAUSTUS Having commenc'd, be a divine in show,

Yet level at the end of every art,
CHRISTOPHER MARLOWE

And live and die in Aristotle's works.
Enter Chorus

Sweet Analytics, 'tis thou hast ravish'd me!
Chorus. Not marching now in fields of Bene disserere est finis logices.
Thrasymene,

Is, to dispute well, logic's chiefest end? Where Mars did mate the Carthaginians; Affords this art no greater miracle? Nor sporting in the dalliance of love, Then read no more; thou hast attain'd that In courts of kings where state is overturn'd; end: Nor in the pomp of proud audacious deeds, A greater subject fitteth Faustus' wit: Intends our Muse to vaunt her heavenly Bid Economy farewell, and Galen come, verse:

Seeing, Ubi desinit philosophus, ibi incipit Only this, gentlemen,-we must perform

medicus: The form of Faustus' fortunes, good or bad: Be a physician, Faustus; heap up gold, To patient judgments we appeal our plaud, And be eternis'd for some wondrous cure: And speak for Faustus in his infancy. Summum bonum medicine sanitas, Now is he born, his parents base of stock, The end of physic is our body's health. In Germany, within a town call'd Rhodes: Why, Faustus, hast thou not attain'd that Of riper years, to Wertenberg he went,

end? Whereas his kinsmen chiefly brought him Is not thy common talk found aphorisms? up.

Are not thy bills hung up as monuments, So soon he profits in divinity,

Whereby whole cities have escap'd the The fruitful plot of scholarism grac'd,

plague, That shortly he was grac'd with doctor's And thousand desperate maladies been name,

eas'd ? Excelling all whose sweet delight disputes Yet art thou still but Faustus, and a man. In heavenly matters of theology;

Couldst thou make men to live eternally, Till swoln with cunning, of a self-conceit,

Or, being dead, raise them to life again, His waxen wings did mount above his reach,

Then this profession were to be esteem'd. And, melting, heavens conspir'd his over- Physic, farewell! Where is Justinian? throw;

[Reads. For, falling to a devilish exercise,

Si una eademque res legatur duobus, alter And glutted now with learning's golden

rem, alter valorem, rei, etc. gifts, He surfeits upon cursed necromancy;

A pretty case of paltry legacies ! [Reads.

Exhæreditare filium non potest pater, nisi, Nothing so sweet as magic is to him,

etc. Which he prefers before his chiefest bliss:

Such is the subject of the institute, And this the man that in his study sits.

[Erit.

And universal body of the law:

This study fits a mercenary drudge, FAUSTUS discovered in his study

Who aims at nothing but external trash; Faust. Settle thy studies, Faustus, and be- Too servile and illiberal for me. gin

When all is done, divinity is best : To sound the depth of that thou wilt pro- Jerome's Bible, Faustus; view it well. fess:

[Reads. 1

Resolve me of all ambiguities,
Perform what desperate enterprise I will ?
I'll have them fly to India for gold,
Ransack the ocean for orient pearl,
And search all corners of the new-found

world
For pleasant fruits and princely delicates;
I'll have them read me strange philosophy,
And tell the secret of all foreign kings;
I'll have them wall all Germany with brass,
And make swift Rhine circle fair Werten-

berg; I'll have them fill the public schools witli

silk, Wherewith the students shall be bravely

clad; I'll levy soldiers with the coin they bring, And chase the Prince of Parma from our

land, And reign sole king of all the provinces; Yea, stranger engines for the brunt of war, Than was the fiery keel at Antwerp's

bridge, I'll make my servile spirits to invent.

Enter VALDES and CORNELIUS

Stipendium peccati mors est. Ha! Stipen

dium, etc. The reward of sin is death: that's hard.

[Reads. Si peccasse negamus, fallimur, et nulla est in

nobis veritas; If we say that we have no sin, we deceive ourselves, and there's no truth in us. Why, then, belike we must sin, and so consequently

die: Ay, we must die an everlasting death. What doctrine call you this, Che sera, sera, What will be, shall be? Divinity, adieu ! These metaphysics of magicians, And necromantic books are heavenly; Lines, circles, scenes, letters, and characters; Ay, these are those that Faustus most de

sires. 0, what a world of profit and delight, Of power, of honor, of omnipotence, Is promis’d to the studious artisan! All things that move between the quiet poles Shall be at my command: emperors and

kings Are but obeyed in their several provinces, Nor can they raise the wind, or rend the

clouds; But his dominion that exceeds in this, Stretcheth as far as doth the mind of man; A sound magician is a mighty god: Here, Faustus, tire thy brains to gain a deity.

