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were finally subdued by the bolder and hardier Iroquois, who, with a few cantons of Algonquins, were in possession of the territory now embraced in New York, at the period of the settlement of the New-Netherlands by the Dutch in 1614.*

The Iroquois were, therefore, successors to the Alleghans, and the predecessors of the early white settlers of NewYork. Composed of six of the most powerful tribes, bound together in an honorable league, the Iroquois confederacy remained for a long period a tower of strength which has no parallel in history. Although they were inserior to their predecessors in knowledge of the arts, they were superior in government. They came together as independent tribes, and their confederacy was a perfect union. Each canton had its civil and military chieftain—the former to preside in council, the latter to marshal its warriors in the field. The former were termed sacheins, or sages, and represented the several cantons in the Grand Council.--the latter carried out the unanimous resolves of the sachems, and were disgraced by any disobedience of orders. In council, entire unanimity was requisite 10 a decision. This gave importance and efficacy to the vote of every sachem.

Upon the natrons was conferred the power to decide when the war-club should be dropped and hostilities cease. This provision enabled a tribe to abandon a warfare, without compromiting its character for bravery.

The ONONDAGAS were the parent tribe, ont of which sprung the Mohawks, Oneidas, Cayugas, Senecas, ard Tuscaroras, who, with their parent, constituted the Iroquois, or Six Nations. The offshoots took place while the Onondagas were upon the Oswego river, where they had located themselves for some reason not now definitely understood. Requiring a large range for subsistence, they migrated from one region to another, as want of game in one place, and abundance in another, suggested. Their movements were

* Legislative Doc. 1846. + Clinton's Discourse, Schoolcraft.


up the Oswego river, and upon reaching Three River Point, a part went up the eastern fork, and pushed over the summit into the valley of the stream flowing east, and became the Mohawks.* Another portion went up the western fork, and upon reaching the outlet of Cayuga Lake, divided, and formed the Cayugast on the east, and Senecas on the west. I When the Onondagas reached the hill country, now known as Onondaga, there went out another offshoot eastward, and became the Oneidas. The Tuscaroras sprung from the parent tribe, at a remote day, and went south, whence they were brought back by the Oncidas, by whose chieftains they were marshaled and protected in the war with the French, and subsequently on the side of the States in the Revolution.

The effect of this separation appears to have been a rapid increase in numbers, and afterwards the generation of disputes about territory. The Mohawks became quarrelsome, the Oneidas intemperate, the Onondagas overbearing, and the Cayugas and Senecas disposed to a wandering indolence. They often built forts and entrenchments for the protection of their women and children, while they were abroad in warfare, hunting, or fishing. The women cultivated patches of corn, and performed labor and drudgery about their wigwams. After that manner the Iroquois lived in NewYork, prior to the seventeenth century, sometimes increasing, but generally decreasing, until the calamities of war, the

ravages of pestilence, and the laws of vitality reduced and disorganized them.


Brant was of this tribe. + Logan was a Cayuga. Red Jacket was a Seneca. || Mingoes is the self-designation of the Six Nations. The Dutch called them Maquas, and the Virginia Indians, Massawomekes. The French missionaries gave them the appellation of Iroquois, which has been the more popular term. Logan, Brant, and Red Jacket, were Mingo chief:. Logan is believed to have been born at Osco, near Auburn, and that he went with his father to Shamokin, in Pennsylvania, where the latter, according to Loskicl, died in 1749, having previously been converted to the Catholic faith, by Jesuit missionaries. The Cayugas that had left New-York to hunt in that region, soon after went into the Ohio Valley, where Logan attained manhood und becamo a chieftain.

Besides these, there were within the present boundaries of the State several tribes of a race known as the Algonquins, or Algonquin-Lanapes, most of whom hunted and fished in the southern portion of the State.

Their rights to domain, however, as well as those of the Iroquois, have been, with a few exceptions, entirely extinguished.



History accredits JEAN DE VerrazzANO, a Florentine in the service of France, as the earliest visitor to New York, subsequent to the discovery of the continent by Columbus. It is said that he entered New-York bay in 1524, but departed after having obtained a supply of water.

