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s y servile 163. Prefixed denotes the third person masc. future sing, and plur. of all verbs.

164. Prefixed, forms some appellative nouns, and many proper

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laugh; apy Jacob, from 2py to supplant. · 165. Inserted, forms many nouns; and after the first radical, denotes the effect or consequence, from the participle active of the verb; for instance, from in air breathing or in motion, comes frin odour or exhalation. Inserted after the second radical, denotes the effect or consequence, from the participle passive, as Typ harvest, from 8p cut down.

166. Inserted before the last radical, it denotes the Hiphil conjugation.

167. Postfixed, forms a national name, as 'nay an Hebrew, wyja a Canaanite.

168. Postfixed, forms the ordinal numbers, v 40 third, 'yan fourth, &c. And observe, that in these ordinal nouns of number, is not only postfixed, but frequently, as here, inserted also before the last radical.

169. Postfixed, denotes the 2d person fem. future and imperative, as 'open thou (woman) shalt visit; '7pa visit thou (woman), and sometimes the second person fem. preter, as, 'nov and 777 Ruth iji. 3; gyps Jer. xiii. 21. Comp. Jer. xxii. 23. xxxi. 21, and Ezek. xvi. 19, nnd; ver. 20, ngh'; ver. 37, insap and '92; ver. 43, n71 and nowy; so ver. 47, 51.

170. Postfixed, is the sign of the masculine plural in regimine, as pomenighe kings of the earth. Comp. rule 25. · 171. Postfixed, is formative in some nouns, both substantive, as

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ficted, poor.

172. Postfixed to a noun, denotes the pronominal suffix my, as '927 my word; to a verb, me, as 'opo he visited me.

y servile 173. Prefixed, is a particle of similitude, like, as, according to, when.* . 174. Postfixed to a noun, thy, as 7727 thy word; to a verb, thee, as 77po he visited thee.

* From 12 thus.

y servile is 175. Prefixed only, to, for, &c. *

: servile 176. Prefixed, is a particle, from, &c.f or comparatively, than.

177. Prefixed denotes the participle of Hiphil and Huphal (and with n added, of Hithpael), whence

178. Prefixed, forms many nouns, signifying the instrument, or mean, or place of action, as from ja to protect, fin a shield, an instrument of protection; from na to sacrifice, huid an altar; so with 77 or n at the end of the word, many feminine nouns, as won instrument or mean of ruling.

179. Postfixed to a noun, is a pronominal suffix, their, as 0927 their word; to a verb, them, as Dips he visited them.

180. Postfixed with , forms the noun I'm redemption, from 770 to redeem.

181. Postfixed, forms some adverbs, as Doi by day, from old day; Ojn gratis, from in to be kind, gracious; DJPK truly, from 18 truth; open vainly, from pa vain.

servile 182. Prefixed, forms the preter and participle of the conjugation Niphal.

183. the first person plural future of all verbs.

184. - some few appellative nouns, as ihood an ant, from Sou to cron; 1993 a mutterer, whisperer, from 127 to whisper.

185. Postfixed, them and their, feminine. 186.

forms many nouns, as amp an offering, from gap to approach; especially with 1 preceding, as jimdi a memorial, from 1 to remember; 1730 drunkennes8, from 700 to inebriate..

W servile 187. Prefixed only, denotes the relative who, which. I 188. the particle that, because.

i n servile 189. Prefixed, denotes a noun, as masc. Topen a disciple or scholar,

* From 5 to.
† From is or from nao to distribute.
# From 0x who.

from 79' to teach; masculine plural o'sin Teraphim, from 701 to venerate; feminine ninn a prayer, means of obtaining favour, from in to be gracious: also a particle, as nnn under, from nn to descend.

190. Prefixed denotes the second person future of both numbers and genders; and the third person future feminine sing. and plur.

191. Postfixed, denotes the second person preter sing. of all verbs. 194. - - in regimine for a fem. See rule 26.

193. - forms many nouns feminine, as nup incense, from hop to fumigate.