Enter WAGNER Wagner, commend me to my dearest friends, The German Valdes and Cornelius; Request them earnestly to visit me. Wag. I will, sir.

[Exit. Faust. Their conference will be a greater

help to me Than all my labors, plod I ne'er so fast.

Enter Good Angel and Evil Angel G. Ang. O, Faustus, lay thy damned book

aside, And gaze not on it, lest it tempt thy soul, And heap God's heavy wrath upon thy head! Read, read the Scriptures:—that is blas

phemy. E. Ang. Go forward, Faustus, in that fa

mous art Wherein all Nature's treasure is contain'd: Be thou on earth as Jove is in the sky, Lord and commander of these elements.

[Ereunt Angels. Faust. How am I glutted with conceit of

this! Shall I make spirits fetch me what I please,

Come, German Valdes and Cornelius,
And make me blest with your sage confer-

ence, Valdes, sweet Valdes, and Cornelius, Know that your words have won me at the

last To practice magic and concealed arts: Yet not your words only, but mine own

fantasy; That will receive no object; for my head But ruminates on necromantic skill. Philosophy is odious and obscure; Both law and physics are for petty wits; Divinity is basest of the three, Unpleasant, harsh, contemptible, and vile: 'Tis magic, magic, that hath ravish'd me. Then, gentle friends, aid me in this attempt; And I, that have with concise syllogisms Gravell’d the pastors of the German church, And made the flowering pride of Werten

berg Swarm to my problems, as the infernal

spirits On sweet Musæus when he came to hell, Will be as cunning as Agrippa was, Whose shadow made all Europe honor him. Vald. Faustus, these books, thy wit, and our

experience, Shall make all nations to canonize us. As Indian Moors obey their Spanish lords, So shall the spirits of every element

Be always serviceable to us three;
Like lions shall they guard us when we

please; Like Almain rutters with their horsemen's

staves. Or Lapland giants, trotting by our sides; Sometimes like women, or unwedded maids, Shadowing more beauty in their airy brows Than have the white breasts of the queen of

love: From Venice shall they drag huge argosies, And from America the golden fleece That yearly stuffs old Philip's treasury; If learned Faustus will be resolute. Faust. Valdes, as resolute am I in this As thou to live: therefore object it not. Corn. The miracles that magic will perform Will make thee vow to study nothing else. He that is grounded in astrology, Enrich'd with tongues, well seen in minerals, Hath all the principles magic doth require: Then doubt not, Faustus, but to be re

nowm'd, And more frequented for this mystery Than heretofore the Delphian oracle. The spirits tell me they can dry the sea, And fetch the treasure of all foreign wrecks, Ay, all the wealth that our forefathers hid Within the massy entrails of the earth: Then tell me, Faustus, what shall we three

want? Faust. Nothing, Cornelius. O, this cheers

my soul! Come, show me some demonstrations magi

cal, That I may conjure in some lusty grove, And have these joys in full possession. l'ald. Then haste thee to some solitary

grove, And bear wise Bacon's and Albertus' works, The Hebrew Psalter, and New Testament; And whatsoever else is requisite We will inform thee ere our conference

Enter two Scholars First Schol. I wonder what's become of

Faustus, that was wont to make our

schools ring with sic probo. Sec. Schol. That shall we know, for see, here comes his boy.

Enter WAGNER First Schol. How now, sirrah! where's thy

master? Wag. God in heaven knows. Sec. Schol. Why, dost not thou know? Wag. Yes, I know; but that follows not. First Schol. Go to, sirrah! leave your jest

ing, and tell us where he is. Wag. That follows not necessary by force

of argument, that you, being licentiates, should stand upon: therefore acknowl

edge your error, and be attentive. Sec. Schol. Why, didst thou not say thou

knewest ? Wag. Have you any witness on't ? First Schol. Yes, sirrah, I heard you. Wag. Ask my fellow if I be a thief. Sec. Schol. Well, you will not tell us? Wag. Yes, sir, I will tell you; yet, if you

were not dunces you would never ask me such a question, for is not he corpus naturale? and is not that mobile? then wherefore should you ask me such a question? But that I am by nature phlegmatic, slow to wrath, and prone to lechery (to love, I would say), it were not for you to come within forty foot of the place of execution, although I do not doubt to see you both hanged the next sessions. Thus having triumphed over you, I will set my countenance like a precisian, and begin to speak thus: - Truly, my dear brethren, my master is within at dinner, with Valdes and Cornelius, as this wine, if it could speak, would inform your worships: and so, the Lord bless you, preserve you, and keep you, my dear

brethren, my dear brethren! [Exit. First Schol. Nay, then, I fear he has fallen

into that damned art for which they

two are infamous through the world. Sec. Schol. Were he a stranger, and not

allied to me, yet should I grieve for him. But, come, let us go and inform the Rector, and see if he by his grave

counsel can reclaim him. First Schol. O, but I fear me nothing can

reclaim him! Sec. Schol. Yet let us try what we can do.

