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a' dissatisfaction, that the refutation of it has not been more unanswerable: for many such often meet with the doctrine, and are rendered uneasy by it; and would be cordially glad of any thing, which could satisfactorily set their hearts at ease on this subject; so that no subsequent remarks should again unsettle them.—The doctrine of general redemption' is held by most of the Calvinists, in the established church: and the term par. tial redemption, (264;) being ambiguous, is used by none, but the opposers of Calvinism.
P. cclxv. Note. Predestination, &c.'* The original word, translated predestinate;t (for the noun predestination is not found in Scripture,) .occurs in the Acts of the apostles. “To do whatsoever thine hand and thy " counsel determined before to be done.” (paupert predestinated.)f St. Luke was not an apostle, but he re.
• Predestination is always used in Scripture in a good sense; no persons are said to be predestinated to death, or to punishment, or to unbe• lief. Nefas est dicere Deum aliquid nisi bonum prædestinare. Aug.de • Præd. cap. 2.—Even the authors of the Centuriæ Magdeburgenses, who • were Calvinists, say, Quoties apostoli verbo predestinationis utuntur, (St. Paul is the only apostle who does use it,) nihil aliud eo indicant, quam
ut inquirentem causas cur ad salutem æternam consequendam nulla alia sit 'via, quam ea quæ a Christo est nobis parata, docent sic Deo in arcano suo * consilio, quo voluit miseriis generis humani mederi, placuisse, eumque ut Seo modo fierit ordinasse, et velle ut a se præscriptum ad salutem compen
dium agnoscamus et apprehendamus.t-Cent. Magd. Cent. 1. lib. 2. cap. 4. 'p. 238.'
tIIpcopesu prius definio, prius constituo, to determine before hand, from xpo, and opeza, or opos, a boundary. The horizon.
# Acts iv.3.
• It is unlawful to say, that God predestinates and thing but good.'
7. As often as the apostles use the word predestination, they indicate noth‘ing else by it, than that they may teach one, who enquires, why there is no
other way to attain eternal salvation, except that which is prepared for us by Christ, that so it has pleased God in his secret counsel, by which he • wilied tu heal the miseries of the human race; and he has ordained, that it should be effected in this way; and willed, that we should acknowledge and apprebend it, as a compendium prescribed by him unto salvation.'
cords the words of the apostles before St. Paul was numbered among them. A parallel passage in the same book does not indeed contain the compound word; but it has the uncompounded verb in a connexion, amounting to precisely the same. “ Him being deliv. “ ered by the determinate counsel, and foreknowledge “ of God; ye have taken, and by wicked hands have “ crucified and slain.”* Sapopesyn Inan, xsus Typogu@TH T8 Ots, must mean the same as predestination: for the foreknowledge and decided purpose or decree are inseparably joined together. The same may be said of another text, “ He hath determined the times before appointed.”+ “Ορισας προτεταγμενες καιρες The only difference here is, that the preposition wipe, is annexed to retagusres, instead of Oprsas: but would any learned man object to the translation, · He predetermined, (or predestinated,) the appointed
times? “ The son of man goeth, as it was deter
mined.” (xate to depisuevov.) Ilpo is not here added either to the participle, or to any other word in the sentence; but surely the meaning is precisely the same; for the word is in the preterite sense, implying a previous determination, or predestination. “But we speak the “ wisdom of God in a mystery, which God ordained. " before the world unto our glory.”I (nipoupsev, predestinated.) " Who were before ordained to this con“ demnation.”'S ( 11pc7.99 pa lejesvos, written before hand.)
The result of this investigation seems to be: 1. That predetermination, as to the counsels and works of God, and his dealings with mankind, was an idea familiar to the minds of the apostles. 2. That St. Luke, reporting the words of the other apostles, and not of St. Paul, uses the word opoagiss, predestinated; and this with respect to the base conduct of the worst of men. But
• Acts ii. 23.
† Acts. xvii. 26.
+ 1 Cor. ii. 7.
$ Jude 4.
3dly. That the word, renderered predestinate, is never used concerning the eternal estate of men, with respect of any, except those, “ who are chosen unto salvation." And this serves to confirm what has been before advanced; namely, that the Scripture, in speaking on this subject, is far more full and explicit, concerning election; than concerning what is improperly called reprobation, and that we are warranted in adopting a similar reserve, on the latter subject. The rest of the note is not very perspicuous: but if the writers were Calvinists, they, on this occasion, seem to have lost sight of their own principles, which is no uncommon case among Theologians.
