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Every thing wherein numbers are concerned in Chemistry, may be greatly assisted by this Science.
To express the number of degrees of heat sufficient to reduce any body to that state of fluidity called the melting point. --Join to the name of the thing a word that is expressive of the number of degrees.—Example: Lead melts at 594 degrees of heat ;- Bismuth, 576; -- Tin, 442 ;
-Wax, 142; and may be expresęd by words, thus,-Lead, lets--Bis, lupin - T'in, hooked—Wax,' booked. The constituent parts of bodies may likewise be easily remembered.
We will take for Example, that of Wax.-100 parts of Wax contain
82.28 of Carbon:
The first word being an whole number, and the second the decimal part of an hundred, you must take two words, then the first will denote the whole number, and the second the decimal part, which united to the radical part of the word will stand thus-Carbo red, deer-Hydro cap, pad. You will perceive that (red) is 82 whole numbers, and (deer) 28 parts, &c.
8 times 8 muse 9 times 9 rob 10 times 10 bow
11 cubox 11 vote
12 cadiz 12 coaxer 12 tan 11 times 11 caduce 12 times 12 bookho
9 pad 10 rex 11 rare
Before the pupil enters on this table, let him ho made perfect, in the small numerals, and he will most certainly accomplish it in two or three hours without difficalty, as I have often found by experience. I have not given a repetition of the same numbers, as is too often done, to the great annoyance and perplexity of the child, as well as trouble to the teacher.--I see no necessity for a child's repeating 4 times 8, and 8 times 4; 5 times 7, and 7 times 5, &c. for if the numbers are learned one way, it is sufficient. I never found, if I pointed out to the young tyro, that the product was always the same, whether the greater or the lesser number was the multiplier, but he easily comprehended it. If a pupil then is once told that 8 times 4, is the same as 4 times 8, &c. be will no doubt recollect it; but this need not be commented on at all, till he comes to put the rule into practise, lest it may serve to perplex, rather than instruct.-Let the table be learned exactly as it stands, thus, 4 times 6 dose-4 times 7 dare, &c.--then ask how many dose and dare amount to, and if the pupil is perfect in the pumerals, he will įpstantly answer. The reason why children in general are so long attain. ing this table, in the usual manner is, because there being so many numbers to be remembered, they produce the utmost confusion in the mind,
The application of this Science to Foreign Grammar, I have many times incontestibly proved by taking a boy from a Lancasterian (or any charity school) and have taught him to conjugaté à Latin Verb thro' all its moods, persons, and tenses, in two hours; not merely repeated the terminations, (for this alone is a silly thing) but has given the English, as he proceeded, or in any manner asked him. In the month of June, 1813, when at Greenock, I took a boy from the charity school of that town, who knew not a particle of Grammar, and taught him to conjugate tro Latin Verbs in about three hours. When lecturing in Dublin in the month of February, 1814, a lad from the Lancasterian-school, School-street; after six hours instruction, conjugated four Latin Verbs, carrying them all thro' at the same time, giving the English to each, to the great astonishinent of all present.
The plan is this I write it out, and put the first syllable of the verb or verbs, down only at the beginning, directing the learner to add it to each termination as he proceeds; I also point out to him the different endings, observing that the second person singular ends in s, the third in t, the first person plural ends in mus, the second in tis, and the third in nt. I set down the persons but once, i. e. in the Present Tense, Indicative Mood, and
after explaining them to the boy, and telling him that they must be applied in the same manner to all the Tenses (with the trifling variation of the second and third person singular,) I proceed to instruct him how to put each Tense in a square, and how to know his Tenses by his auxiliary verbs English; for instance, if I were to ask him where he would find his Preterperfect Indicative Mood, he would answer in his third square; and further observe, that he knew it by the verb have. I have found by experience, that a boy will conjugate two or four verbs together, in nearly the same time that he will one, when arranged in the manner following; for after he is gone thro' the Present Tense, Indicative, he will proceed with as much ease as if it was but one. Make him repeat the Latin and English of the verbs that he is to conjugate till he is perfect, as amo, I love---moneo, I advise, &c. so that he may comprehend the meaning of each. Begin by putting the Indica. tive Mood, Present Tense of all the four verbs into the first square, and read them across, as amo, I love; Moneo, I advise; Rego, I rule; Audio, I hear, &c. You perceive that each Tense is to occupy a square, as they are numbered, except that I have put the Preterperfect, and the Future Tenses, Potential Mood, in the same square, (the 9) as there is no difference in the ending of these, but in the first person.
Whatever objections some persons may have to this mode of learning the declensions of nouns and verbs, I can assure them from experience, that a boy will master them in one eighth part of the time which he can by the usual method. First, because the verbs being arranged in this manner, the task appears much less than it is, and the learner is