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by Syr Frances Godolphin, of 4 other Mar- and entries. And that himself and the riners of the same shippe being returned, shippe must needes be possessed by the which examination, the said Syr Frances enemie, who were not all cast in a ring sent unto maister William Killigrue, of her round about him; The Revenge not able to Majesties privie Chamber.

move one way or other, but as she was But to return to the fight, the Spanish moved with the waves and billow of the ships which attempted to board the Revenge, sea: commanded the maister Gunner, whom as they were wounded and beaten of, so he knew to be a most resolute mản, to split alwaies others came in their places, she hav- and sinke the shippe; that thereby nothing ing never lesse than two mightie Gallions by might remaine of glorie or victorie to the her sides and aboard her. So that ere the Spaniards: seeing in so manie houres fight, morning, from three of the clocke the day and with so great a Navie they were not able before, there had fifteene severall Armados to take her, having had fifteene houres time, assailed her; and all so ill approved their fifteene thousand men, and fiftie and three entertainment, as they were by the breake saile of men of warre to performe it withall. of day, far more willing to harken to a com- And perswaded the companie, or as manie position, then hastily_to make any more as he could induce, to yeelde themselves unto assaults or entries. But as the day en- God, and to the mercie of none els; but as creased, so our men decreased: and as the they had like valiant resolute men, repulsed light grew more and more, by so much more so manie.enimies, they should not now grew our discomforts. For none appeared shorten the honour of their nation, by proin sight but enemies, saving one small ship longing their owne lives for a few houres, or called the Pilgrim, commanded by Iacob a few daies. The maister Gunner readilie Whiddon, who hovered all night to see the condescended and divers others; but the successe: but in the mornyng bearing with Captaine and the Maister were of an other the Revenge, was hunted like a hare amongst opinion, and besought Sir Richard to have many ravenous houndes, but escaped. care of them: alleaging that the Spaniard

All the powder of the Revenge to the last would be as readie to entertaine a composibarrell was now spent, all her pikes broken, tion, as they were willing to offer the same: fortie of her best men slaine, and the most and that there being diverse sufficient and part of the rest hurt. In the beginning of valiant men yet living, and whose woundes the fight she had but one hundred free from were not mortall, they might doe their counsicknes, and fourescore and ten sicke, laid in trie and prince acceptable service hereafter. hold upon the Ballast. A small troupe to And (that where Sir Richard had alleaged man such a ship, and a weake Garrison to that the Spaniards should never glorie to resist so mighty an Army. By those hun- have taken one shippe, of her Maiesties, seedred all was sustained, the voleis, bourdings, ing that they had so long and so notably deand entrings of fifteene shippes of warre, fended them selves) they answered, that the besides those which beat her at large. On shippe had sixe foote water in hold, three the contrarie, the Spanish were.alwaies sup- shot under water which were so weakly plied with souldiers brought from every stopped, as with the first working of the squadron: all maner of Armes and pouder sea, she must needes sinke, and was besides at will. Unto ours there remained no com- so crusht and brused, as she could never be fort at all, no hope, no supply either of removed out of the place. ships, men, or weapons; the mastes all And as the matter was thus in dispute, beaten over board, all her tackle cut asunder, and Sir Richard refusing to hearken to any her upper worke altogither rased, and in of those reasons: the maister of the Revenge effect evened shee was with the water, but (while the Captaine wan unto him the the verie foundation or bottom of a ship, greater party) was convoyde aborde the nothing being left over head either for Generall Don Alfonso Bassan. Who finding flight or defence. Syr Richard finding him- none over hastie to enter the Revenge againe, selfe in this distresse, and unable anie longer | doubting least S. Richard would have blowne to make resistance, having endured in this them up and himselfe, and perceiving by the fifteene houres fight, the assault of fifteene report of the maister of the Revenge his several Armadoes, all by tornnes aboorde daungerous disposition: yeelded that all him, and by estimation eight hundred shot their lives should be saved, the companie of great artillerie, besides manie assaults sent for England, and the better sorte to pay such reasonable ransome as their estate and drowned in this fight, well neere two would beare, and in the meane season to be thousand of the enemies, and two especiall free from Gally or imprisonment. To this commanders Don Luis de Sant Iohn, and he so much the rather condescended as well Don George de Prunaria de Mallaga, as the as I have saide, for feare of further loss and Spanish Captain confesseth, besides divers mischiefe to them selves, as also for the de- others of especial account, whereof as yet sire hee had to recover Sir Richard Grinvile; report is not made. whom for his notable valure he seemed The Admirall of the Hulkes and the greatly to honour and admire.