P. cclxv. I. 12. • Predestination, &c.'* The article says, 'to deliver from curse and damnation those whom • he hath chosen in Christ out of mankind, and to bring ' them by Christ to everlasting salvation, as vessels • made to honour.'t " Those whom he hath chosen in • Christ out of mankind;' that is, those to whom God
decreed to make known the gospel.' Now are all, to whom God decreed to make known the gospel, chosen
• Predestination to life is here declared to be the eternal purpose of • God, to deliver from curse and damnation, and to bring to everlasting sal. .vation. But who are to bo thus delivered and saved?” • Those whom God hath chosen in Christ out of mankind,' that is, those to wbom God de. • creed to make known the gospel of Christ. And are all to whom the gos.
pel is made known, predestinated to life? No; to prevent this conclusion, • the article proceeds to describe those who are 'endued with so excellent ' a benefit of God,' in these words, “They be called according to God's 'purpose, by his Spirit working in due season: they through grace obey the • calling: they be justified freely: they be made the sons of God by adoption;
they be made like the image of his only-begotten Son Jesus Christ: they • walk religiously in good works; and at length by God's mercy they attain * to everlasting felicity,'' that is, they on their part conform to the condi. * tions of the gospel-covenant, by obeying the calling, and walking religious• ly in good works, under the influence and assistance of the Holy Spirit;
and, as a reward, they are justified in this world, are made sons of God *by adoption, are made like the image of Clurist, and at length attain ever. • lasting felicity.'
t Art. xvii.
in Christ, to be delivered from wrath and damnation, and to be brought by Christ unto everlasting salvation? Such a comment is an addition to the article, a total alteration of its plain meaning, and, in fact, substituting another article in its place. And are all, to whom the gospel, is made known, predestinated unto life?' Thus his Lordship proceeds to argue from his own words, as if they were a part of the article: and in this
may be easy to prove any doctrine from any premises. No, * to prevent this conclusion, &c. What conclusion? that all to whom the gospel is made known, are pre
destinated unto life.'- I cannot conceive, that such a thought ever arose in the minds of those who compiled the article, or of any man who read it without a com, ment. Are there then, two sorts of persons spoken of in this part of the article? • Predestination to life is the ' everlasting purpose of God, whereby, (before the • foundations of the world were laid,) he hath constantly . decreed by his counsel, secret to us, to deliver from • curse and damnation those, whom he hath chosen in • Christ out of mankind, and to bring them by Christ, 'to everlasting salvation, as vessels of honour.' Is there in this passage any, even the most distant intimation of those to whom God had decreed to make known the
gospel,' as distinct froin those, whom he predestinated unto, life? Wherefore, they which be endued with so
excellent benefit of God, be called, according to God's purpose by his Spirit working in due season; they ' through grace obey the calling; they be justified free
ly: they be made the sons of God by adoption; they be • made like the image of his onlj-begotten Son Jesus • Christ; they walk religiously in good works, and, at • length, by God's mercy, they attain to everlasting felicity' 'Endued with so excellent a benefit.' Does
not this particle so, expressly refer to the persons before described? If not, to what does it refer, and why was it inserted?— That is, they on their part perform the • conditions of the covenant, &c.' Certainly they do; · being called by his Spirit working in due season;
through grace they obey the calling, &c.' « God “ worketh in them to will and to do of his good plea“ sure."-And, as a reward, &c.' No doubt God graciously rewards the good works, which are “ the “.fruits of his Spirit;” but good works are the fruits of faith, and follow after justification:* and being
justified in this world, made the sons of God by adop• tion, and made like to the image of Christ,' must precede, and prepare the elect, for walking religiously in 'good works,' and therefore certainly cannot be called the reward of it. In Scripture, and in our authorized books, justification, and adoption, are commonly spoken of, as connected immediately with faith, f but never as the reward of good works, which are only mentioned, as evidences of justification and adoption: and a comment on this article, which requires language unprecedented in Scripture, or in our liturgy, articles, and hornilies, only shows under what difficulties the expositor laboured, in attempting to establish his interpretation. In the last clause, the words, by God's mercy; are omitted.
P. cclxvi. I. 22. · Predestination, &c.'I The reader must judge how far this inference is warranted; and indeed, how far it agrees, with what went before, Are * all, to whom the gospel is made known, predestinated
Art. xii. † John i. 12. 2 Cor. vi. 17, 18. Gal. iii. 26. ir. 6. 1 John v. 1. # Predestination to life therefore is not an absolute decree of eternal happiness to certain individuals, but a gracious purpose of God, to make * a conditional offer of salvation to men, through the merits of Christ.'