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sonage of a different character, and who, though an eunuch, was the founder of that dynasty, now seated on the throne of Persia. · The Turkish tribe of Cafar had been long settled in Syria. They were brought from that country to Persia by Timur, and were one of the seven tribes who combined to raise Shah Ismael, the first king of the Sophi race, to the throne.' Abbas the Great divided this tribe into three branches, one of whom he settled at Asterabad, a small province of Mazanderan, to protect that country from the predatory inroads of those independent tribes of Turcomans, who dwell along the eastern shores of the Caspian.

Aga Mohamed Khan was the son of Mohamed Hassain Khan, the chief of this tribe of Cajars. We have already alluded to the hostile irruption of his father from Mązanderan, his siege of Shiraz, and subsequent death in the defence of his hereditary possessions. His son, Aga Mohamed, had been seized when an infant by one of the successors of Nadir, who had the barbarity to command, that he should be deprived of his virility. When his father was defeated and slain, he fell into the power of Carim Khan, by whom he was latterly treated with great kindness and indulgence. The whole of that time which he passed as a prisoner at Shiraz, was employed in preparing himself, by the study of men and books, for the great scene in which he was destined to act. He took advantage of the confusion which ensued on the death of Carim Khan in 1779, fled with almost incredible speed to Mazanderan, and immediately declared himself independent.

• He was at this period thirty-six years of age. Though his frame was slender, he was, from his frugal diet and his habits of exercise, capable of suffering any fatigue or hardship. He might be said to live on horseback ; for every moment that he could spare from other occupations, was given to the chase, which was, in fact, his only amusement. His heart is said to have been as hardened as his body ; but the natural severity of his temper was, during the whole of his progress to that sovereign power which he attained, after a struggle of eighteen years, checked by his prudence, which led him not only to conciliate his friends by kindness, but to forget his wrongs,

and even to forgive some of the most inveterate of his personal enemies.'

After the death of Carim Khan, the brothers and nephews of that chief contended for the supremacy ; and successively fell the victims of their ambition. During this period, Aga Mohamed was chiefly occupied in establishing his authority over his own tribe, and extending his dominions on the banks of the Caspian.

He also repaired the fortifications of Tahiran ; which city, he appears, at this period, to have resolved to make his capital: a measure to which he was induced, from its vicinity to Mazanderan, and its centrical situation amid the pasture lands of those Turkish tribes, on whose support he chiefly depended.'

In the year 1789, Latif Ali Khan was the only surviving representative of the house of Carim Khan. He was grandson to the brother of that chief; and, by his military talents, and popular manners, appeared calculated to reestablish the fallen fortunes of the Zund family. But he imprudently disgusted the first magistrate of Shiraz, who was justly respected by the inhabitants. This officer, in the absence of Latif Ali, took possession of the city, and immediately applied to Aga Mohamed for assistance. This was instantly accorded ; but the young chief, with a courage and heroism worthy of a happier fåte, attacked and defeated two successive armies sent for the relief of Shiraz. But in 1792, Aga Mohamed advancing in person at the head of a large army, compelled the young hero, after prodigies of valour, performed with a force altogether disproportioned to the occasion, to seek his safety in flight. From this period, until that of his death in 1795, Latif Ali continued an illustrious fugitive, occupied in the vain endeavour of collecting a force sufficient to resist the constantly increasing strength of his more fortunate rival.

• At the death of Latif Ali Khan in 1795, we may pronounce that Aga Mohamed Khan was the actual, as well as the acknowledged sovereign, of the provinces of Asterabad, Mazanderan, of Ghilan, of the whole of Irac, of Fars, and of Carman. The situation of these countries, which extend from the Caspian Sea to the Persian Gulf, could only be deemed settled and obedient by a comparison of their condition to Khorasan, and other parts of the empire, which had been broken into a number of petty principalities at the death of Nadir Shah ; and had, subsequent to that event, thrown off their allegiance to those rulers who assumed the title of sovereigns of Persia."

The principles and character of Aga Mohamed will be best developed by his conduet towards his own brother Jafer Culi Khan. This chief had declined appearing at Court for some time after his brother's elevation. The most pressing entreaties, the most solenin assurances of safety were lavished, to induce him to repair to Tahiran ; and the government of Ispahan was to be the reward of compliance. When he reached Tahiran, he was welcomed with every appearance of cordiality; and the night passed in peace. Next day, Aga Mohamed Khan, after giving him some instructions regarding his conduct at Ispahan, observed, “ You have not, I believe, yet looked at my new palace; walk there with Baba Khan ; and, after you have seen it, return to me. He went to look at it; and, at the moment he entered the portico, some assassins, who had been stationed there, fell upon him and slew him. The body was carried to Aga Mohamed Khan, who mourned over it with the appearance of the most frantic grief. He desired Baba Khan (the name by which he always called the present monarch, who was then quite a youth) to approach. When near, he bade him observe the corpse of the bravest of men, and the best of brothers. Then loading the young prince with abuse, he exclaimed, · It is for you I have done this! The gallant spirit that lately animated that body would never have permitted my crown to rest upon your head! Persia would have been distracted with internal wars. To avoid these consequences, I have acted with shameful ingratitude, and have sinned deeply against God and man!'- These sentiments,' General Malcolm adds, “ might have been sincere : the public expression of them had the effect of mitigating the universal horror at this murder.'