The above table of the serviles should be carefully perused by the learner, and continually consulted by him, when in words he meets with letters for which he cannot account.


For finding the Root in Lexicons. , 194. Reject all affixes, and letters acquired in forming; if three letters remain, that is the root. If only two, add 'or 3 in the beginning (and in the deflections of nps to take, ), 'or i in the middle, 17 or * at the end, or double the second radical letter--for instance, if the word 220 occurs, 20 is the root.

195. Observe is to be added at the beginning, 1 in the middle, or 07 at the end, much more frequently than 3 or 8 are to be supplied.

196. If, after rejecting the affixes and formative letters, only one letter should remain, add'or 3 to the beginning, and 07 at the end.

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For finding the Root in Mr. Parkhurst's Lexicon. 197. Reject all affixes, and letters acquired in forming;* if three

* In doing this, verbs in Hithpael may give sometimes trouble to the learner. nn the characteristic is ordinarily to be cast off. When letters remain, that is generally the root: thus in the word n'UNI, Gen. i. 1, 3 is a particle or affix signifying in, rule 148, n' a termination of nouns, see rule 16, therefore un is the root. : : 198. But if, after rejecting the affixes and formative letters, the word hath 1 or inserted (unless before 1), you must reject them also, and then you will tgenerally find it under the two remaining letters. (Comp. rule 98.) Thus in 72075, Gen. i. 17, 9 is a particle to or for, rule 175. 77 the sign of conjugation Hiph. rule 149.7% then remaining, you must also reject ', and look for the root 8. Observe that when 1 or 'is the middle, and 77 the final letter of the root, the or 'is retained, as in 713, 77'77, 11n.;

199. If, after rejecting the affixes and formative letters, only two letters remain, that is frequently the root. Thus in bipun, Gen. i. 1, 07 is a particle emphatic, the, by rule 150, D' is the termination of a noun masculine plural, by rule 19. ow therefore remains for the root.

200. But if, in this case, you cannot find it as a two-lettered root, add'or 3 to the beginning of the word, and to the deflections of Aps to take, (comp. rules 89. 93, 94, 95) or 77, and more rarely & to the end. (Comp. rules 102, 103, 104.) Thus in nyin, Gen. ij. 9, 17 is emphatic, the, rule 150, n is a feminine termination, rule 193; these then being rejected, yr remains; but not finding this in a two-lettered form, I add. Yod to the beginning, and find it under root yt'. Again, in npr and he took, Gen. ii. 15, 1 is a particle, and, rule 157; 'is the sign of the third person masculine future, rule 163; np then remaining, I adds to the beginning, and look for mps. In '39 Gen. i. 2,' is the sign of the N. masc. plur. in regimine, rule 25; this therefore being rejected, and not finding the root jo in a two-lettered form, I add 17 to the end, and look for 7739.

201. If, after rejecting the affixes and formative letters, only one Tetter should remain, add ' or 3 to the beginning, and 77 to the end.

the first radical is 7, 9, or n, the servile n is sometimes omitted. When D or w is the first radical, the servile n is put after it. When the first radical is 3 the characteristic n is not only transposed, but sometimes changed into 6.

* In some verbs, the 1 in the middle is radical and immutable, as in Mix, 10.

Thus Gen. xiv. 15, in 2", 1 is a connexive particle, and, rule 157,

the sign of the third person masculine future, rule 163, and D a suf-
fix, them, rule 179, 100; there remaining then only the letter 3, pre-
fix 3 to the beginning, and add 17 to the end, and look for the root
1723. Comp. rule 107. .

202. Nouns or particles of two letters ending in 'must usually be
sought under roots with 77 for the final letter, as for 'o the mouth, see
079; but for ') that, see 17d; and sometimes such nouns belong to
roots with 1 for the middle letter, as ') a burning to 712.

203. Reduplicate words must be sought under their simple ones;
thys, for sha and Sand, see 4, for 7030n, see 707. Comp. R. 109, 110.

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