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Upon the whole, we regard this volume as a very important accession to our knowledge of the African Continent. If there are no details of extraordinary interest respecting the interior, it is because the stories formerly told of Tombuetoo, were mere visions of the imagination, and the narrative of Adams has dispelled such illusions. This is the principal value of the book ; and it is a great one.

We draw another inference from it, and from the interesting notices of Mr Dupuis——that there seems more prospect than ever of the expeditions now sent out, prosecuting successfully their discoveries in the interior, and that much may be done by sending intelligent natives, either Moors or Negroes, by the usual caravans. The mild treatment expe. rienced by Adams among the Negro tribes, shows how safe and easy the examination of the central region might prove, as soon as the deserts which surround and cut them off from the coast are passed; and the intelligent observations collected from natives of different classes, and even from a very illiterate and ordinary seaman, show, that in order to convey some useful and interesting details, there is no necessity for a scientific traveller.

While our hopes of information are thus raised, it must be admitted, that, in the same proportion, all the sanguine prospects of new channels for our commerce are overcast. They who expected to have a Mexico or Peru opened to their speculations in the heart of Africa, must now turn away from that Continent with some disappointment. In truth, their mistakes are not confined to the old hemisphere ; the trade of South America falls almost as much below their golden dreams as that of Tombuctoo; and, instead of an avenue to mines of gold, it only opens to them the slow though sure benefits which must be derived from the progress of the South Americans in the arts that furnish means of carrying on a foreign trade of large extent, as soon as the European monopoly shall set their industry free. A still more slow

progress
of the same

kind
may

render the Africans valuable customers to Europe, after Europe shall have ceased to drive a detestable traffic in their flesh and blood.

Art. VI. The Life of James the II., &c. collected out of Me

moirs, Writ of his own Hand, &c. Published from the Stuart MSS., at Carleton House. By the Reverend JAMES STANIER CLARKE, &c. London. 2 vol. 4to. Longman & Co.

AS s this publication is of considerable importance to those who

critically study the History of England, we shall endeavour to give our readers a full and plain account of the materials which compose it. It has long been known, that James II. left behind him some narrative of the events in which he was concerned. The first mention of it, with which we are acquainted, is by Burnet, who, in his account of James's first marriage, tells us,– He' (the Duke of York) . had a great desire to understand affairs; and, in order to that, he kept a constant Journal of all that passed, of which he showed me a great deal.' -— The Dutchess of York was a very extraordinary woman. She had great knowledge, and a lively sense of things. She soon understood what belonged to a Princess,—and took state on her rather too much. She writ well, and had begun the Duke's Life, of which she showed me a volume. It was all drawn from his Journal. And he intended to haye employed me in carrying it on.' The Dutchess of York died in 1671.

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The next public notice of James II.'s Memoirs, is in a history of Marshal Turenne, published at Paris in 1735, and written by Andrew Ramsay a Jacobite gentleman, and a writer of some note in his own time, who, having been created a Scotch Baronet by the Pretender, and having obtained the French order of St Michel by the interposition of the same Prince, is commonly known by the name of the Chevalier Ramsay. In the second volume of that work is an extract from James's Memoirs, extending to a hundred and fifty pages, containing an account of his campaigns in the French army under Turenne, and in the Spanish army in the Netherlands under Condé, from 1652 to the peace of ihe Pyrenees. Prefixed to this part of the work is an introductory note by the Cardinal de Bouillon at Rome, on the 16th of February 1715, from which we learn, that he received it from King James at St Germains, on the 1st of January 1696, as a mark of that Monarch's gratitude and reverence for Turenne, on condition that it should be shown to no other person during the life of the King. At the end is a certificate, dated on the 24th December 1734, by the Superiors of the Scotch College at Paris, viz. Louis Inesse, late Principal; C. Whiteford, Principal; Thomas Inesse, Sub-Principal; Alexander Smith, Prefect of Studies ;-testifying, that the above Memoirs of James II. are conformable to the original English Memoirs, written by his Majesty's own hand, and preserved in virtue of a warrant subscribed by him in the Archives of our said College.' They also state, that the above' MSS., given by the King to the Cardinal, written and translated by Mr Dempster, one of the King's Secretaries, but revised and corrected by the King, agrees in every respect but style, and the order of the narrative, with another translation made by order of the Queen Dowager, signed by her, countersigned by Lord Cary!!

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and delivered by Louis Inesse, on the 15th January 1705, to the Cardinal de Bouillon, who, it appears, had mislaid the original translation presented to him by the King, which he did not recover till he was at Rome in 1715.

Thus far, then, the history of James's original MSS. is perfectly satisfactory. The earlier part of them were seen by Burnet before 1671. A considerable extract from that part was attested by James himself in 1696. On the 24th of March 1701, the King, by his warrant, directed the custody of the original Memoirs, writt in our own hand,' to be committed to Louis Inesse, Principal of the Scotch College, and to his successors in the Government of the said College. In 1705 we find them in the College. On the 12th of January 1707, we find a warrant for the removal of that part of his Majesty's Memoirs and other papers, written in his own hand, which relates to 1678 and the subsequent period, to St Germains, for some months. We have also seen a promise of the son of James II., written on the 9th November 1707, to settle, within six months after his restoration, an estate producing a hundred pounds Sterling by the year in France, on the Scotch college at Paris,

where the original Memoirs and MSS. of our Royal Father are deposited, by his especiall warrant.' In 1734 these papers continued in the same custody. All this is clear and indisputable.

