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496 Clovis, King of France, baptized, and chris

tianity begins in that Kingdom. Clo Fra

Bap satin. 508 Prince Arthur begins his reign over the Bri

tons. Arth Brit lazer. 516 The computing of time, by the Christian æra

is introduced by Dionysius, the monk. Compu Chri, Di laban,

As the Student by this time must be well acquainted with the method of associating, I shall leave him to select himself whatever he


feel inclined to remember.

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557 A terrible plague all over Europe, Asia, and

· Africa, which continues nearly five years.. 589 Latin ceased to be spoken about this time, in

Italy preli'600 Bells first used in churches. -> +606 The power of the Popes begins by the con

cessions of Phocas, Emperor of the East.

613 Clocks and dials set up in churches. 2:14:21*622 Mahomet Aies from Mecca, to Medina, in

Arabia. His followers compute their time from this æra, which in Arabic is called

Hegira, i. e. fight. 637 Jerusalem taken by the Saracens. 640 Alexandria, in Egypt, is taken by do. and

the grand library there burned, by order of

Omar, their Caliph. 664 Glass invented in England, by Benalt, a monk. 670 Building with stone introduced into England,

by Bennet, a monk. 685 The Britons totally expelled by the Saxons,

and driven into Wales and Cornwall.

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991 The

Wmeam696 Churches first begun to be built in England.

711 Beverly Cathedral, Yorkshire, built.
713 The Saracens conquer Spain. Their progress

stopped in France, by Chas. Martel, in 732.
748 The computing of years from the birth of

Christ, begun to be used in history.
761 'Thirty thousand books burned by order of the

Emperor Leo.
786 The surplice, a vestment of the Pagan priest,

introduced into churches.
min 800 Charlemagne, King of France, begins the
d Empire of Germany, afterwards called the

Western Empire, and endeavours, in vain,

to restore learning in Europe.
838 The Scots and Picts have a decisive battle, in

. which the former prevail, and both King-
25 doms are united by Kennet, which begins
titled the second period of the Scottish history.

854 Church of St. Giles's, in Edinburgh, built. have m0867 The Danes begin their ravages in England. mi pác871 Bath Springs discovered.

915 The University of Cambridge founded. wey caree
960 Castleton castle, in the Isle of Man, built.
989 Christianity established in Russia.

figures in Arithmetic are brought into
1993 Europe, by the Saracens.

997 Durham founded.
1000 Paper made of cotton rags comes into use.
wi1015 Children forbidden by law to be sold by their

parents in England. Priests forbidden to

1025 Musical Gamut invented.

1030 Bells baptized in churches.
Punde 1057 Malcolm III. King of Scotland, kills the

theft A tyrant Macbeth, at Dunsipane. le ell 1065 The Turks take Jerusalem from the Saracens.

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1068 Edgar Atheling flying from William the

Conqueror, with his sisters, &c. is forced by stress of weather into the Frith of Forth. Malcolm Canmore, King of Scotland, at a visit falls in love with his sister Margaret, and marries her on the banks of the Forth, about nine miles N. W. of Edinburgh; whence the place obtained the name of the

Queen's Ferry, which it still retains. 1075 Henry IV. Emperor of Germany, in penance

for his disrespect to the Papal power, walks barefooted to Rome, towards the end of

January. 1078 Newcastle on Tyne founded. 1091 The Saracens in Spain being hard pressed by

the Spaniards, call to their assistance, Joseph, King of Morocco; by which the Moors get possession of all the Saracen

dominions in Spain. 1107 King's speech first delivered by Henry I. 1110 Edgar Atheling, the last of the Saxon Princes,

dies in England, where he had been per

mitted to reside as a subject.

Learning revived in Cambridge. 1118 The order of the Knights Templars institu

ted, to defend the sepulchre at Jerusalem,

and to protect Christian strangers. 1128 Abbey of Holyroodhouse founded.

1136 Cathedral of Glasgow founded. 1911:10 King Stephen grants liberty to his nobles to

build castles ; in consequence of which

1100 are erected in 14 years. 1142 Aberystwith castle built. 1150 Cyprus taken by the English. 1151 The canon law collected by Gratian, a monk

of Bologna.

1163 London bridge, consisting of nineteen smal}

arches, first built of stone. 1164 The Teutonic order of religious knights bę,

gins in Germany: 1170 Paper first made of linen rags. 1171 Thomas Becket murdered. Made a saint

next year, and his bones enshrined in gold

and set with jewels 12:20, 1176 England divided into six circuits, and justice

dispensed by itinerant judges. 1180 Glass windows begun to be used in private

houses in England. Beedon casile, in

Cheshire, built. 1181 The laws of England digested about this

time, by Glanville. 1182 Pope Alexander III. compelled the Kings of

England and France to hold the stirrups of

his saddle when he mounted his horse. 1186 The great conjunction of the sun and moon

and all the planets in Libra, happened in

September 1192 The battle of Ascalon, in Judea, in which

Richard, King of England, defeats Saladine's army, consisting of 300,000 comba

tants. 1194 Dieu et mon Droit, first used as a motto by

Richard, on a victory over the French. 1200 Chimnies were not known in England.

Surpaines now begin to be used; first

among the Nobility. 1201 Cities first incorporated. 1227 The Tartars, a new race of harharians, under

Gingis-Kan, emerge from the northern parts of Asia, conquer the greatest part of that continent, and in 22 years destroy upwards of 11 millions of people.

1229 Mariner's compass invented by Murphy, a

Dutchman. 1233 The inquisition, begun in 1204, is now trusted

to the Dominicans. The houses of Lon. don, and other cities in England, France, and Germany, still thatched with straw.

Thunder and lightning for 15 days together. 1252 Magnifying glasses invented by Roger Bacon. 1253 The famous astronomical tables are composed

by Alonzo, King of Castile. 1260 Mariner's compass publicly exhibited at

Venice. 1262 Baliol college, Oxford, founded. 1263 Acho, King of Norway, invades Scotland,

with 160 sail, and lands 20,000 men, at the mouth of the Clyde, but most of them are cut to pieces by Alexander III. who

recovers the Western Isles. 1264 The commons of England have a place in

parliament. 1269 The Hamburgh company incorporated in

England. 1280 Pulvis fulminans and Gunpowder invented by

ๆ Roger Bacon. 1284 Aberconway castle built. 1296 Bolton castle, in Yorkshire, built. 1298 Silver-hafted knives, spoons, and cups, a

great luxury. Splinters of wood generally used for lights. Wine sold by apothecaries

as a cordial. 1299 Windmills invented. 1310 Lincoln's Inn Society established. 1314 The battle of Bannockburn between Edward

II. and Robert Bruce, in which the English are overthrown with prodigious slaughter, and all their boasted pretensions of sovereignty utterly dissipated.

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