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In allusion to this custom, with what sublimity and energy are the apostles represented to be brought out last upon the stage, as being devoted to certain death, and being made a public spectacle to the world, to angels and men !-Horne's Introduction, vol. iii. p. 493.
IV.-13. “We are made as the filth of the world,” &c. Literally, a purgation or lustrative sacrifice : the allusion is to a custom common among heathen nations in times of public calamity, who selected some unhappy men of the most abject and despicable character. These, after being maintained
a whole year at the public expense, were then led out crowned with flowers, as was usual in sacrifices, and were devoted to appease or avert the anger of their deities, being, either precipitated into the sea, or burnt alive, after which their ashes were thrown into the sea.—Horne's Introduction, vol. ii. p. 518.
V.-5. “To deliver such a one unto Satan,” &c. See remark at Romans ix. 3.
V.-9. “I wrote unto you in an epistle,” &c. More correctly, I write, or am writing to you in the or this epistle. In the Greek, the form of the verb used, is the first, aorist, which, not unfrequently, has a present signification. It is also to be observed, that the article is used in the original before the word epistle.
VI.18. “Sinneth against his own body.” “ Intemperate men,” says Socrates, “hurt themselves far more than others, whereas other sinners secure some profit to themselves, though they are injurious to others.-See Ostervald.”
VIL-36. “But if any man think that he behaveth himself uncomely towards his virgin,” &c. If he apprehends that he acts an unbecoming part towards his virgin, daughter, or any other maiden, that may fall under his guardianship, if she pass
the flower of her age in a single state, and if he think it ought so to be, let him do what he will in this respect, he
hath not sinned in his intent of letting her change her condition; let him look out a partner in life for her, and let them marry.-Doddridge.
One part of the difficulty of the above text, is the doubt, who the persons are that are included in the expression-let them marry: these appear to be the young woman, and, not the person, parent, or guardian named in the text, but he who solicits her at the hands of such, i. e. ipsa et qui ipsam desiderat.
Vill.-4. “We know that an idol is nothing in the world.” Nothings or no gods is a Hebrew name for idols; to which the apostle probably alludes. Buxtorf, in his Lexicon, under the Hebrew word rendered nihilum, res nihili, has the following remark: Jdola, sic dicta quòd sint omnino nihil juxta illud apostoli, idolum enim nihil est.
IX. 5. “ Have we not power to lead about a sister, wife,” &c. Namely: Are we not at liberty to take for a wife a sister, or convert to Christianity, whom we may lead about with us, in our apostolical travels, as some of the other apostles do-Ostervald.
IX.-25. “ They do it to obtain a corruptible crown, but we an incorruptible." It is well known that the crown in the Olympic games, sacred to Jupiter, was of wild-olive; in the Pythian, sacred to Apollo, of laurel ; in the Isthmian or Corinthian, solemnized in honour of Palæmon, of pine-tree; and in the Nemæan, of smallage, or parsley. Now most of these were ever-greens; yet they would soon grow dry and break to pieces.-Doddridge.
IX.-26. “So fight I, not as one that beateth the air.” Namely: by missing his blow, and spending it on the air.
IX.-27. “I myself should be a cast-away.”—See remark at Romans i. 28.
X.8. “And fell in one day three and twenty thou sand.” In Numbers xxv. 9. Moses makes them not less than twenty four thousand, because in this number he includes the thousand who were found guilty of idolatry, and were in consequence slain with the sword; whereas the apostle speaks only of those who died of the pestilence.Horne's Introduction, vol. i. page 583.
X.--25. Whatsoever is sold in the shambles.” The word rendered shambles, is made use of by Latin writers in the same sense as it is here, for a place where food was sold. The original of the name is said to be this: one Macellus, a wicked and profane man, being condemned to die, a place was built in his house by Æmilius and Fulvius for selling provisions, and from his name it was called macellum.-See Burder's Oriental Customs, vol. ii. page 365.
