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P. ccxxxv. I. 8. We know, &c.'* To be called *" to the knowledge of the gospel, according to the eter'nal purpose of God,' must mean something very different from the mere proclamation and invitation of the gospel, or the outward profession of it; unless all who are called christians do indeed love God, and imitate the example of Christ. If, however, God did decree, that some should have the means of salvation, and not others; the objections generally urged against Calvinism, as making God “a respector of persons,” come in; and may, as fairly be urged against this doctrine, as against Calvinism. None of Adam's fallen race naturally love God, but all are alienated from him; and as those, who are " the called according to his purpose," do love God; the character described must be formed, not by nature, but by special grace; and then our interpretation is established; which I cannot give in more proper language, than in that of our article. Predestination to • life is the everlasting purpose of God, whereby, (be. fore the foundations of the world were laid,) he hath constantly decreed by his counsel, secret to us, to deliver from curse and damnation those, whom he
• “We know that all things work together for good to them that love “ God, to them who are the called according to his purpose: for whom be did “ foreknow, he also did predestinate to be comformed to the image of his “ Son, that he might be the first-born among many brethren. Moreover, “ whom he did predestinate, them he also called; and whom he called, them " he also justified, and whom he justified, them he also glorified.” . We know
that all things, whether adverse or prosperous, co-operate in the end for • the permanent good of those who sincerely love God, of those who are • called to the knowledge of the gospel according to the eternal purpose of "God; for he ordained and decreed, that those, who he foreknew would be. • lieve and obey the gospel, should resemble his blessed Son, by following his example, that he might have many brethren, wbo would be joint-heirs with him, and partakers of that happiness which he enjoyed. Moreover, those, to whom it was fore-ordained of God that the gospel should be made known, he has now actually called, and those whom he has called, he has justified from all their former sins:'-
• hath chosen in Christ out of mankind, and to bring 'them by Christ to everlasting salvation, as “ vessels “ made to honour." • Wherefore they, which be endued
with so excellent a benefit of God, be called according ' to God's purpose by his Spirit working in due season:
they through grace obey the calling: they be justified freely: they be made the sons of God by adoption: they be made like the image of his only begotten Son • Jesus Christ: they walk religiously in good works, ' and at length, by God's mercy, they attain to everlast
ing felicity.'* The language is special and personal: the same persons
“ whom he foreknew,"t “ those he predetermined to be conformed to the image of his “ Son:” the same persons, invariably and exclusively, “ he called:” the same, without addition or exception, “ he justified, and he glorified.” Now there can be no other calling, except that described in the article, which is inseparably connected with being justified and glorified: for in other senses of the word, “ Many are called; but "e few are chosen.” Would not the same individuals, without exception, or addition, or alteration, be considered as intended, if an act of grace, or a deed of gift, or an Act of Parliament, should be drawn up in a similar manner ?
P. ccxxxvi. I. 3. And those, &c.'t Is there any
• Art svü.
Rom. xi. 2. #‘And those whom he has justified, he has glorified by his grace, and all 'the other privileges of the gospel-covenant. In the former part of this pas. • sage, the good spoken of is confined to those who love God, and act con• formably to his purpose in revealing the gospel: this their conduct God • foreki.ew, and graciously determined to reward with eternal felicity. In 'the latter part of the passage, every thing is represented as past-the pre
destination, the calling, the justification, the glorification. Of the predes' tination and the calling, there can be no doubt; and it has been proved that 'the word justification, as applied to christians, always refers to this life, • and here it means the remission of sins granted at the time of baptism: and VOL. I.
instance, in which the word glorify is used in Scripture, in the sense here affixed to it? Even Christ himself, was not said to be glorified by the Father, till he was exalted to the right hand of God in heavenly glory.* In this chapter, the apostle says, “ If children then heirs: “ heirs of God, and joint-heirs of Christ; if so be, " that we suffer with him, that we may also be glorified “ together.”+ This accords to what he says in another place, “ If we suffer, we shall also reign with bim.”[ I do not recollect that the word glorify, or glorified is elsewhere expressly used of man, as glorified by God; though it is implied, when the apostle says, “ That “ the name of the Lord Jesus may be glorified in you, and ye
in him:" but this will be, " when he shall come to “ be glorified in his saints;" that is, at the day of judyment.9 The word glory is often used, with relation to the blessings conferred by God on his people; but mostly, in respest of another world. I It does not appear, that language of this kind is used, concerning what God confers on men,
any respect, except in express connexion with the eternal glory of heaven, which no 'means of grace' can ensure. The only text, that seems at all to favour the supposition, that past benefits are intended, is that here in part quoted, “ We are changed into the same image “ from glory unto glory, even as by the Spirit of the
the word glorified, being, both in the original Greek and in our translation, • in the same tense as the words predestinated, called, and justified, must also
relate to something which has already taken place; it relates to that “Spirit • of glory and of God," which St. Peter says, “ resteth upon christians" in this world; to that “ kingdom and glory,” “to which St. Paul tells his • Thessalonian converis God had called them; to that " change into the same • image with Christ from glory to glory," • which he announces to the Corinthians.'
