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invention, the only object of it must have been to excite wonder; and no fabricator who deals in this article ever employs it so sparingly. A person making a story, would either have confined himself to what was most probable in itself and most consistent with other accounts, or have endeavoured far oftener than once to invent tales that might astonish.

We proceed to the other confirmations of his narrative. The account which he gave of his courses and distances, was diligently compared with the map, and found not merely to agree with all the known points of African geography, but to tally so well as to raise a suspicion of another kind; for how, it was natural to ask, should he have recollected such particulars without any notes to assist him? This inquiry was actually made, and we shall give the result in the words of the editor.

Being questioned how he came to have so minute a recollection of the exact number of days occupied in his long journies from place to place, he answered, that being obliged to travel almost naked under a burning sun, he always inquired, before setting out on a journey, how long it was expected to last. In the progress

of it, he kept an exact account; and when it was finished, he never failed to notice whether it had occupied a greater or lesser number of days than he had been taught to expect, or whether it had been completed exactly in the stated time.

• On asking him how he could venture to speak with confidence of the precise number of miles which he travelled on each day; he replied, that he could easily recollect whether the camels, on any particular journey, travelled well or ill; and knowing that when they are heavily laden and badly supplied with provisions, they will not go more than from ten to fifteen miles a day; but that, on the other hand, when they are fresh and lightly laden, they will travel from eighteen to twenty-five miles a day, he had reckoned the length of his journeys accordingly.

• When asked how he came to observe so minutely the directions in which he travelled; he replied, that he always noticed in a worning whether the sun rose in his face, or not: and that his thoughts being for ever turned to the consideration of how he should escape, he never omitted to remark, and as much as possible to impress on his recollection, the course he was travelling, and had travelled, and to make inquiries on the subject. Being a sailor, he observed, he had the habit of noticing the course he was steering at sea ; and therefore found no difficulty in doing so, when traversing the Dea serts of Africa, which looked like the in a calm. Introd. Det. p. xviii, xix.

But the most important circumstance in confirmation of Adams's narrative remains to be mentioned. He had stated, that Mr Dupuis was the person through whom he had been ransomed, and that he had spoken to him in the course of the transaction. As it was plain that this gentleman must be able to confirm or


contradict some parts of his story, the publication was delayed until his return to England, which was expected in a short time. When he did come, accordingly, the narrative was pnt into his hands, and he gave ample testimony to its correctness as far as he was concerned, beside mentioning several other particulars which tend strongly to support it in those parts of which he could not speak from his own knowledge. The general impression made upon Mr Dupuis by his manner of relating his adventures, was perfectly favourable ; and this is an important consideration, because he was the first person to whom he de' scribed them upon his return from the interior, and immediately after his arrival on the coast. Moreover, Mr Dupuis had him examined by several respectable traders who had been at Tombuctoo, and they assured him that they had no doubt of his having been where he described.' He took down his account in writing, and never found him to vary in any important particular from his first story. He now examined the nar. rative before us, and reported its general ageeement with his 'own notes, excepting that Adams, as might be expected, entered more minutely into some of the details when they were fresh in his recollection. Mr Dupuis has added minute notes to the present account, pointing out its coincidence or discrepancy with the result of his own inquiries ; and we have already noticed the only material points of difference. It must be added, that in Africa he went by another name; but he once hinted that it was not his real one, and that he had once been on board a British man of war. This circumstance, adiled to the great apprehensivn which he always showed of falling in with our cruisers, justifies a suspicion that he concealed his real name, for fear of being treated as a deserter. The appellation which he chose (possibly from having learnt something of its history while he sojourned amongst us, and from the superstitious regard to a lucky name, not uncommon in sailors), was Benjamin Rose. What predilection made him fix upon Adams, or why he retained it when he came here, we cannot tell. Mr Dupuis gives the following remarkable description of him, upon bis return from the Interior.

• The appearance, features and dress of this man upon his arrival at Mogadore, so perfectly reseinbled those of an Arab, or rather of a Shilluh, his head being shaved, and his beard scanty and black, that I had difficulty at first in believing him to be a Christian. When I spoke to him in English, he answered me in a mixture of Arabic and broken English, and sometimes in Arabic only. At this early period I could not help remarking that his pronunciation of Arabic resembled that of a Negro, but concluded that it was occasioned by his intercourse with Negro slaves.

• Like most other Christians after a long captivity and severe treatment among the Arabs, he appeared, upon his first arrival, exceedingly stupid and insensible ; and he scarcely spoke to any one : But he soon began to show great thankfulness for his ransom, and willingly assisted in arranging and cultivating a small garden, and in other employu.ent which I gave him with a view of diverting his thoughts. About ten or twelve days afterwards, his faculties seemed pretty well restored, and his reserve had in a great measure worn off, and about this period, having been informed by a person with whom he conversed, that he had visited the Negro country, I began to inquire of him the extent of his travels in the Desert ; suppresse ing every appearance of peculiar curiosity, or of expecting any thing extraordinary from his answers. He then related to me, with the greatest simplicity, the manner in which he had been wrecked, and afterwards carried away to the eastward, and to Tombucton ; the misfortunes and sufferings of the party which he accompanied, his return across the Desert, and his ultiinat: arrival at Wed Noon. What he dwelt upon with most force and earnestness during this recital, were the particulars of the brutal treatment which he experienced from the Arabs at El Kabla and Wed-Noon. He did not appear to attach any importance to the fact of his having been at Tombuctoo : and the only strong feeling which he expressed respecting it, was that of dread, with which some of the Negroes had inspired him, who, he said, were sorcerers, and possessed the power of destroying their enemies by witchcraft.' p. xxiii-xxv.

