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is not to set aside, but to allint, the memory; and keeps it in exercise; 'fos, after all, you muit remember when, where, what you have noted. Allistance your memory must have, unless it is universal, and you can carry off by heart the books of a library.

3. Many, and they not unlearned, do not practise this method. A. Make not those your example who turn out of the straight road, but follow those who are in it. They wlio do as well as they can without these helps, would do much better with them.

-4. The old philofophers delivered to their scholars by ear and memory. A. But they wrote afterwards at home. The praca tice of all universities is an answer to this, where they write down notes of the lectures given to them.


lose your notes, and then what becomes of your learning?. A. What if the sky should fall? Do men avoid laying up money, for fear the thieves should have it? or to build houses, for fear they should be burned? And suppose I should lose my papers, I may at the worst have more left upon my mind, than you who never wrote at all.-6. It will be troublesome to carry them about. A. IE they are collected with judgment, according to the method I teach, they will never "risc to a great bulk: besides, you, who are so afraid of being over-burthened, consider how many articles were carried from place to place by every Roman foldier-cibum, utenfilia, vallum, arma-and is not learning a fort of warfare? 7. It is a work of too much time. A. Your time cannot be bet ter employed : and to some persons, all the time they spend in reading without it, is thrown away. Marking the book, as fome people do, is a slovenly trick, and of little use. 8. There are indexes. A. Into which you will often look without obtaining any satisfaction–They promise great things, and often do litileAuthors seldom make them for themselves--Many books have none-No index fo good as our own, taken with the reading of the context— It is 100 late to consult indexes when you are to write or speak : and besides, it is part of the use of your own notes to direct you what books to consult, and what indexes to go to. Idleness is at the bottom of all these excuses : you read for ease and pleasure, not for profit; your reading is of no not worth while to build a granary to lay up chaff. There is no more benefit in reading a great deal, than in eating a great deal: the good is from what is properly digested. The work may have its trouble ; but nothing valuable is obtained without it. Many of moderate parts become great by the practice of noting. That


is properly your own, which is the result of your own observation: and nobody can tell, but by experience, the pleasure with which such a work is surveyed, both in its growth, and when it is finished. The scholar enters into his labours, as the bee into its hive.


The rules by which our practice is to be guided, are these following.

1. To enter upon the work early in life : the sooner we begin, the more we shall collect : musicians begin their notes when they are children ; but better late than never. 2. To do it with judgment. The great question is, what to take, and what to leave ; and the best way of settling it, is to lay in good principles of truth, (happy are they, thrice happy, that find them) and to propose some scope, some objects, at which we aim more particularly. 3. To do it continually--the pen should be always in hand-90 book so bad, said Pliny, but some good to be found in it; and so observes our Mr. Herbert, where he treats of a parfon's knowJedge. Practice makes all things easy, and skill will come with use--read no book quin excerpas. 4. Extracts should consist not of common, but of select things. 5. At times review and read over what you have written : no greater pleasure: a man surveys his labours as he does the garden which he has planted, and fees how plants flourish in their proper borders. There is great profit in this, because it transplants things from the book to the memory. 5. Always keep in view the end of your own studies—The philo- ; logist fixes on one thing, the orator on another, the physician on another, &c. and the theologian on something different from them all. He will be thinking of the places, the people, the times, the vices, errors, &c. with which he is concerned; if an improvement occurs, he will note it, as a thing suggested by the note he is taking.

The method. Every thing that is done well, must be done in some order. It was the method of Drexelius to divide all his collections into three classes, which he called Lemmata, AdverJaria, Historica: of these he had one title for sacred, another for profane ; fo in all he had fix fortments. The first comprehended what related to virtues and vices, and subjects of conversation in

common life; these cond, wise sayings and notable things, ancient rites and customs. The third, examples at large from history. These were all referred to in three alphabetical indexes. Every person may chuse his own method, with a good index accommodated. When Drexelius was asked by his friend Faustinus, how he could do so much as he had done? He answered, the year has 365 days, or 8460 hours: in so many hours great things may be donenulla dies, nulla hora fine linea—the flow tortoise made a long journey by losing no time. He had several choice subjects, for each of which he reserved a volume by itself; and these he called works fingularis induftriæ; such were his Res Nummaria, which contained the whole history of money, and the wealth of different ages and empires; and his Lusus Urbani ; his Epitome of Baronius, Livy, Tacitus, Cæsar, the two Plinys, and many others; his philological collection of words and sentences.