Ascention of Sivill, were both suncke by When this answere was returned, and that the side of the Revenge; one other recovered safetie of life was promised, the common the rode of Saint Michels, and sunke also sort being now at the end of their perill, the there; a fourth ranne her selfe with the most drew backe from Sir Richard and the shore to save her men. Syr Richard died maister Gunner, being: no hard matter to as it is said, the second or third day aboard diswade men from death to life. The maister the Generall, and was by them greatly beGunner finding him selfe and Sir Richard wailed. What became of his bodie, whether thus prevented and maistered by the greater it were buried in the sea or on the lande wee number, would have slaine himselfe with a know not: the comfort that remaineth to sword, had he not beene by force withheld his friendes is, that he hath ended his life and locked into his Cabben. Then the Gen- honourably in respect of the reputation erall sent manie boates abord the Revenge, wonne to his nation and country, and of the and diverse of our men fearing Sir Richards same to his posteritie, and that being dead, disposition, stole away aboord the Generall he hath not outlived his owne honour. and other shippes. Sir Richard thus over- For the rest of her Majesties ships that matched, was sent unto by Alfonso Bassan entred not so far into the fight as the to remove out of the Revenge, the shippe Revenge, the reasons and causes were these. being marvellous unsaverie, filled with bloud There were of them but six in all, whereof and bodies of deade, and wounded men like two but small ships; the Revenge ingaged a slaughter house. Sir Richard answered past recoverie: The Iland of Flores was on that he might do with his bodie what he list, the one side, 53 saile of the Spanish, divided for he esteemed it not, and as he was carried into squadrons on the other, all as full filled out of the shippe he swounded, and reviv- with soldiers as they could containe. Almost ing againe desired the companie to pray for the one halfe of our men sicke and not able him. The Generall used Sir Richard with all to serve: the ships growne foule, unroomhumanitie, and left nothing unattempted aged, and scarcely able to beare anie saile that tended to his recoverie, highly com- for want of ballast, having beene sixe mending his valour and worthines, and moneths at the sea before. If al the rest greatly bewailed the daunger wherein he had entred, all had ben lost. For the verie was, beeing unto them a rare spectacle, and hugenes of the Spanish fleet, if no other a resolution sildome approved, to see one violence had been offred, would have crusht ship turne toward so many enemies, to en- them between them into shivers. Of which dure the charge and boording of so many the dishonour and losse to the Queene had huge Armados, and to resist and repell the been far greater than the spoile or harme assaults and entries of so many souldiers. that the enemy could any way have received. All which and more, is confirmed by a Span- | Notwithstanding it is verie true, that the ish Captaine of the same Armada, and a Lord Thomas would have entred betweene present actor in the fight, who being sev- the squadrons, but the rest wold not conered from the rest in a storm, was by the descend; and the maister of his owne ship Lyon of London a small ship taken, and is offred to leape into the sea, rather than io now prisoner in London.

conduct that her Maiesties ship and the rest The generall commander of the Armada, to be a praie to the enemy, where there was was Don Alphonso Bassan, brother to the no hope nor possibilitie either of defence or Marquesse of Santa Cruce. The Admirall victorie. Which also in my opinion had il of the Biscaine squadron, was Britan Dona. sorted or answered the discretion and trust Of the squadron of Sivil, Marques of Arum- of a Generall, to commit himselfe and his burch. The Hulkes and Flyboates were com- charge to an assured destruction, without maunded by Luis Cutino. There were slaine hope or any likelihood of prevailing: therby III. TRAINING FOR EMPIRE