• The tributary prince of Georgia, the aged Heraclius, taking advantage of the distracted situation of Persia, had, by a formal act, transferred his allegiance from the kings of that country, whose paramount authority his ancestors had acknowledged for centuries to the Sovereigns of Russia. His motive for this measure was declared to be a desire to release his Christian subjects from the violence and oppression of Mohamedan superiors, and to place them under the protection of a great nation of their own religion.'

The Empress Catherine accepted the overtures of I leraclius; and a formal treaty was executed in July 1783, by which she guaranteed to this prince all his possessions.

It was not till the year 1795, that Aga Mohamed Khan had leisure to punish this defection. He led on his army in person. At his approach, the cities of Ervan and Shisha submitted, and, advancing to Teflis, he encountered and defeated Heraclius, who fled to the mountains, whilst his capital exhibited a scene of devastation and carnage. An inhabitant of Georgia, who has given an account of this invasion, states, that General Goodavitch was within six marches of Teflis, in command of a Russian force of sufficient strength to have defended that capital; but that he refused to advance, though repeatedly solicited by Heraclius to come to his aid. « General Malcolm thinks it more probable that he was unable to collect in time his dispersed forces.'

Aga Mohamed Khan had not yet been invested with the royal tiara, though long in possession of sovereign power. After the conquest of Georgia, he yielded, with well-dissembled reluctance, to the entreaties of his courtiers. Recollect,' said he, that, if I do, your toils are only commencing; for I cannot consent to wear the Persian crown, without as much power as has been enjoyed by the greatest sovereigns of that country.'

In the year 1796, the Empress Catherine directed her armies to enter Georgia. They expelled the Persian garrisons left there by Aga Mohamed; made themselves masters of the coast of the Caspian, from the confluence of the Terek, to that of the Cyrus, and reduced the principal strongholds north of the Araxes, which General Zuboff crossed, and established his camp in the celebrated plains of Mogan. At this critical pe riod, the death of the Empress occurred; and the first act of her son and successor, the Emperor Paul, was to recal the army under General Zuboff.

Aga Mohamed told the assembled leaders of his army, that the Russians had presumed, during his absence in Khorasan, to invade the opposite frontier of his dominions... But my valiant warriors shall be led against them; and we will, by the blessing of God, charge their celebrated lines of infantry, and batteries of cannon, and cut them to pieces with our conquering sabres.'- Do you think,' said he to his minister, after the chiefs had retired, I will do what I have told them?! • Undoubtedly,' was the reply. Can a man of your wisdom,'' rejoined Aga Mohamed, believe I will ever run my head az gainst their walls of steel, or expose my irregular army to be destroyed by their cannon and disciplined troops ? Their shot shall never reach me; but they shall possess no country beyond its range. They shall not know sleep; and let them march where they choose, I will surround them with a desert.'

But Aga Mohamed had no opportunity of putting his tactics to the trial. He marched early in spring 1797 ; but the Russians had already disappeared, and the conqueror of Georgia was assassinated soon after by two of his domestics.

On the death of Aga Mohamed, his nephew Futteh Ali Khan (whom we have already mentioned under the familiar title of Baba Khan), hastened from Shiraz, of which he had been governor. He was instantly proclaimed King, but not publicly crowned till the beginning of 1798. Since his accession, Fuiteh Ali has made some progress in establishing his power over the greatest part of Khorasan. Even the chiefs of that country who have not been subdued, yield a nominal obedience and an occasional tribute.

• The Persian Monarch has not been so successful in maintaining the north-western frontier of his kingdom, Georgia, VOL. XXVI. NO. 52.


after a warfare continued with various fortune for many years, has at last become a province of Russia ; and the garrisons of that nation now extend to the banks of the Araxes, and along the southern shores of the Caspian.' The Shah is advantageously known in this country, by the pleasing address and bushy beard of his embassador, who graced for a time the metropolis of our Isle. Of his reign, General Malcolm has furnished few particulars: but his silence is eloquent.

It was our resolution to claim the attention of our readers to the luminous and able account which General Malcolm has exhibited of the ancient and modern religion of Persia-its doctrines, its ceremonies, and its effects. We also had wished to extract some portion of the new and curious information he has furnished relative to the sect of Sufis, whose mystical absurdities are conveyed through the medium of delightful poetry. The picture he has delineated of the present state of manners, science, literature and finance, would each have deserved more than a casual mention ; but the length of observation and of extract in which we have already indulged, compels us to take our leave of this valuable and instructive publication.

Art. III. Aus Meinem Leben, Dichtung und Wahrheit Von

GOETHE. Easter Theil, pp.515. Tübingen, 1811. Zweiter Theil, pp. 573. Do. 1812. Dritter Theil, pp. 538.

Tübingen, small 8vo, 1814. THE The German Muse has, of late years, been by far the most

prolific of the sisterhood, and has certainly cause enough to be proud of some of her offspring ;-although, in her time, she has been delivered of a more numerous litter of moon-calvcs and sooterkins than any of her kindred ; and malicious people pretend, that, in the countenances even of her handsomest children, there may be traced a strong likeness to their mishapen brethren. For our own parts, however, we give no credit to that ill-natured surmise ; and, considering the German literati as in a great measure the pupils of the English, we cannot help viewing them with parental fondness for their well-meant endeavours,--although, as yet, they have not been able to equal us in the manufacture either of Manchester goods or of Shakespeares.

The astonishing rapidity of the development of German literature, has been the principal cause both of its imperfections, and of the enthusiasm of its warmer admirers. About five-andtwenty or thirty years ago, all we knew about Germany was

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