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portation of manufactures, and partly by supplies of arms, military stores, &c. which were sent out to the value of 2,243,973). Such being the comparatively small quantity of specie required for the discharge of our great military expenditure abroad, it is not easy to explain how its price should have been raised so enormously, in order to provide for so inconsiderable a demand. Specie has frequently before been exported from this country in greater quantities, without any rise in its price. In the years 1790, 1791 and 1792, exportations of specie took place to the amount of 1,571,364l., 1,338,7421., and 2,250,1211.; and in the years 1803, 1804 and 1805, it was exported by the East India Company to the amount of 2,068,3991., 1,088,2931. and 2,258,7491." But neither the collecting nor the exporting of this treasure, occasioned any perceptible rise in the price of bullion; and why therefore should the demands of Government to a similar extent, occasion such an enormous difference of price? Why should the same cause, in a few years afterwards, produce such very different effects ? Before it can be admitted that the foreign expenditure of the country was the cause of the rise in the price of bullion, and of the unfavourable exchange, some explanation must be given of the facts here stated; for, otherwise, this doctrine would only involve the subject in endless perplexity and contradiction.

We have thus endeavoured generally to state the causes of the distress in which the country is involved; and we shall now only add, that the enormous taxation by which it is burdened, appears to be the chief obstacle to the restoration of its commerce and credit. For several years past, the immense annual contribution of between 60 and 70 millions, has been collected in Britain for the public service; and the renovating power of industry, assisted as it is with all the refinements of art, can scarcely provide resources to answer such exorbitant demands. Taxation is now pushed to such an excess in this country, that as it can no longer be paid out of revenue, it begins to encroach on capital; and new and more severe methods of exaction are at the same time resorted to. The system is thus beginning gradually to lose the character of fair and equal contribution; and taxes are imposed, not because they are equitable—but because they will be productive.

Rem, si recte possis ; si non, quocunque modo, rem. travagant taxation is the weight which pulls the country downwhich slackens the pace of commerce and of industry, by abstracting the funds destined for their support, and which finally tends to deaden that active principle of exertion by which nations, in spite of the prodigality of their rulers, are borne forward in a course of continual improvement. In these circum

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stances, it is vain to propose any plan of relief which does not include a reduction of the taxes. Lighten the load of taxation, and the country will start forward as before; but if the present taxes, and more especially if the war taxes are continued, its movements must be heavy and incumbered. There never perhaps was a period, in which it was more necessary to practise moderation abroad, and economy at home. The time is now come, for the people rigidly to canvass the utility of all those projects of continental warfare in which their rulers are always 80 forward to embark; for it cannot be concealed, that, in such projects, all our present burdens have originated. It is now proposed to maintain, during peace, an immense military establishment, for the purpose of protecting Louis XVIII. against the hostility of his own subjects ! and, for this purpose, it is expected that the people of this country will submit to a greater Ioad of taxation than Mr Pitt himself would have ventured to propose, while we were fighting for our own independence. The rejection of the Property-tax, the tidings of which have reached us since these observations were prepared for the press, induces us to hope better things; and to look for the return of those wholesome days, when the people of England actually kept the purse in their own hands, and, by the vigorous and cffective exercise of that power, impressed their own character upon the councils of their rulers,

ART. VII. Conchiologia Fossile Subapennina con Osservazioni

Geologiche sugli Apennini e sul Suolo adiacente. Di G. BROCCHI. Ispettore delle Miniere, &c. Milano, 1814. 2 vol.

4to. This appears to us to be a work of very great value and merit.

Its chief object is to describe the fossil shells that are found in the clay and gravel, of which the hills that skirt the base of the Apennines are composed, and to compare them with their prototypes now existing, either in the adjoining or more distant

As an introduction to these details, the author gives a general view of the structure of the Apennines, together with a minute account of the physical constitution of the Subapennine hills themselves; pointing out their extent, the materials of which they are composed, and the order in which these materials are distributed. He also describes the vast collections of fossil bones that are found in different parts of Italy; and enters into some very interesting details on the formation of the great plain of Lombardy, and the alluvial depositions of the Po.

Although there is not, we think, any reason to suspect that

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the facts have been in the slightest degree distorted, for the purpose of adapting them to some favourite system, we should have been glad to have had, in this Introduction, the descriptions, and the author's reasonings upon them, less mixed up together; it would have rendered both more intelligible to the reader, and would have saved some occasional repetitions. We are by no means of opinion, that the geologist ought to confine himself to a bare narration of facts, and that he ought to abstain from all theoretical speculations upon them: This is a doctrine that is, we think, rather too much insisted on in the present day; for although the geologist cannot be too much on his guard against the influence of theory in his observations of nature, and ought as carefully to abstain from the use of theoretical terms in his descriptions, it must be admitted that theory is the ultimate object of all geological researches. There are too many instances, it is true, where the love of theory has obscured the visual organs, and, we fear, also has prevailed over the fidelity of the geologist; yet there is no excitement which brings out so much truth, in matters of science as well as in every thing else, as a little controversy. Until the publication of the Illustrations of the Huttonian Theory, perhaps the most eloquent work on science in our language, geology was scarcely known in this country; and to the attention which that work excited, and the controversies that arose from it, we are in a great degree indebted for the knowledge we possess of the physical structure of our island. We cannot express ourselves better on this subject, than in the words of our author.

