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V. Suit yourself to the audience, the place, and the time. As it is a great fault not to be understood at all, it is also bad if you are understood with difficulıy. There are figures of speech which give great help to the understanding ; such as the prosopopeia, the form of a dialogue, the strong delineation, as if a thing were present to the view (hypotyposis). But above all, there should be a frequent use of funilitudes; for this is the manner of the Scripture throughout. A strong text often repeated has good effect; as our Saviour, three times in four verses, uses that striking expreslion, the worm that never dieth. Him you are to imitate ; not only in the manner, but in the duty of preaching: never omit it ; he was always ready for it.
VI. It is of great fervice to stop sometimes, to recolle&t yourfelf, and preserve your presence of mind. This is particularly necessary toward the conclusion, when every nerve must be strained to fix what you have explained in the mind of your hearers. Unison of tone, or monotony, is ever to be avoided as lifeless and uiraffecting
VII. Let human learning be the servant, but let divine learning rule. Build nothing but upon the Scriptures: a preacher thould have them nearly by heart; for which purpose, he should sead at least two chapters every day of his life, and notify therefrom into his classes or his fymbola. As one egg hath more nourishinent than a pot full of herbs, one sentence of the Bible will have more effect than a thousand from Aristotle or Cicero, which are dry and bloodless. Many err in this respect, who totally, or at least very shamefully, neglecting the divine oracles, think they have done forely, when they have painted themselves with the colours ings of Heathen orators, &c.
VIII. Write down your plan, arguments, texts, disposition, &c. in a rough draughi' first; and have all your materials ready before you begin to build. As the work goes on, you may pick and chufe, leave out or alter, as you see best. No practice but this can make the compofirion good: omnis concie bis fcribenda.
IX. Above all things divide clearly, and fort your matter well. the work is more than half finished when this is done : your words and sentences will come easy, and as it were of them.
selves. To methodise and digest well is the point both for the speaker and the bearer-qui bene distinguit*, bene decet a fermon well digested may be got by heart over night,
X. Never exceed an hour ; but rather fall short of it. None can attend more, even though you were to preach roses and jewels; nor can the memory carry
When the attention is ex-' hausted, you speak without effect; the full stomach loaths the honey and the honeycomb : that which is moderate and well dife posed, will be the sweetest—in fine ne corrumpas,
XI. Teach nothing to others, of which you are not persuaded yourself—si vis nie flere, &c. Nothing will reach the heart, but that which comes from the heart., How great is the difference between him who collects and repeats, and him who speaks affectionately of that truth which he knows and feels! To gather scraps from homílies and sermons, and then consarcinate, is poor work: but if nothing better can be done, make it your own, by thinking well on what you have collected from others,
-XII. Reprove vices sharply, but not persons. Great men, and persons in authority, should not be 'nained, or even pointed at; which exasperates without amending: private admonition' fhould rather be used. Never spare the yices which are most in fashion; but even here all bitterness is to be avoided--according to that admonition of St. Paul, reprové, rebuke, exhort, with all long-suffering and doctrine. 2 Tim. iv. 2. Let your pity prevail against your indignation-remember Christ weeping over the
Three eminent writers, Fenelon, Voltaire, and Bishop Berkeley, are against formally dividing a fermon: but the reasons on the other side are stronger. See Maury fur l'Elo. quence, &c. p. 424. In Cicero's excellent oration pro lege Manilid, the iranfitions from pne head to another are marked and mentioned throughout as distinctly and plainly as preachers do in their fermons-Quod extremum propofuimquod reliquum efi, &c. It seems to be a perfect model of method in composition, and should be thoroughly studied as such. Non mibi tam copia quam modus in dicendo quærendus eft, fays the author in his exordium. What would the human figure be, unless it were built upon bones and joints, properly connected and covered, so that the whole has a regular and elegant apa pearance? The late learned Dr. Samuel Jobnjon, in his directions to a clergyman concerning the composition of a sermon, very properly observes, that “ divisions not only help the memory of the hearer, but direct the judgment of the writer: they supply sources of invention, and keep every part in its proper place."' Boswell's Life of. Jobnjon, Vol. 11. p. 324.
guilty Jerusalem; and never forget, that sins, not sinners, are to be lashed.