to diminish the strength of her Maiesties Navy, and to enrich the pride and glorie of the enemie. The Foresight of the Queenes commanded by M. Th. Vavisor, performed a verie great fight, and stayd two houres as neere the Revenge as the wether wold permit him, not forsaking the fight, till hee was like to be encompassed by the squadrons, and with great difficultie cleared himselfe. The rest gave divers voleies of shot, and entred as far as the place permitted and their own necessities, to keep the weather gage of the enemy, untill they were parted by night. A fewe daies after the fight was ended, and the English prisoners dispersed into the Spanish and Indy ships, there arose so great a storme from the West and Northwest, that all the fleet was dispersed, as well the Indian fleet which were then come unto them as the rest of the Armada that attended their arrivall, of which 14 saile togither with the Revenge, and in her 200 Spaniards, were cast away upon the Isle of S. Michaels. So it pleased them to honor the buriall of that renowned ship the Revenge, not suffring her to perish alone, for the great honour she achieved in her life time. On the rest of the Ilandes there were cast away in this storme, 15 or 16 more of the ships of war; and of a hundred and odde saile of the Indie fleet, expected this yeere in Spaine, what in this tempest, and what before in the bay of Mexico, and about the Bermudas there were 70 and odde consumed and lost, with those taken by our ships of London, besides one verie rych Indian shippe, which set her selfe on fire, beeing boorded by the Pilgrim, and five other

taken by Master Wats his ships of London, between the Havaua and Cape S. Antonio. The 4 of this month of November, we received letters from the Tercera, affirming yat there are 3000 bodies of men remaining in that Iland, saved out of the perished ships: and that by the Spaniards own confession, there are 10000 cast away in this storm, besides those that are perished betweene the Ilands and the maine. Thus it hath pleased God to fight for us, and to defend the iustice of our cause, against the ambicious and bloudy pretenses of the Spaniard, who seeking to devour all nations, are themselves devoured. A manifest testimonie how iniust and how displeasing their attempts are in the sight of God, who hath pleased to witnes by the successe of their affaires, his mislike of their bloudy and iniurious designes, purposed and practised against all Christian Princes, over whom they seeke unlawful and ungodly rule and Empery.

To conclude, it hath ever to this day pleased God, to prosper and defend her Maiestie, to breake the purposes of malicious enimies, of foresworne traitours, and of unjust practises and invasions. She hath ever beene honoured of the worthiest Kinges, served by faithfull subjects, and shall by the favor of God, resist, repell, and confound all what soever attempts against her sacred Person or kingdome. In the meane time, let the Spaniard and traitour vaunt of their successe; and we her true and obedient vassalles guided by the shining light of her vertues, shall alwaies love her, serve her, and obey her to the end of our lives.

THE EDUCATION OF MEN WHO ARE TO RULE

SIR THOMAS ELYOT

[From The Boke of the Governour, 1534]

Nowe wyll I somwhat declare of the chiefe causes why, in our tyme, noble men be nat as excellent in lernying as they were in olde tyme amonge the Romanes and grekes. Surely, as I haue diligently marked in dayly experience, the principali causes be these. The pride, avarice, and negligence of parentes, and the lacke or fewenesse of suffycient maysters or teachers.

As I sayd, pride is the first cause of this inconuenience. For of those persons be some, which, without shame, dare affirme, that to a great gentilman it is a notable reproche to be well lerned and to be called a great clerke: whiche name they accounte to be of so base estymation, that they neuer haue it in their mouthes but when they speke any thynge in derision, whiche perchaunce they wolde nat do if they had ones layser to rede our owne cronicle of Englande, where they shall fynde that kynge Henry the first, sonne of willyam conquerour, and one of the moste noble princes that euer reigned

