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Short vowels in our own language are frequently almost lost in speaking; and there are many words, which, if written without them, would become, by a little experience, as intelligible, and be as easily read by us, as those Hebrew words and syllables, which are destitute, of vowels, were by ancient Jewish readers.

It is probable, that diphthongs, though discovered by no character, were nevertheless made in the original pronunciation of the language; but as uniformity in reading will be greatly promoted, if all will

agree to omit them, as it is at best a work of mere conjecture, and as the radical letters will be more discernible without such combinations, the reader is advised to pronounce the vowels also distinctly.

The Hebrew language was anciently written without spaces between the words, each sentence was therefore free from every stop, unless we except that with which it terminated, the : soph passyc. But the reader must have been much aided in dividing the words, if we can suppose any one who knew the language, to have stood in need of such help, by the use of the five final letters 7 » 3,7

and P, which almost never fail to indicate the end of the word, to which they respectively belong. The custom also of always terminating the line with an unbroken word, was another help; and lest the sentence should seem divided too much by a space at the end of the line, not large enough for the next word, they extended to a greater width X, 7, 1, 5, D, and m, as often as either of those letters terminated the preceding word, under such circumstances.

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! בראשית ! ברא 2 אלהים 3 את 4 השמיס 5 ואת 6

Alzim bera Berashit 3 2 1 1

uheshek

ubēu

tēu

zitē

uēarets

2 הארץ: 7 והארץ 8 היתה 9 תהו 10 ובהו 11 וחשך 12

ēarets :

9

2

1. Avra In the beginning. ) in, is a particle, vide rule 148.* from 7a hollow. n'ont the beginning, is a noun feminine, vide rule 16, from the noun vxr the head, beginning, principal, &c. This word, being restricted by no adjunct, can only mean the beginning of time, or of the creation.

2. x2 created. It is in the third person singular, masculine, preter tense in Kal. Vide rule 66. This word expresses the production of substances, not a change of form, in this place; for it appears afterwards that the matter thus created was without form.

3. onbx God. That this noun, which is not unintentionally here joined with the singular verb 872 (vide rules 127, 133) is nevertheless really plural, appears not merely from its termination o’ (vide rule 19) but by its being frequently joined with adjectives, pronouns, and verbs in the plural; as, “ Let us make up, man, in our image 130289," &c. Gen. i. 26. It seems probable that it comes from the Arabic word 7be to reverence. Some think from obe to swear. Others from 5 and 17' the mighty God. Vid. num. 154, post.

4. rx. This particle following an active verb, and going before a noun which has the servile 17 emphatic (vid. rule 151) prefixed, admits of no translation, unless we render it the substance of. Here the sense will allow it, which is rarely the case. This idea perhaps originated from the circumstance, that he is composed of the first and last letters of the alphabet. It sometimes may be rendered to, towards or with, and comes from no 10 approach. Vide rule 200. Vid. num. 85. 382. It was by the Masoretic grammarians termed the sign of the Accusative case.

* See the grammar at the end of the book.

1

GENESIS I.

.

I IN the beginning, God created the heaven and the earth.

And the earth was without form and void; and darkness was upon

5. Onun the heavens. 07 the, is emphatic. Vide rule 151. ob is a noun mascul. found only in the plural. Vid. rule 19. Perhaps the root is dv, vid. rule 199, to put or place; or from the particle ow there, and o'n waters; or from 10. to remit, and b's the waters.

6. Ni And. 1 and, is a conjunctive particle. Vide rule 157. For nx vid. num. 4.

7. 1987 the earth. 17 the. Vide rule 151. poX earth, is a noun compounded of x formative, rule 147, and a verb, to break in pieces.

8. 1871 and the earth. I and. Rule 157. n the. Rule 151. pows earth. Vid. num. 7.

9.00'n was. It is the third pers. fem. sing. preter. Kal of the verb o'n to be. Rule 103. It would be, if regular, no'n, but it changes its 77 or last radical letter into n before the servile 77 of the fem. Vid. rule 102. It agrees with you in gender, number, and person. Vid. rule 127.

10. inn void. This word often occurs in the Scriptures, sometimes as an adjective, in other instances as a substantive, but in the same form, except the usual prefixes. Perhaps the root is in waste, with the formative 1. Rule 162.

11. 1921 and without shape. I and. Rule 157. 1773 occurs only here and in Isa. xxxiv. 11. and Jer. iv. 23. It is of 72 hollow, and i formative. Vide rule 162.