WHAT authors we ought to read. 1. Every author who is the beft in his way.

2. Such authors as suit best with our own genius. -3. The ancient writers are generally to be preferred to modern.

How we ought to read. 1. Not to affect that rambling sort of reading, which looks at every thing, but sticks to nothing. 2. To read an author through, from the beginning to the end. 3. Not to read cursorily, but with meditation and steadiness. The reafons are these. 1. Against rambling. You must settle somewhere before you can extract. He that is always travelling, will have many landlords, but few friends. Meats do not profit, unless they are retained in the stomach: the wound will not heal, which is constantly interrupted with fresh applications: the plants will not thrive, which are too often transplanted. The squeamith ftomach is amused with variety, and tastes of many things. Many persons read, as dogs drink out of the Nile, as they run, and therefore never profit much. Not more than two authors should be studied at the same time. And in all authors three things are to be observed. 1. The matter or subject, with the drift of his argument. 2. The words, style, and construction of his sentences. 3. The numbers, and cadence ; for not only poets, but orators also consider the harmony of their periods. If the style

of an author be rough, hobbling, and inharmonious, the reader is disgusted.

The memory will receive great help from method and imagination. Mcthod is almost every thing in memory-ordo anima memoriæ. Nothing is so irregular in its nature, but that method will reduce it to order, and make it portableomnium inftar mihi ordo ; without it we may as well write on water or fand. It is not so clear what he means by imagination ; but I suppose it to be, the frequent thinking of a thing over again in the mind, by which means it will be so fixed as never to depart. As the mind was made to contain great things, let it not be overloaded with tritles. Remember fin, to bewail it; kindness, to return it ; death, to prepare

for it; mercy, to hope for it; wrath, to fear it; eternity, to despise the world, and all temporal things—so to pass through things temporal, as not to lose the things eternal.

General Rules for a Preacher,

He, of all men, is a student, who can be nothing without the practice of notifying and collecting: so I consider his case by itfelf. Besides the three claffes above-mentioned, he should have a book to receive his fymbola, under the titles of all the festivals and Sundays of the year. Should make himself master of the Scrip tures, the gospels, lessons, &c. appointed for each day; and then throw together under each, whatever he meets with conducing to the explanation of them; with all texts and subjects proper to be treated of on those days. Of this the author gives examples, and particularly for ascension day; producing texts and subjects for thirtyfour years on that one festival. This plain is excellent. Every fermon should have some point of practice to be enforced; it is otherwise unprofitable. We love to hear fine expofitions, and a curious display of learning, &c. so we come back a little more learned, but not warmed nor excited to piety. Tell me what I am to desire, and what to avoid ; how I may strengthen my faith; how repel temptations, and be a match for evil; how I may bear misfortunes without repining myself, and profperity without making others repine--scire discimus plerumque, non facere.


Particular Rules for a Preacher.

1. Fix upon some particular point which you would enforce. Ask yourself, what am I going to prove ? and how? What head of Christian do&rine do you mean to inculcate, that your audience may more firmly believe it? To this all is to be directed, They that are best skilled, say every good fermon should be reducible to a syllogism. For want of this, many fine discourses are good for nothing : they are elegant in language and sentiment, but produce no effect ; they are every thing but what is needful and ufeful : therefore let it be the scope of a discourse to promote the salvation, and improve the morals of your hearers, noi to raise their admiration.

II. Let your exordium be short, and relate to the matter that is to come. The head ought not to be half as long as the body. The entrance upon a discourse should be such as to gain the attention of the audience; but he disgusts them, who keeps them too long in expectation ; and when once their attention drops, you will with great difficulty recover it. Therefore let your beginning be short, and to the purpose, left it be said that you began with fith, and ended with fowls. Your conclusion should also be short, clear, nervous, and pathetic.

III. Speak now, and never throw your words out too presipitately. It is incredible how this one thing will recommend you. . The learned will take you for a person of judgment, who knows what is proper, and has a command of himself; and the unlearned will have time to follow and understand yon.

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IV. Avoid all affectation and ftiffness. Purity of intention, and a desire for the glory of God, will make your delivery easy, humble, and natural. Whatever is unnatural, never pleases. Your di&tion should not be fine and over-wrought, but nearly such as you would use in common talk; for this infinuates readily into the mind. He is the best preacher, who forgetting himself, seems to know nothing but Christ crucified. He avoids all vain and curious questions, and all novelties, as improper for the pulpit ; having nothing in his intentions but the reformation of the people.

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