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STEPHEN, Earl of Boulogne and Mortaigne, grandson to William the Conqueror, usurps the erown on Henry's death, and seizes tủe late King's treasures, to the amount of £ 100,000. Stephen abolishes Danegelt for ever. The Empress Matilda Lands at Arundel, and claims the crown. Makes her natural brother, Robert, Earl of Gloucester, her general, 1139.

Stephen is defeated at Lincoln, made prisoner, and laid in chains in Gloucester goal. Matilda declared Queen. Robert, Earl of Gloucester, taken prisoner, and exchanged for Stephen. The Earl dies, and Matilda leaves England. Henry, son of Matilda, arrived in England; and peace concluded between him and the King. Stephen was born at Blois, died at Dover, and buried at Feversham.


HENRY II. was crowned on the death of Stephen. Thomas-a-Becket sides with the pope against the King, is impeached, and condemned to pay a fine; quits England, and is protected by the pope and the French King'. Henry visits Normandy, and įs reconciled with the King. Becket is murdered in the cathedral at Canterbury by four knights. The King made an expedition to Ireland, where he received the submission of the Irish Princes, and made his youngest son, John, Lord of Ireland.

In this King's reign, Malcolm, King of Scotland, laid siege to Alnwick Castle; the Governor of which, handed him the keys on the point of a spear, with which he pierced him through the eye, and killed him : for this exploit, he obtained the name Pierce-eye, hence originated Percy.

HENRY I. surnamed Beauclerk, seized the royal treasure at Winchester, and was crowned at Westminster. He abolished the Curfew, and confirmed the Laws of Edward the Confessor. Robert, Duke of Normandy, being returned from the Holy Wars; lands at Portsmouth, and clains thie crown,

The brothers come to an agreement. King Henry makes war upon his brother Robert ; subdues Normandy, takes Robert prisoner, and orders his eyes to be put out, 1106.

Henry marries his daughter Matilda to Henry IV. the Emperor of the East, 1109. Plants colonies of Flemings in Wales.

The Thames dộy for three days, 1114.

Prince William, the King's eldest son, shipwrecked, after which the King was never seen to laugh. The orders of knights templars founded, 1122.

The nobles swear allegiance to Matilda, the king's only daughter, now a widow.

The barons renew their oaths to Matilda. She is married again to Geoffrey Plantagenet, Earl of Anjou.

Henry I. was born at Winchester, died in France, and was buried at Reading.

A conspiracy formed against the King, by the Queen and three of the Princes, on account of Fair Rosamond, the King's concubine. Queen Eleanor is made a state prisoner, 1173.

Glass windows began to be used in private houses, 1177.

Henry, deserted by his French subjects, dies of grief. He was born at Angiers, 1131, and buried at Fontevrault.

RICHARD releaseş his mother Eleanor; finds his father's treasures, at Winchester, to amount to £900,000. Embarks for the Holy War; sails from Marseilles to Sicily. Conquers Cyprus, and there marries Berrengaria, daughter to the King of Nayarre. Arriving at Judea, he obtains several victories over Saladin's troops. The Kings of Eng-> Jand and France take Acon. The two Kings fall ont. The French King returns home.

Richard, making a truce with Saladin, embarks for England, but is shipwrecked : taking the road to Vienna, is seized by the Duke of Austrią, and sent prisoner to the Emperor, 1192.

190,000 marks raised in England for his ransom. Being released, he returns to England, reduces his brother John's party, who in his absence, attempted to make himself King, 1194.

Richard obtains a great victory over the French. About this time lived Robin Hood and Little John, 1197.

Richard died of a wound that he received in besieging the castle of Widomar. Corporation companies first established in London.

Richard was born in 1157, and buried at Fontevrault.

Jonn, seized the crown, though Arthur, Duke of Brittanny,' son to his eldest brother Geoffry, was alive. Arthur seizes part of Normandy, and


is supported liy the French King.' Johan goes over to France, obtains a great victory, and takes his nephew Arthur prisoner; who dies in prison, generally supposed to be murdered by the King. Johị loses Normandy, Maine, Touraine, Anjou, &c. The first writ of summons to parliament was this year direeted to the Bishop of Salisbury. John quarrels with the pope, who excommunicates him, but is pardoned on resigning to him his dominions, and submitting to hold his Kingdom as tributary to him, 1213.

John quarrels with his Barcns, who oblige him to give then the famous Magna Charta, in Runimede, between Staines and Windsor, A. D. 1215.

The Barons, finding Jobn violate his faith, call over Lewis, Dauphin of France. John died, Oct, 19th, 1216, and was buried in Worcester.

HENRY III. succeeds his father, at nine years of age.

Wiliam Marshall, Earl of Pembroke, is made his guardian, and the Dauphin is defeated at Lincoln, and besieged in London, upon which he agrees to quit the Kingdom. King Henry declares kimself of age, and cancels Magna Charta, 1227.

Aldermen first elected in London, 1242. Westminster Abbey finished as it now stands, 1245.

Tiles first brought into use, Wales is wholly subdued, and receives the English Laws. Fine linen first made in England. The King's partiality to foreigners, produces an insurrection, headed by Montford, Earl of Leicester, who defeats the King, and takes hin prisoner, with his son, Prince Ed. ward. The Earl of Leicester calls a Parliament, at Winchester in the King's name; the first wherein two knights for each county, and two burgesses for each borough, were summoned. Prince Edward joins the Earl of Gloucester, and the King's friends,

Leicester is killed at the battle of Evesham, and the King released. Henry III. was born at Winchester, 1207, reigned fifty-six years, died Nor. 16th, 1272, and was buried in Westminster Abbey,

EDWARD I. is proclaimed King, thouglr absent in the Holy Land. A war with the Welch, in which Llewellyn, Prince of Wales, is killed, and the country finally reduced, 1282.

The King's son , Edward, born at Caernarvon, is styled Prince of Wales, the first English Prince that ever had that title, 1284. a The Jews banished the Kingdom, to the number of 15,000, A. D. 1289.

Disputes arising in Scotland between Bruce and Baliol about the succession to the crown, Edward is chosen ampire, and declares Baliol King, 1292; who, being ill used by Edward, revolts. Edward defeats bim, takes him prisoner, and sends him to London. He is released. Spectacles first invented by a monk of Pisa, 1299.

The magnetic needle first brought into use, 1302.

King Edward's fourth expedition against the Scotch. Sir William Wallace, the principal promoter of the Scotch insurrections, is taken prisoner, sent to London, and hanged, A. D. 1305.

Coals first in use. The Scots revolt again under Bruce, whom they make King. Edward marches against them, but dies on the way; he was buried at Westminster.

EDWARD II, ascended the throne, A. D. 1307. ! Earthen-ware inventéd, 1309.

The King renews the war against the Scots, and is defeated by them at Bannockburn, 1313.

The University of Dublin founded, 1319.

The Barons force the King to banish the two Spensers, his favourites. The Queen joins Mortimer

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