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-teach ,מאלפנו for ,מלפנו ;14 .ye shall say

, 2 Sam . xix תאמרו for ,תמרו *

person singular future, as yox, for YONK I will speak, and sometimes in other forms, as in * 1700, for nonn ske baked it, 1 Sam. xxviii. 24; *, , 2 . . ; , , ing us, Job xxxv. 11.

98. As for the second kind of defective verbs above mentioned (rule 87), namely those that are supposed to drop their second radical 1 or '(hence called defective Oin Vau, w, and Oin Yod, 'v), as Div, Dip, 3'x, 12, the truth seems to be this; that the former sort have, proper. ly speaking, only two radical letters, but sometimes take a i before the last radical, being in other respects (except that they are not used in the simple form in Hithpael, and in Huphal assume a 1 before the first radical, as opin was set up, Exod. xl. 17.) formed quite regularly; and that the latter sort of verbs, namely those with Yod inserted, are either verbs in which the 'is radical, fixed, and immutable, as 3'x to infest, in which case they are declined regularly; or else they are in Hiphil, the characteristic 17 being dropt, as o'w for b'vn, from

place) , , , Example of a defective verb of two radical letters.

,to discern , distinguish בן from ,הבין for בין ;to falace שום or שם

99. DW or DW To place.

הושם
יושם

.Futureישום

HUPHAL.HIPHIL.NIPHAL.KAL.
D'Vn
) DU Preter.

.
not used.

DIV IMPERATIVE.

DI INFINITIVE. ) DI Benoni.

010 Paoul.

ישים השים השים משים

נשום ישום השום השום נשום

הושם
מושם

100. Verbs of this form frequently in Kal, and sometimes in Niphal, drop the i before the last radical.

101. Of the third kind of defective verbs, or of those which drop their third radical, are the verbs ending in 17, hence called defective

, , , . 102. Observe in general, first, that these verbs usually either drop their a before a servile, as from oba to reveal, 18a they revealed; or

, , ;

.גלה ,קנה as ,לה ,Lamed He

for ,תגלינה ;thou revealedst גלהת for ,גלית Yed

, as י change it into

* But in the words marked thus * some of Dr. Kennicott's codices supply the x.

as ,ת into ,ה they

( women ) shall reveal ; or before a servile תגלהנה ה she revealed

: secondly , that they often drop their גלהה for ,גלתה יגל , , .he commanded , Deut צוה for ,צו ;he shall make ,יעשה for יעש ;יגלה for

hath consumed us , for כלנו ;18

.reveal

. Psal . cxix גלה for גל ;24 ,6 ,vi

,כלהנו

Example of a verb defective Lamed He.

.To reveal גלה .103

HITH.JHUPH.HIPH./NIPH.

KAL. .

or

גליה (.fem)נגלה הגלה* | הגלה התגלה .Preterנלה גלתה or גליה ( .fem)נגלה

יתגלה
יגלה
יגלה

יגלה
.Future יגלה or יגל
(

.fem)הגלה הגלה not used התגלה .IMPER נלה גלי

הגלות התגלות

הגלות הגלות .INFINגלות גלת or גלו

מגלה מתגלה גולה (

.fem) |נגלה מגלה .Benoniגולה .Paoulגלוי

104. Several verbs, with * for their last radical, sometimes drop

; א , .and others of these verbs form their infini ,מלא ,יצא ,חטא ,בא ,it

,

as מ? מלאות ;1 .to call

, Jud . viii קראות as ,ה like verbs ending in ,ות tive in

, , . 1; to fulfil, 2 Chron. xxxvi. 21.1

105. Verbs ending in 3 sometimes drop their last radical before a 3 , (fem.) supported, ,

from ,תאמננה they

(
fem-
)
shall be sufiliorted
,
for האמנה servile

,
as

1
.4
.to sufhfhort

, Isa . lx אמן

I have כרתתי for ,כרתי ;19

.I die
,
Gen. xix מתתי for ,מתי servile

, as ת a

106. So verbs ending in n.sometimes drop their last radical before

, . ,, I cut off, Exod. xxxiv. 27.

107. Some verbs are doubly defective, chiefly such as have' and 3 for their first radical, and 7 for their last. Thus we have frin, second person masculine plural future Kal (with 1 paragogic), from 71' to afflict, Job xix. 2.; 17171, first person plural preter Hiphil, from 777'

. ', ,

)

, ן (

, ,הודינו , ,third person masculine singular future Kal ,יט ;.2

.to confess

,
Ps
.
Ixxv

ימיש ,1
.Lam
.
ii יעיב ,5
.Isa
.
lviii יציע ,4

.Deut
.
xi הציף

-But comp *
Isa
.
xvi
.
9
;
from which forms it אריוך ,12

.Mic
.
ii תהימנה ,1

.Nah

.
iii

* . ,

. 1, . , . 9; appears that verbs ending in a radical but omissible 17 do in Hiphil insert a' between the first and second radical letter.

. , , . 4 Vide num. 886 ante, p. 136.

י

..9 .Jer . xxvi ,נבאת for נבית ,39

.Jer . xxiii נשאתי for נשיתי t

from ;הפכפך הפך from ;נפלל ,נפל from ;אמלל ,אמל from ;גלגל and גלל

.סחרחר ,סחר

from 103 to extend, Gen. xii. 8.; 7x, first person singular future Kal, from 1733 to smite, Exod. ix. 15.

108. The verb ind, to give, is doubly defective in a peculiar manner, for it not only drops its initial 3, as 703 (rule 94) and its final one before another : (as in rule 105), but it also generally loses its final : before a servile n, as 'nnd I have given, for nina; onni ye have given, for Dans; and generally has in the infinitive in to give.