These per

in this realme, was openly called Henry that is therin, the commaundement of the beau clerke, whiche is in englysshe, fayre prince, and the uniuersall consent of the clerke, and is yet at this day so named. And people, expressed in statutes and lawes, do wheder that name be to his honour or to his prohibite, I meane, playeng at dyce, and reproche, let them iuge that do rede and other games named unlefull. compare his lyfe with his two bretherne, sones, I say, I wolde shulde remembre, or william called Rouse, and Robert le courtoise, elles nowe lerne, if they neuer els herde it, they both nat hauyng semblable lernyng that the noble Philip kyng of Macedonia, with the sayd Henry, the one for his dis- who subdued al Greece, aboue all the good solute lyuyng and tyranny beynge hated of fortunes that euer he hadde, most reioysed all his nobles and people, finally was that his sonne Alexander was borne in sodaynely slayne by the shotte of an arowe, the tyme that Aristotle the philosopher as he was huntynge in a forest, whichė to flourisshed, by whose instruction he mought make larger and to gyue his deere more attaine to most excellent lernynge. lybertie, he dyd cause the houses of lii Also the same Alexander often tymes sayd parisshes to be pulled downe, the people that he was equally as moche bounden to to be expelled, and all beyng desolate to be Aristotle as to his father kyng Philip, for tourned in to desert, and made onely pasture of his father he receyued lyfe, but of for beestes sauage; whiche he wolde neuer Aristotle he receyued the waye to lyue haue done if he had as moche delyted in nobly. good lerning as dyd his brother.

Who dispraysed Epaminondas, the moost The other brother, Robert le Courtoise, valiant capitayne of Thebanes, for that he beyng duke of Normandie, and the eldest was excellently lerned and a great philososonne of wylliam Conquerour, all be it that pher? Who euer discommended Julius he was a man of moche prowesse, and right Cesar for that he was a noble oratour, and, expert in martial affayres, wherfore he was nexte to Tulli, in the eloquence of the latin electe before Godfray of Boloigne to haue tonge excelled al other? Who euer reproued ben kyng of Hierusalem; yet natwith- the emperour Hadriane for that he was so standynge whan he inuaded this realme with exquisitely lerned, nat onely in greke and sondrie puissaunt armies, also dyuers noble latine, but also in all sciences liberall, that men aydinge hym, yet his noble brother openly at Athenes, in the uniuersall assemHenry beau clerke, more by wysdome than bly of the greatteste clerkes of the worlde, power, also by lernynge, addyng polycie to hie by a longe tyme disputed with philosovertue and courage, often tymes vayn- phers and Rhetoriciens, whiche were estemed quisshed hym, and dyd put him to flyght. mooste excellent, and by the iugement of And after sondry victories finally toke him them that were present had the palme or and kepte hym in prison, hauyng none other rewarde of victorie? And yet, by the meanes to kepe his realme in tranquillitie. gouernance of that noble emperour, nat only

It was for no rebuke, but for an excellent the publik weale flourisshed but also diuers honour, that the emperour Antonine was rebellions were suppressed, and the maiesty surnamed philosopher, for by his moste of the empire hugely increased. Was it any noble example of lyuing, and industrie in- reproche to the noble Germanicus (who by comparable, he during all the tyme of his the assignement of Augustus shulde haue reigne kept the publike weale of the succeeded Tiberius in the empire, if traitorRomanes in suche a perfecte astate, that by ous enuy had nat in his flourysshynge youth his actes he confirmed the sayeng of Plato, bireft hym his lyfe) that he was equall to That blessed is that publike weale wherin the moost noble poetes of his time, and, to either philosophers do reigne, or els kinges the increase of his honour and moost worthy be in philosophie studiouse.

commendation, his image was set up at These persones that so moche contemne Rome, in the habite that poetes at those lernyng, that they wolde that gentilmen's dayes used? Fynally howe moche excellent children shulde haue no parte or very litle lernynge commendeth, and nat dispraiseth, therof, but rather shulde spende their youth nobilitie, it shal playnly appere unto them alway (I saye not onely in huntynge and that do rede the lyfes of Alexander called haukyng, whiche moderately used, as solaces Seuerus, Tacitus, Probus Aurelius, Conought to be, I intende nat to disprayse) but stantine, Theodosius, and Charles the gret, in those ydle pastymes, whiche, for the vice surnamed Charlemaine, all being emperours,