'Hitherto the external evidence is confined to the King's original Memoirs : but we have lately seen an authentic document, which ascertains, that at least in the year 1740 there existed another MS. more immediately connected with the present pub"lication. It is a despatch, dated at Rome on the 10th January 1740, from James Edgar, then the Pretender's Secretary, to

Th mas Carte, who devoted himself to toil and danger during his whole life for the House of Stuart, and compiled his History of England to promote their restoration. It is of the following tenor. • The King is pleased, by this post, to send directions to Messrs Innes, to give you the perusal at the Scots Col·lege at Paris, of the Complete Life of the late King his father writ by Mr Dicconson in consequence of royal orders, all taken out of and supported by the late King's MSS. There can be little doubt that the Life here spoken of is the very Narrative now before us; and until evidence be offered to the contrary, it is reasonable to conclude that Carte saw only the compilation, and was not allowed to peruse the King's original Memoirs. There are, indeed, a few particulars of no moment in Carte's extracts, published by Macpherson, to which we have not found any parallel passages in the present publication. (See i. Mac. 51-68– 112.) More diligent search however might perhaps show, that

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these, like all the rest, are extracted from it. If the result should be different, it may seem reasonable to infer, that Carte had access to other papers besides the Life, and that these passages are taken from the original Memoirs. If the passages had been numerous and important, more especially if they had related to events of a secret nature, such a conclusion would have appeared perfectly satisfactory. But Carte, who passed his life with Jacobites, might easily have gleaned a few unimportant particulars from their conversation, and inserted them in the order of time, as connected with his extracts from the Life of James. They might have been even communicated to him by the Superiors of the Scotch College, with an assurance that they were contained in the original Memoirs, which were not to be shown to him. From the general tenor of Carte's and Macpherson's extracts, it is apparent that they are copied or abridged from the Life before us. The probability that there are exceptions in Carte's extracts, seems extremely faint. We have not yet discovered a single proof that any of those of Macpherson are from another source. This order to Carte is mentioned by Macpherson in the preface to his State Papers, with his characteristic inaccuracy and confidence. Having obtained an order from Rome to inspect such papers in the Scotch Colleges as LAY OPEN, he made large and accurate extracts from the Life of James II, written in that prince's own hand.' The words • lay open,' which Macpherson prints in capital letters, are an addition of his own. The reader has already seen, that the order was to see the Life of James, not written by himself, but compiled from his own Memoirs by another writer; and that the title Memoirs' is always used to distinguish the King's own Narrative from the compilation called his Life. We shall presently see that there is too much reason to ascribe these mistatements to a purpose.

In the early editions of Mr Hume's History, he was obliged to acknowledge (though there remains no direct evidence of it) that a formal plan was laid in 1670 for changing the religion, and subverting the constitution of England; and that Charles II.' his brother, and the ministry, were in reality conspirators against the people.' When Mr Hume went afterwards to Paris as secretary to Lord Hertford's embassy, his station and his character procured him access to the papers in the Scotch College, which were perhaps no longer so jealously kept secret, after the last shadow of regal pretension in the House of Stuart had vanished, at the death of the son of James II. In the edition of 1770, he has accordingly added a note, in which we are informed that since the publication of this History, the author has had occasion to see the most direct and

positive evidence of this conspiracy. From the humanity and candour of the Principal of the Scotch College at Paris, he was admitted to peruse James the Second's Memoirs kept there. They amount to several volumes of small folio, all writ with that prince's own hand,' &c. &c. From this description, marked by the careful minuteness of a man of judgment and integrity, it is obvious, that the MSS. which Mr Hume perused were the • Memoirs,' and not the Life.? It coincides with the more minute account of James's papers which is found in Lord Holland's Introduction to Mr Fox's History.

The next person who is known to have seen these papers, and the first who published any considerable part of them, was Macpherson.Though, as a publisher of such large extracts, he was bound to have given a far more minute and distinct description of them than that which had been given by Mr Hume, his account is in fact unfortunately distinguished by that' unsatisfactory yagueness--that indisposition to state the sources of his information fully and candidly--that tone of disregard for the public, and defiance of the most reasonable demands of criticism, which have thrown so deep a shade over his literary probity. In this important instance, as in others, he seems to have chosen to affect a disdain of suspicions,' rather than to silence them--and to 'resent áccusations which it would have been wiser to confule. In particular, he suppresses the material distinction between the two MSS. in the Scotch College ;-the Memoirs 'written by the hand of James the Second, and the Life collected from them and other sources, after the death of that Prince, by an anonymous compiler.“ He uses the words Life of James the Second' and • King James's Memoirs,' indifferently-as if they were phrases denoting the same manuscript. He gives his readers to understand that his extracts were from the King's Memoirs, which there is reason to believe that he never saw. He entirely keeps out of view the great difference between the facts which rest on the testimony of the King, and those which are supported only by the authority (if that word may be used) of an anonymous Jacobite writer, in a work composed long after 'most of the events to which it relates.' Yet many of his extracts, if not all, are certainly made from the compilation which professes to be collected out of Memoirs writt of his own hand.' The practical importance of the distinction thus suppressed, will speedily appear in more than one remarkable instance. At present, it is sufficient to have remarked the suppression as an example of disingenuosness which it is not easy to parallel, in a work pretending to an historical character,

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