109. Reduplicate verbs are such as have the last or two last radicals doubled; they are derived from simple verbs, as from ha are derived

; , ; , ; , ; , .

110. But in reduplicate verbs derived from those with 77 for the last radical, the reduplication is made by doubling the letter, or two letters preceding the in, as from na to complete, 599.to complete entirely, and 5359 to nourish; from op to be light, vile, syp to be exceedingly vile, and Spøp to be exceedingly light; from nya to opeń, pra to burst open.

111. Reduplicate verbs are declined regularly.

Except that those of the form of a sometimes use 1 instead of the last letter, as "182, Josh. v. 9, for insa; mia Eccles. ii. 20, for nodd; and sometimes in Hithpael assume 1 after the first radical, as 721000, from 11a, Isa. i. 3; and more rarely in other conjugations, as p" third person masculine singular future in Kal, from 7y, Gen. i. 20.; 19917. Job xxvi. 11, from 799.1 Such verbs also prefix na to the participles both of Kal and Hithfael, as in oond lifting up, 1 Sam. ii. 7. Ps. ix. 14; Odina raising up himself. Job xxvii. 7.

112. Pluriliteral verbs, or verbs not reduplicate, but consisting of more than three radical letters, as 0070, 4272, &c. are, the few times they are used, declined regularly.

+ This reduplicate form of verbs with 1 inserted in Kal, the He. brew grammarians have called the conjugation Poel, and they add, that verbs defective y borrow their Hithpael from the conjugation Poel.

OF SYNTAX.

*.great strokes מכות גדלת ,a quise som בן חכם in gender and number

,
as

Syntar, from the Greek Evrtážis composition, is that part of grammar which teaches to compose words properly in sentences. 113. In Hebrew the adjective generally agrees with its substantive

, wise son, . 114. Yet we meet with such expressions as these, n'y great cities, Deut. i. 28. vi. 10, et al. hosta d'IIN great stones, Deut. xxvii. 2. Josh. x. 18, 27.; mio D' and niya good and bad figs, Jer. xxiv. 2,3.; 0-b7an nanan the great lights, Gen. i. 16. But as to the former phrases, it has been observed, rule 23 that the termination O' is not always masculine; and perhaps in such expressions as 10 ID, the adjective with a termination usually masculine is joined with a feminine substantive, as a mark of dignity or excellency.

115. Participles follow the same rules of syntax as adjectives.

116. When two substantives of a different gender have the same adjective, that adjective is commonly of the masculine gender, as Job i. 13, dobON INIII 1'33 His sons and his daughters eating.

117. When two substantives have one adjective, that adjective is put in the plural number, as, 1 K. i. 21, 0'8077 phu 'zI 'IX I and my son Solomon (shall be) sinful.

118. The same rules of syntax hold good of pronouns, Gen. i. 27, DMA 893 napi af male and female created he them, masc.

119. Collective Nouns, or nouns of multitude, though singular, may have an adjective or participle plural, as b'an Dyn the people (are) many, Exod. v. 5; O'NI 1717 57 all Judah coming, Jer. vii. 2; Dobbins Dyn the people piping, 1 K. i. 40.

120. An adjective singular is sometimes joined to a noun plural in a distributive sense, as Psal. cxix. 137, TMOVS 10' right are thy judgments, i. e. every one of them; Gen. xxvii. 29, 7198 79998 they that curse thee (are) cursed, i. e. each one of them. Comp. Gen. xlvii. 13. Exod. xvii. 12.

* The adjective is generally placed after its substantive; the noun after its verb, and sometimes after the object of the verb; also when there are two nouns, and the former in regimine, the following adjective will agree with the former noun,

.forty ארבעים four , but ארבע ;thirty שלשים but

121. The cardinal nouns of number (as one, two, three, &c.) from one to ten, when masculine, have a feminine termination; when feminine, a masculine one.

122. Cardinal nouns of number which have a plural termination are most usually joined to substantives in the singular, but those that have a singular termination to substantives in the plural: D'Vix noho Three (or a trinity of) men, Gen. xviii. 2; d'abo nyan Four (or a quaternion of) kings, Gen. xiv. 9; 7JW nixo uno, nav nisa yav, Five, - Seven hundreds of years, Gen. v. 26, 32, are examples of both these last rules. Comp. Job i. 2.

123. The cardinal nouns of number are sometimes used for the ordinals, as one for first, three for third, ten for tenth, &c. See Gen, i. 5. Esth. i. 3. Gen. viii. 4. 2 Chron. i. 3.*

124. The plurals in D?-of nouns of number from three to nine inclusive signify ten times as much as the singular. Thus why is three,

, forty. 125. The nominative or noun to a verb is known by asking the question who or what? with the verb; thus in the sentence, God created the heavens, the word God answering the question who created, is the noun to the verb created; so in this sentence, The sun shines, the sun is the noun to the verb shines.

126, All nouns, whether singular or plural, are of the third person, except when they are joined with the pronouns of the first and second persons, I, thou, we or ye.

127. The verb usually agrees with its noun in gender, number, and person, as,

1922 anben The Aleim were revealed, Gen. xxxv. 7; 007 1987 the earth was, Gen. i. 2.

128. Yet we find, Gen. i. 14, niso '' there shall be lights, where nho feminine and plur. is joined with the verb 'o' masculine and singular. But 'o' seems here to be used impersonally, as in many other instances. 129. When two nouns of a different gender have or govern

the same verb, that verb is generally put in the masculine gender, as Gen. ü. 1, p1871 d'oun 193". and the heavens and the earth were finished. Comp. above rule 116.

* Vide ante, num. 486, in note, pages 84, 85.
† Vide num. 67, in note, pages 22, 23,

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