and do compare them with other, whiche lacked or had nat so moche of doctrine. Verily they be ferre from good raison, in myne opinion, whiche couaite to haue their children goodly in stature, stronge, deliuer, well synging, wherin trees, beastes, fysshes, and byrdes, be nat only with them equall, but also ferre do excede them. And connynge, wherby onely man excelleth all other creatures in erthe, they reiecte, and accounte unworthy to be in their children. What unkinde appetite were it to desyre to be father rather of a pece of flesshe, that can onely meue and feele, than of a childe that shulde have the perfecte fourme of a man? What so perfectly expresseth a man as doctrine? Diogines the philosopher seing one without lernynge syt on a stone, sayde to them that were with him, beholde where one stone sytteth on an other; whiche wordes, well considered and tried, shall appere to contayne in it wonderfull matter for the approbation of doctrine, wherof a wyse

man

maye accumulate ineuitable argumentes, whiche I of necessite, to auoide tediousnes, must nedes passe ouer at this tyme.

The seconde occasion wherfore gentylmens children seldome haue sufficient lernynge is auarice. For where theyr parentes wyll nat aduenture to sende them farre out of theyr propre countrayes, partely for feare of dethe, whiche perchance dare nat approche them at home with theyr father; partely for expence of money, whiche they suppose wolde be lesse in theyr owne houses or in a village, with some of theyr tenantes or frendes; hauyng seldome any regarde to the teacher, whether he be well lerned or ignorant. For if they hiare a schole maister to teche in theyr houses, they chiefely enquire with howe small a salary he will be contented, and neuer do inserche howe moche good lernynge he hath, and howe amonge well lerned men he is therin estemed, usinge therin lasse diligence than in takynge seruantes, whose seruice is of moche lasse importance, and to a good schole maister is nat in profite to be compared. A gentilman, er he take a cooke in to his seruice, he wyll firste diligently examine hym, howe many sortes of meates, potages, and sauces, he can perfectly make, and howe well he can season them, that they may be bothe pleasant and nourishynge; yea and if it be but a fauconer, he wyll scrupulously enquire what skyll he hath in feedyng, called

diete, and kepyng of his hauke from all sickenes, also how he can reclaime her and prepare her to flyght. And to suche a cooke or fauconer, whom he findeth expert, he spareth nat to gyue moche wages with other bounteous rewardes. But of a schole maister, to whom he will committe his childe, to be fedde with lernynge and instructed in vertue, whose lyfe shall be the principall monument of his name and honour, he neuer maketh further enquirie but where he may haue a schole maister; and with howe litel charge; and if one be perchance founden, well lerned, but he will nat take paynes to teache without he may haue a great salary, he than speketh nothing more, or els saith, What shall so moche wages be gyuen to a schole maister whiche wolde kepe me two seruantes? to whom maye be saide these wordes, that by his sonne being wel lerned he shall receiue more commoditie and also worship than by the seruice of a hundred cokes and fauconers.

The thirde cause of this hyndrance is negligence of parentes, whiche I do specially note in this poynt; there haue bene diuers, as well gentilmen as of the nobilitie, that deliting to haue their sonnes excellent in lernynge haue prouided for them connynge maysters, who substancially haue taught them gramer, and very wel instructed them to speake latine elegantly, wherof the parentes haue taken moche delectation; but whan they haue had of grammer sufficient and be comen to the age of xiiii yeres, and do approche or drawe towarde the astate of man, whiche age is called mature or ripe, (wherin nat onely the saide lernyng continued by moche experience shal be perfectly digested, and confirmed in perpetuall remembrance, but also more seriouse lernyng contayned in other lyberall sciences, and also philosophy, wolde than be lerned) the parentes, that thinge nothinge regarding, but being suffised that their children can onely speke latine proprely, or make verses with out mater or sentence, they from thens forth do suffre them to liue in idelnes, or els, putting them to seruice, do, as it were, banisshe them from all vertuous study or exercise of that whiche they before lerned; so that we may beholde diuers yonge gentill men, who in their infancie and childehode were wondred at for their aptness to lerning and prompt speakinge of elegant latine, whiche nowe, beinge men, nat onely haue forgotten their congruite, (as in the commune worde),

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