XI.-10. “For this cause ought the woman to have power on her head, because of the angels.” This is acknowledged to be a very difficult passage. The following solution is offered as the most probable: The veil worn by the woman was a token of her subjection to her husband, or his authority or power over her; hence the veil is here rendered by the word power. The Greek word rendered angels, should be translated messengers or spies, i. e. those whom the Pagans sent, who were always ready to find something to object. The passage, accordingly, may be read thus: For this cause ought the woman to have a veil on her head, because of the messengers or spies.
XI.-29. "Eateth and drinke damnation to himself." It is a very unhappy mistake in our version of the Bible that the Greek word is here rendered damnation ; whereas it certainly means temporal judgment. St. Paul himself explains it at the 30th verse.—Ostervald.
XII.-31. “But covet earnestly the best gifts: yet shew I unto you a more excellent way.” 'The Greek word here rendered covet is of the indicative and not the imperative mood, and may be translated, Ye have envying and
emulations about these gifts: and yet shew I unto you a more excellent way; a way more excellent than the best gifts, as follows in the next chapter.-Ostervald.
XIII. -l. “And have not charity." The Greek word here rendered charity is love. The Apostle uses a term of a more extensive meaning than that in our authorized translation ; for charity is only one mode of expressing that which is here meant by love or love of benevolence.
XIII. 7. “ Beareth all things.” More correctly, corereth all things.
XII.-12. “For now we see through a glass darkly." There is nothing in the Greek word, here rendered glass, which designates the substance of that material. As an elucidation, the following extract from Mr. Horne's Introduction, vol. iii. 403. may be found useful: “ We read in Exodus xxxviii. 8. of the women's looking-glasses, which were not made of what is now called glass, but of polished brass; otherwise these Jewish women could not have contributed them towards the making of the brazen laver, as is there mentioned. In later times, mirrors were made of other polished metal, which at best could only reflect a very obscure and imperfect image. Hence St. Paul, in a very apt and beautiful simile, describes the defective and limited knowledge of the present state by an opaque and dim representation of objects which those mirrors exhibited. Now we see by means of a mirror darkly; not through a glass, as in our version; for telescopes, as every one knows, are a very late invention.”
XIII.-13. And now abideth faith, hope, charity,” &c. Those who wish to see a full and truly christian commentary on this and other verses of the chapter, may consult Cowper's Poem on “Charity."
XIV.-13. “Pray that he may interpret.” In the Greek there is an ellipsis of a word with the sense of adeò ut. Thus:
let hiin so pray as that he may, or in such a manner that he may (by the words used in his prayer, or by explaining it in a known language) interpret and impart to others what the afflatus has imparted to him, and not out of vain ostentation utter it in a tongue unknown.-Valpy's Greek Testament.
XIV.32. “And the spirits of the prophets are subject to the prophets.” More correctly, And the spirits of prophets are subject to prophets. Namely, prophets are in subjection to each other, for the purpose of maintaining good order.See Bishop Middleton on the Greek Article. XIV.-34. Let
your women keep silence in the churches.” This prohibition seems to be applied to merely voluntary discourse; otherwise it is inconsistent with chap. xi. 5. 13.-See Valpy's Greek Testament. XV.12. How
say some among you, that there is no resurrection of the dead?" See remark at Acts xxiii. 8.
XV.-29. “Baptized for the dead.” Namely, baptized in token of their embracing the Christian faith, in the room of the dead, who are just fallen in the cause of Christ, but are yet supported by a succession of new converts, who immediately offer themselves to fill up their places, as ranks of soldiers that advance to the combat in the room of their companions, who have just been slain in their sight.-See Burder's 0. Customs, vol. i. page 360.
XV.32. “If after the manner of men I have fought with beasts at Ephesus.”. There were two sorts of usages among the Romans in their theatres. Sometimes they cast men naked to the wild beasts, to be devoured by them. This was the punishment of wicked servants and vile persons. Sometimes they put men armed into the theatre to fight with beasts; and if they could conquer them and save themselves, they had their liberty ; but if not, they fell a prey to the beasts. It is to this last custom that the apostle refers. -Burde r's 0. Customs, vol. ii. page 369. Some think that