[E.reunt.

cease.

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VOS

Enter FAUSTUS to conjure

And may not follow thee without his leave:

No more than he commands must we perFaust. Now that the gloomy shadow of the

form. earth, Longing to view Orion's drizzling look,

Faust. Did not he charge thee to appear to

me? Leaps from th' antarctic world unto the sky, And dims the welkin with her pitchy breath, Meph. No, I came hither of mine own ac

cord. Faustus, begin thine incantations, And try if devils will obey thy hest,

Faust. Did not my conjuring speeches raise

thee? speak. Seeing thou hast pray'd and sacrific'd to them.

Meph. That was the cause, but yet per acWithin this circle is Jehovah's name,

cidens; Forward and backward anagrammatis'd,

For, when we hear one rack the name of

God,
Th' abbreviated names of holy saints,
Figures of every adjunct to the heavens,

Abjure the Scriptures and his Saviour And characters of signs and erring stars,

Christ, By which the spirits are enforc'd to rise:

We fly, in hope to get his glorious soul;

Nor will we come, unless he use such means Then fear not, Faustus, but be resolute, And try the uttermost magic can perform.

Whereby he is in danger to be damn'd. Sint mihi dei Acherontis propitii! Valeat

Therefore the shortest cut for conjuring numen triplex Jehova! Ignei, aerii,

Is stoutly to abjure the Trinity, aquatani spiritus, salvete! Orientis

And pray devoutly to the prince of hell.

Faust. So Faustus hath princeps Belzebub, inferni ardentis monarcha, et Demogorgon, propitiamus

Already done; and holds this principle, ut appareat et surgat Mephis

There is no chief but only Belzebub;

To whom Fustus doth dedicate himself. tophilis, quod tumeraris : per Jehovam, Gehennam, et consecratam aquam quam

This word "damnation” terrifies not him,

For he confounds hell in Elysium : nunc spargo, signumque crucis quod

His ghost be with the old philosophers ! nunc facio, et per vota nostra, ipse nunc surgat nobis dicatus Mephistophilis !

But, leaving these vain trifles of men's souls,

Tell me what is that Lucifer thy lord ?
Enter MEPHISTOPHILIS

Meph. Arch-regent and commander of all I charge thee to return, and change thy

spirits. shape;

Faust. Was not that Lucifer an angel once? Thou art too ugly to attend on me:

Meph. Yes, Faustus, and most dearly lov'd Go, and return an old Franciscan friar;

of God. That holy shape becomes a devil best.

Faust. How comes it, then, that he is prince [Exit Mephistophilis.

of devils? I see there's virtue in my heavenly words: Meph. O, by aspiring pride and insolence;

For which God threw him from the face of Who would not be proficient in this art? How pliant is this Mephistophilis,

heaven. Full of obedience and humility!

Faust. And what are you that live with Such is the force of magic and my spells:

Lucifer? No, Faustus, thou art conjurer laureat,

Meph. Unhappy spirits that fell with LuciThat canst command great Mephistophilis:

fer, Quin regis Mephistophilis fratris imagine.

Conspir'd against our God with Lucifer,

And are for ever damn'd with Lucifer.
Re-enter MEPHISTOPHILIs like a

Faust. Where are you damn'd ?
Franciscan friar

Meph. In hell. Meph. Now, Faustus, what wouldst thou Faust. How comes it, then, that thou art have me do?

out of hell? Faust. I charge thee wait upon me whilst I Meph. Why, this is hell, nor am I out of it. live,

Think'st thou that I, who saw the face of To do whatever Faustus shall command,

God, Be it to make the moon drop from her And tasted the eternal joys of heaven, sphere,

Am not tormented with ten thousand hells, Or the ocean to overwhelm the world.

In being depriv'd of everlasting bliss ? Meph. I am a servant to great Lucifer, 0, Faustus, leave these frivolous demands,

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