The next white visitors were a crew of sailors engaged in the Dutch West India trade, who in 1598 put into the harbor of New-York, with a view of having a place of shelter during the winter months; and for which purpose they built two small forts, one on the North and one on the South River, to protect them against the attacks of the Indians.*

On the fourth day of September, 1609, Sir Henry HUDSON anchored in the waters of “The Great North River of NewNETHERLAND. Discovering that the Bay was the entrance to what appeared to be an extensive river, Hudson despatched five of his crew to make a particular examination, who, in attempting to do so, were attacked by Indians, and one of

Nieuw Nederlandt, gelegen aen de landen van America, tusschen de Engelshe Virginies en N. Engelandt, streckende van Zuydt Revier, gelegen op 38. grueden, tot Cabo Malubaer, op de hoogste van 414 graeden, is eerst bevaren door de Ingesetenen van desen Staat in den jaer 1598, en insonderheyt by die van den Groenlantsche Compaine, doch sonder vaste habitatie te manken, als alleen tot een verblyff in de winter. Tot welcken eynde, aldaer twee fortjcens aen de Zuydt en Noordt Revieren tegens den aenloopden Wilden hebben geworpen. Rapport en advys over de gelegentheyt van Nieuw Nederlandt getrokken uyt de stukken en papieren by Commissie der Vergaderinge der XIX in dato 15 dec 1614. Hol. doc. ii. 368. [O'Callaghan's History of New-Netherland.]

their number killed by an arrow shot into his throat. The sailor killed, bore the name of John Coleman, and was buried at Sandy Hook, at a place ever since known as COLEMAN'S POINT.

On the eleventh, the Half Moon* stood up through the Narrows, and on the twelfth, Sir Henry began the exploration of the North River, in the hope of finding a north-west passage to China. After having ascended to a point near the present city of Albany, he returned to Hoboken, and thence to Holland, where he reported the magnificent country which his prowess had discovered.

We pause here to notice the location of the several Indian tribes about the Hudson River. Upon the upper waters were the Maquaas or Mohawks; below them were the Mahicanders or River Indians; and on East River were the Pequods, Wampanoags, Malow wacks, and other tribes of the Algonquin-Lenape family. The Delawares were mostly on the Jersey shore.

In 1610, another vessel was despatched to the New-Netherland with a cargo of merchandise, to be exchanged with the Indians for furs. Others soon followed, and returned laden with a profusion of that commodity.

The eligibility of New-York for commerce was readily apprehended by Europeans, and the same soon became the head quarters of the trade. Their establishments consisted of four houses, which were placed under the superintendence of one HendRICK CorsTiAENSEN, who visited every Indian. settlement in that vicinity, and thereby secured all the furs that the tribes were able to furnish.

In 1613, one Captain Aryal, of Virginia, visited the Island of Manhattan, with a view, it is said, of looking after a grant of land which he had obtained there from the Virginia Company, soon after which he obliged Corstiaensen to submit himself and his charge to the Governor of Virginia, and to

* The vessel in which Hudson sailed.


agree to pay tribute, in token of his dependence on the English Crown.

As soon as the news of this event reached the merchants in Holland, measures were taken to obtain an exclusive right to trade at this and other points where trade had been opened through their efforts and enterprise. Whereupon, petitions were presented to the Assembly of Holland and West Friesland, praying that the States General be recommended to pass an ordinance conferring on those who had, or might thereafter discover new lands, the exclusive privilege of rnaking six voyages thither. In compliance with this request, the following Octroy was passed :


" The States General of the United Netherlands : To all those to whom these presents shall come, or who shall hear them read, Health! BE IT KNOWN, Whereas, We understand it would be honorable, serviceable, and profitable to this country, and for the promotion of its prosperity, as well as for the maintenance of sea-saring people, that the good Inhabitants should be excited and encouraged to employ and occupy themselves in the seeking out and discovery of Cour. ses, Havens, Countries, and Places which have not, before now, been discovered or frequented; and having been in. formed by some traders that they intend, through God's merciful help, by diligence, trouble, danger, and expense, to employ themselves thereat, as they should expect to derive handsome profit therefrom, if it pleased Us to privilege, octroy and favor them, that they should alone resort and sail to, and frequent the Courses, Havens, Countries, and Places, by them newly found and discovered, for six voyages, in compensa. tion for their outlays, troubles, and dangers: With interdiction to all, directly or indirectly to resort or sail to, or frequent the said Courses, Havens, Countries, or Places, before and sooner

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