Nothing is more common, than to hear people rail against systems, and to see those common-place remarks brought forward, which are usually resorted to on such occasions— That the number of well ascertained facts is yet very limited ; that it is impossible to establish any general axioms; that the most important thing we have to do, is to observe the phenomena with accuracy, and to record them with fidelity ; abstaining from all comments and applications of them. These remarks may, within certain limits, be all very true ;, but it is no less true, that many persons allow themselves to be deceived, by laying down principles such as these ; and, while they are declaiming against the abuse of hypotheses, they seem to be ignorant of the use of them. My own opinion is, that had it not been for geological systems, the knowledge we should now possess of the structure of the globe would be scanty indeed; and that to these more or less ingenious theories, such at least as have not been mere speculations, we owe in a great measure that accumulation of facts which may be said to constitute the true capital of the science. Many of those details, respecting the nature and the differences of rocks, their reciprocal connexions, the order of their super

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position, &c. would have escaped observation, or would have been passed over as indifferent, had they not been considered as possessing a peculiar value in the defence or refutation of some particular system.'—Pref. p. 16.

In the account we shall give of this work, we shall confine ourselves principally to the matters of fact. To enter into an examination of the author's theoretical opinions, would extend our remarks beyond our limits, unless we were to omit what we have no doubt will be more generally interesting to our readers.

The Apennines are an uninterrupted range of mountains, which, branching off from the Maritime Alps, and dividing Italy from north to south, form, as it were, the back-bone of that peninsula. Their geographical termination can easily be determined with sufficient accuracy; but the geologist finds considerable difficulty to fix upon the boundary which separates them from the Alps; for, although they consist principally of secondary rocks, yet, as they approach the primitive country of the Alps, they partake more and more of the nature of the latter; and there is a considerable tract of them where there is a mixture of primitive rocks of different kinds; such as, serpentine, clay slate, greenstone, and granular limestone. These do not present the sharp, broken outlines, the pinnacles and needles, which tower aloft in the Alps, standing like the ruins of great masses which have been broken down and mouldered by the hand of time: Their summits have, in general, a rounded form, a more regular and uniform contour, and their sides a more gentle slope; and although there are many deep gullies hollowed out in the sides of the Apennines, there is no great valley which divides the chain completely across.

The most considerable elevations are, Il Velino, and Il GranSasso, which are both in the Abruzzi, and Il Cimone di l'anano, in the territory of Modena. The first of these was found by Von Buch to be 7872 Paris feet above the level of the sea; the second has been estimated, by barometrical measurement, at 9577 feet; and Pini states Il Cimone di Fanano to be 6546 feet above the sea. From the summit of the latter there is a most extensive view, commanding the vast plain of Lombardy, the country around Parma, Reggio, and Modena, a part of Romagna, with the Adriatic in the distance; and, on the other side, a great part of Tuscany, with the whole course of the Arno from its source to its embouchurc. The country on the two sides of the Apennines presents considerable difference in geological structure; that next the Adriatic being wholly composed of secondary rocks, with the exception of some insulated masses of serpentine which appear here and there; while, on the side of the Mediterranean, there is an extensive tract, and chiefly along the shore, of primary and transition rocks, with only occasional patches of secondary strata. On this side, also, have burst forth those innumerable volcanoes which have covered such a vast extent of country with their ashes.

The principal rock of which the north-western part of the Apennines is composed, is a kind of sandstone, known in Tuscany by the names of Macigno and Pietra Serena. It is an aggregate, consisting of grains of quartz, and scales of silvery mica, united by an argillaceous cement. Its colour is most frequently a dark blueish gray; its texture is sometimes coarse-grained, and sometimes so fine, that the component parts cannot be distinguished by the naked eye. It frequently contains small fragments of slate, which appear like black spots; and also angular portions of petrosilex and jasper. It occurs stratified in thick beds, and splits into rhomboidal and polyhedral fragments, and is, in some places, capable of being divided into thin slates, which are used for roofing. In many situations it alternates with a blackish clay-slate, containing minute scales of mica, which give it a silky lustre, M. Brocchi considers these rocks as strictly belonging to the grauwacke and grauwacke-slate of the German mineralogists; and they will be easily recognised as being identical with many of the rocks in Scotland, Wales, and the West of England, which have been described by the same names. The grauwacke of the Apennines also contains beds of limestone; and in the neighbourhood of these beds, the grauwacke is intermixed with calcareous matter. The limestone is of a smoke-gray colour, of a shining and semi-crystalline texture, with a scaly fracture, and contains minute scales of mica and grains of quartz. It also contains animal remains; but they are rare, and they have never been seen by M. Brocchi in the grauwacke, though he has frequently observed portions of bituminized wood in it. Besides these partial and subordinate calcareous beds, there are, in many places, considerable hills entirely composed of this transition limestone. They appear in different parts of the coast, from Genoa to Civita Vecchia ; but are nowhere seen between the Apennines and the Adriatic. The Brocatello marble of Siena belongs to this class. With the exception of some slight indications of manganese and pyrites, no metallic substances have been found in the grauwacke of the Apennines. M. Brocchi has not been able to fix, with precision, the southern boundary of this series of rocks; but he believes that it ceases to form any connected chain of hills about the neighbourhood of Cortona. It is not confined to the more elevated and central mountains, but appears also in the lower parts of the Apennines, as may be seen in the hills around Flo

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