12. Juri and darkness. I and. Rule 157. 7V1 as a verb signifies, to tremble or hide, as a noun, darkness. June, 1 and, the. Junn, the darkness. Pule 150.

על 13 פני 14 תהום 15 ורוח 16 אלהים 3 מרחפת 17

merehepet Alëim uruhe tēum

peni öl
3
izi Alzim Uiamer .ēmim

peni

ol 3 03

aur

3 על 13 פני 14 המים: 18 ויאמר 19 אלהים 3 יהי 20 אור 21

13. Sy upon, is a particle from by to ascend. Sy is also above, concerning, besides, to, near, with, &c. and sometimes for the sake of.

14. 39 the face of. It is a noun mascul. found in the plural only. It is here in construction, vide rule 24, for d’de faces or face, and derived from 1733 to behold. Vid. rule 200.

15. Dinn the deep. nis formative of the noun. Vide rule 189. The formative 1 is also to be rejected. Vide rựle 195. The fem. noun dinn comes from 07977 to tumultuate, vid. R. 200 and num. 18.

16. 017 and the Spirit. Tand. Rule 157. 01 as a verb, to inhale, as a noun, air in motion, the soul of man, the Holy Spirit, whose existence like the air is certain, though he be invisible.

17. nanna causing a motion, is the participle Benoni fem. in Hiphil, vid. rule 75, of 997 to shake, the as frequently, is here omitted. Vid. rul. 81. It agrees in gender and number with on. Vid. rul. 115. 113. For the omission of 777'77 was, vid. rule 144.

18. D'on the waters, 17 the. R. 151. O'n waters is by contraction for O”d the plural of the mascul. noun ) water. This word and o’ the sea, in the plur. D'pi seas, and also di? a day, in the plural D'd' days, are all derived from on to make a noise.

19. 101" and God said. 1 and, is in this case conversive. Vide rules 57. 136. and the note infra.* 708" said, is the third person masc. sing. fut. Kal of 8 to speak. Vid. rule 194. Postea 1985 saying, has been called a gerund, the infinitive of Kal, and by others the participle Benoni Kal, the 1 being dropped, as is very usual. Vid. rule 78. The s is a prefix. Rules 175. 142.

20, '7' there shall be. It is the third pers. m. sing. lut. Kal, for 77'7' dropping 17 final in the future, being a verb defective in Lamed He. See rule 102. From 707 to exist.

21. 71X light. A noun, by rule 195, from 78 to flow. For I inserted, see rule 158. It is used with 17 emphatic in the next verse. Rule 150. Vide num. 23, 398.

* 1 is termed merely conjunctive, when it connects similar tenses

the face of the deep: and the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters. 3 And God said, Let there be light: and there was light.

in the same sense; or when it supplies the place of signs of persons, moods, tenses, and numbers. Vide rule 139. It is said to be conversive, when it changes the signification of a future, into that of a preter tense; or the sense of a preter into that of a future.

The five following rules are taken from Granville Sharp, and supported by numerous examples. Their accuracy is submitted to the critical reader.

Rule I.

66prefixed to future tenses converts them to perfect tenses; and when prefixed to verbs in the perfect tense, it regularly converts them to the future tense. This is the necessary construction for both cases (not only “ interdum," sometimes, as the grammarians tell us, but) always, constantly and regularly, in every sentence, that is independent of the three particular circumstances described in the subsequent three rules, or general exception.

“ The only instance of irregularity or particular exception, respecting 1, that I have been able to find, is in that portion of the 119th Psalm, wherein i is the leading letter of each sentence, as an acrostic or alphabetical psalm; which probably ought to be considered merely as a poetical license for that kind of composition.

Rule II. “ When 1 is prefixed to a verb, which immediately follows another verb of the same tense, without a prefixed 1, and in the same sentence, the 1 in that case is merely conjunctive, and the second verb to which it is prefixed (and even a third or fourth, if they are of the same tense, and follow in the same sentence with a prefixed 1 to each,) must be construed according to its proper tense, whether future or imperative, and often also the perfect tense; but not always; as there are a few instances of exception.

Rule III. “ A prefixed 1 does not affect, or convert any verb, in the imperative mood, nor any verb, or verbs in the future tense, which follow an imperative mood in the same sentence. But to perfect tenses the

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