We might state other confirmations of less value, which are to be met with in the course of this volume. Thus, Adams says was sold at Wed-Noon to Bel-Cossim-Abdallah for seventy doldars. Now this very Bel-Cussim having come to Mogadore, called upon Mr Dupuis, and told the same story. He also says, that at the same place he heard a Liverpool vessel, which he called the Agezuma, had been wrecked four years before; and upon inquiry, it is found, that in 1810 the Montezuma of Liverpool was wrecked upon that coast. Mr Dupuis either ransomed, or accounted for (by other evidence than Adams’s) ten of the eleven sailors who landed along with him, by the same names, except his own, which he had given them. The story of his shipwreck was confirmed by three of these, as well as of his conveyance eastward into the Interior; and although Mr Dupuis did not see himn in this country, he is enabled to identify bim tkus.-Two of his comrades proved to Mr D.'s agent, that he was one of their crew, and confirmed this afterwards at Mogadore. Some of his adventures in the Desert had reached that place betore his arrival ; and he related them when he arrived. He was there delivered to the American Consul at Tangier, and by him sent to Cadiz, where he was seen by a gentleman of that place, who afterwards found him out in London, and identified bim.


The Editor suljoins to his work an elaborate discussion of the internal evidence which the Narrative itself affords; and it is well worthy of the reader's attentive perusal: But we must here satisfy ourselves with having laid before him the grounds, chiefly of external evidence, upon which our own opinion rests ; and that opinion undoubtedly is, that we can perceive no adequate reason for questioning the veracity and the general accuracy of this man's story. We shall now, therefore, follow him briefly through his details.

The Charles, in which Adams sailed, left America in June 1810, and arrived the following month at Gibraltar, from whence she soon afterwards sailed upon a trading voyage to the Coast of Africa ; and on the 11th of October struck upon a reef of rocks, and was left by the crew, who all succeeded in gaining the shore. By the captain's reckoning, they were four hundred miles to the northward of Senegal, or not far from Cape Blanco, at a place called El Gazie. They were soon made prisoners by a tribe of the Moors, whom Adams describes as in the lowest state of misery and indigence. Among them, was a Frenchman, who had been wrecked, and made a slave about a year before, having escaped with some other prisoners of war from Santa Cruz in the Canary Islands. It deserves here to be noticed, that while Adams was relating this part of his story, a Teneriffe merchant entered the room by accident; and being asked, whether he had ever heard of such an incident, he said, that he recollected some French prisoners escaping from Santa Cruz about the time in question, and that it was rumoured they had run their boat ashore, and been carried into captivity by the Moors. After the tribe which took Adams had collected as much of the wreck as they could, they appear to have divided the crew amongst them; and Adams, * with the mate and a seaman, fell to the share of a party, consisting of twenty, men, women and children, who carried their prisoners for about thirty days to the southward of cast, when they arrived at a place, the name of which he does not recollect, and remained there about a month. They were joined by a Moor, with another of the crew named Stevens, a' Portuguezę. The mate and the other seaman were carried away to the northward, and Adams was left with Stevens in custody of the remaining eighteen Moors, who proceeded upon a slaving expeditition to Souden

* The Captain had previously been killed by the Moors, for his insolent and refractory behaviour. Adams says he was slain with a sword. Mr Dupuis thinks he told him at Mogadore, that he died ół bad treatment and distress.

ny. They were joined on their route by twelve more Moors, and arrived, after travelling fourteen days, in a southerly direction. Soudenny is described as a small negro village, in the immediate neighbourhood of Mungo Park's first route; and here the party skulked among the bushes which surround the town, for about a week, iying in wait for the inhabitants. It cannot be denied, that, owing probably to the proper questions not having been put, Adams leaves this part of the narrative involved in some improbability. That a party of thirty-two pere sons and twelve camels should remain concealed for a week, close by a small village, seems hardly to be supposed. They then seized upon a woman and her child, and two boys, whom they found near the town. But though too large a party to escape notice, they appear to have been much too weak for the service they had undertaken ; and we can hardly conceive their remaining concealed four or five days after this enterprize. So, however, it was; and at the end of that time, or almost a fortnight after their arrival among the bushes, they appear to have attracted the notice of the villagers, who attacked them in a body of forty or fifty armed, men, and took them prisoners, without the least resistance being attempted. They were guarded by an hundred negroes; and, in four days, were sent under an escort of sixty men to Tonbuctor. Whatever improbability there may be in this part of the statement, arising in all likelihood from the omission of some particulars, it is confirmed by Mungo Park's account of that district in his Travels, which approaches the nearest to Soudenny. He describes it as peculiarly a prey to the slave-trading incursions of the Moors.

On their way to Tombuctoo, fourteen of the Moors were put to death for attempting to escape ; and the rest, on their arrival, were closely confined as prisoners. Adams, and Stevens the Portuguese, were deemed objects of so nuch curiosity, from their colour, that they were suffered to remain in the palace, for the especial entertainment of the king and queen, Woollo and Fatima, who are described as antient personages, with grey hair ; the latter excessively fat, and dressed in blue nankin. The people treated them with respect when they walked about, bowing, or touching their heads; and when the king received his subjects at his house, their mode of salutation was to kiss his head. The palace was of mud, and in every respect mean ; there were about twenty muskets in it, which never were used. The town is described as covering as much ground as Lisbon ; but the houses are scattered irregularly. The river, which he terms La Mar Zarah, flows to the south,

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