• John vii. 39. xii. 16. 23. xiii. 31, 32. xvii. 5. Acts üi. 13. 1 Tim. üi. 16. Heb. v. 5. 1 Pet. i. 21. + Rom. viii. 17. # 2 Tim. ii. 19 S 2 Thes.i. 10-12
| Rom. ü. 7. v. 2. vii. 18. ix. 23. 2 Cor. iv. 17. Col. i. 27. iii. 4. 1 Thes. ii. 12. 2 Thes. ü. 14. 2 Tim. ii. 10. 1 Pet. v. 10
« Lord."* Yet here it evidently denotes, not any outward benefit; but that inward renewal to holiness, which is the beginning and earnest of eternal glory. The ex
position, therefore, here given of the apostle's words, is • unprecedented; and unauthorized by any one text in
Scripture. But it is urged, that the clause is in the past tense, as well as the other expressions in the same verse. Need then any student of the Scripture be informed, that this anomaly is very common in the language of prediction, and in the various parts of the sacred oracles? And this being obviated; we have here foreknowledge, predestination, calling, justification, and grorification, inseparably united, as the links of a chain: for the expressions, “ he did predestinate to be con“ formed to the image of his Son,” and “the called ac“cording to his purpose,” fully imply the beginning, and progress, of sanctification. The triumphant conclusion also of the apostle, “ What shall we say then “ to those things? If God be for us, who can be against
us, &c,”+ certainly leads the reader to think of something immensely more distinguishing, and inseparably connected with everlasting glory and felicity, than any outward advantages can be.
• The remission of sins granted at the time of baptism.'—This subject has been fully considered: but what there is, in the apostle's argument, which leads to the introduction of it in this place does not appear.
P. ccxxxyii. l. 8. The, &c.'\ If any man, hav.
• 2 Cor. iv. 18. | Rom. viii. 31–39. **The predestination therefore mentioned in this passage, signifies God's purpose of making known the gospel, and of bestowing eternal happi. *ness upon those, who shall make a right use of the means of grace: this is
very different from an irrespective and irreversible decr absolutely ap
pointing particular individuals to everlasting happiness, and subjecting the Frest of mankind to endless and inevitable misery.?
ing deliberately read the latter part of the eighth chapter to the Romans, can be satisfied, that the apostle means no more, than is here expressed; I shall decline arguing the point any further with him. It is, however, surprising that the apostle, in that case, should forget to guard his doctrine, by saying, bestowing eternal hap*piness, upon those, who shall make a right use of the
means of grace:' as it is certain, that he gives no hint, either concerning means of grace,' or making a right use of them: for that is not his subject. This interpretation is indeed very different,' from any decree con. cerning the heirs of salvation: so different, that no person, having read the apostle's words, and afterwards meeting with this passage, in any discourse not directly referring to it, would probably ever have suspected, that they had any relation. Irrespective decrees have been considered; and all God's decrees are irreversible.* • Subjecting all mankind, as rebels and enemies, “ ves. “ sels of wrath fitted for destruction," "to endless and in
evitable misery,' (though this is not the subject on which the apostle is discoursing,) would not be at all inconsistent with the moral attributes of the great Crea.
. tor and Judge of the world: nay, whether he has de. creed it or not, he will cause all the wicked" to go
away into everlasting punishment.” But “Shall 110t “the Judge of all the earth dọ right?” And all the righteous will ascribe the whole glory of their salvation to “him that sitteth on the throne, and to the Lamb " that was slain, and has redeemed them to God with « his blood."
P. ccxxxviii. 1. 5. •The whole, &c.'t If the whole
• Is. xiv. 24–27. xlvi. 10, 11. Lam. ïï. 37. Dan. iv. 35. Eph. ii. 11. + The whole of the chapter from which this passage is taken, and which is generally thought to abound in difficulties, seems to become easily intelligible, by considering that it refers to the present world only. In the for