XIII. Detest all pride, first in yourself, and then in others. Let your speech, and even your countenance, breathe humility, and lowliness of heart. The pompous orator is a mimic, or a tragedian ; more fit for the stage than the pulpit; and his only object is to gain applause. The preacher who is truly humble, despises no man, nor doth he hurt any one by private reflections. He will not only bear reproof, but court it: he will get some faithful friends to tell him his faults. Chrysostom suffered himfelf to be admonished and corrected by an old woman. He that is to know himself, must have faithful friends, or bitter enemies : and the divine Spirit only can enable him to make a proper use of them.
XIV, Imitate nobody in preaching. It is useful to hear good preachers, but to imitate their manner is not so. Every man is most powerful in his own natural character. In other sciences imitation is good : here it is bad. Every man should consult his own genius, and cultivate it to the best of his ability. When a man is out of himself, then he is affected; and affectation (poils
XV. Do what you say. Without this nobody believes you. Be the fame out of the pulpit as in it: otherwise it will be cait in your teeth, " he says and does not.” Be ye then doers of the word, and not preachers of it only. The Gospel is never fo effectually recommended, as when we see it realized in the life and manners of the preacher.
The improvement of our time is the first confideration in human life; for on time depends eternity. Nothing but time can make a scholar or a divine ; and he that makes the most of it, by some such method as is here recommended, is the wisest man. Many never discover its value till they have lost it, and would give the whole world, if they had it, to recover it again. The only laudable avarice is that of our time; of which there have been many great examples. Cato Uticensis made it his practice to carry a book witń him into the fenate-house, that inftead of hearing idle talk, he might read till business, began. Plato had Sophron, the poet of Syracuse, laid at his, pillow when he was dying. Abbas Dorotheus had a book open while he was eating, and by his bed side against he waked. Bernard faid, “ let us talk this hour out : on this hour eternity may depend." Beware of thieves, but especially of those who rob you of your time, for which they can never make you any amends. Read, note, be vigilant, be active, stock your memory; let no hour or minute be without its use. Magna vita pars elabitur malè agentibus, maxima nihil agentibus, tota aliud agentibus, i. e, in doing what is nothing to the purpose: Teach us, good Lord, so to value our time, and pumber our days, as to apply our hearts unto wisdom,
A SHORT ACCOUNT OF HIM,
WITH THE USE MADE OF HIS CHARACTER,
BY. BISHOP HORNE,
THE attention of Dr. Horne to the writings of this eminent
prelate commenced in the early part of his life, and increased with his years; till he published Bishop Andrews's Devotions, nearly after the pattern of Dean Stanhope's edition,
Bishop Andrews was, without exception, the first preacher of his time; and his discourses and lectures, though somewhat obrolete, from their antiquity, in style and manner, are yet so excel, lent for the truth, learning, eloquence, and piety, found in them, that when we have laid down rules for a preacher, no character can be produced, in which they were better exemplified.
His funeral sermon was preached by Bishop Buckridge. It is there said, that they who spake truth of him could not but speak well of him; and if they spake falsely of him, his life and manners did confute them. As soon as he was put to school, he counted all the time lost that was not spent in his studies. He fat late, and arose at four in the morning: not like moderns at seven or eight, with their heads and stomachs aching-qui nondum hefternam edormiverunt crapulam. He loved not the things of this world, though he had them as a steward. He sent alms under other mens' names: he stayed not till the poor sought him, but he first sought them.
In most of his fermons he was so careful and exact, that there were few of thein which were not thrice between the hammer and the anvil, before they were preached, He ever miliked often and