« FöregåendeFortsätt »
preservations they styled saviours, and under that notion built temples, and consecrated altars to them. Nor did they rest sitting by his altar, which Hercules title was so generally given to Japihadbuilt: Βωμόν καθίζω τόνδε Σωτήρος ter, as that Hesychius expounds EwΔιός. Ηerc. Fur, 48. And Aristo τήρ, ο Ζεύς, yet was it likewise attriphanes introduces Bacchus swearing buted to the other gods: as Herodo. Νή τον Δία τον Σωτήρα, Ρlut. 877, as tus relates how the Grecians in their if it were the familiar oath among the naval war against the Persians made Athenians, as well it might be, he their vows Ποσειδέωνι Σωτήρι, and having his temple in their Piræeum,
that they preserved the title to Nepas Strabo testifieth, 1. ix. p. 396. tune in his days, 1. vii. [c. 192.] (where Demosthenes by virtue of And Artemidorus [1. ii. c. 37.] takes & decree was to build him an altar. notice that Castor and Pollux are Plut, in Vit. Demosth. c. 27.) and taken for the θεοί Σωτηρες, whom the his porch in the city, which was poem, bearing the name of Orpheus called indeed vulgarly του Ελευθερίου to Musæus, calls, v. 21, Διός στοά, yet was it also named
Μεγάλους σωτήρας, ομού Διός άφθιτα τέκνα. του Σωτήρος, as Ηarpocration and
as the hymn of Homer, ad Diosc. v. 6. Hesychius have observed. "Ότι δε
Σωτήρας τέκε παϊδας επιχθονίων ανθρώπων, επιγέγραπται μεν Σωτήρ, ονομάζεται δε 'Ωκυπόρων τε νεωνκαι 'Ελευθέριος, δηλοί και Μένανδρος" and Theocritus in theIdyllion on them, so the first. Των Μήδων έκφυγόντες [Idyl. xxii. 6.] ιδρύσαντο τον Ελευθέριον Δία, τούτον δε 'Ανθρώπων σωτήρας επί ξυρού ήδη έόντων. ένιοι και Σωτηρά φασι: so the latter. Hence Lucian in Alexandro [c. 4] [on ελευθέριος.] As in their oaths, useth it as their constant title, åleši. so in their feasts they mentioned κακε Ηράκλεις, και Ζεύ αποτρόπαιε, και him always at the third cup. Τον Διόσκουροι σωτήρες. Neither have wo μεν πρώτον Διός 'Ολυμπίου και θεών mention of the title only, but of 'Ολυμπίων έλεγον, τον δε δεύτερον ηρώων, the original and occasion of it. For τον δε τρίτον Σωτήρος, sub. Διός: when Castor and Pollux thrust the which is omitted in Hesychius, as sons of Theseus out of Athens, and appears out of Athenæus, l. ii. c. 7 made Menestheus king, he gave them and XV. ο. 17. τω δε μετά δείπνον first this name: διά ταύτα πρώτος ο κεκραμένω πρώτη προσδιδομένω ποτη Μενεσθεύς ανακτάς τε και σωτήρας ωνόρίω Δία Σωτήρα επιλέγουσι. Andespeci μασε.
Ælian. Var. Hist. 1. 4. c. 5. ally that of Alexis the comedian: Beside these, we read in the ancient 'Αλλ' έγχεον
inscriptions: 'Ασκληπιω θεώ Σωτηρι: Αυτώ Διός γε τήνδε Σωτήρος: Θεών
and again: 'Ασκληπιό και Υγεία ΣωΘνητοίς απάντων χρησιμώτατος πολύ. Ο Ζείς ο Σωτήρ.
τηρσι. For as they had their female Athen. 1. XV. 6. 47.
deities, so did they attribute this title Pausanias in Corinthiacis, [c. 20.
to their goddesses, and that both in the
masculine and the feminine gender. 8 5. c. 31. 8 14.] Messenicis, [ο. 23. 6.c. 31. 85.] Laconicis et Arcadicis,
As to Venus, Αφροδίτη θεα Παναγάθω [c. 9. 81. c. 30. $ 5.] mentions seve
και Σωτήρι: to Diana, 'Αρτέμιδι Σωτεϊρι, ral statues and temples anciently
as the same collection of inscriptions dedicated to Jupiter, επίκλησιν Σω
hath it. Thus Ρherecrates, Ηγούτηρι. (Οf which title Cornutus in
μεθα της πόλεως είναι ταύτας Σωτήρας, his book De natura Deorum (c. 27. p.
and Sophocles, Τύχη γε τη Σωτηρι.
Ed. Tyr. 80. Thus the epigram extant 71) gives this account: Κατά τον
in Suidas, [in voce κλήρος.] γεννώντά έστι και το σώζειν α γεννα,
Φωσφόρος, ώ Σώτειρ', επί Παλλάδος έσταθι και του Διός εντεύθεν Σωτήρος είναι
κλήρων, λεγομένου.) [This reference was added
Αρτεμιin the 4th edition.] And though this Ουδέν ήττον κακείνον σωτήρα και α
with their mistaken piety, but made it stoop unto their baser flattery, calling those men their saviours' for whom they seemed to have as great respect and honour as for their gods.
Nor does it always signify so much as that it may not be attributed to man, for even in the Scriptures the Judges
λεξίκακον προσηγόρευον. Τheodoret. Therap. Serm. viii. [Vol. IV. p. 905.] of Hercules. The Bæenses, an ancient people in Peloponnesus, 'Αρτεμιν ονομάζουσι Σώτειραν. Paus. in Laconicis, c. 22. fin. Her temple and statue in thecity Træezen was built and named by Theseus at his safe return from Crete. The Megarenses preserved by her from the Persians, επί τώδε Σωτείρας άγαλμα εποιήσαντο 'Αρτέμιδος: [Id. in Αtt. c. 40. & 2] and upon the same occasion another of the same bigness set up at Pagæ. ib. c. 44. & 4. But this title especially was given to Minerva. Σώτειρα, η Αθηνά παρά τοις "Ελλησιν. Hesych. "Έστι γαρ 'Αθήνησι Σώτειρα λεγομένη, ή και θύουσι. Schol. Αristoph. in Ranas, 381. Aristotle in his will obliged Nicanor to a dedication, Διt σωτήρι και 'Αθηνά σωτεΐρη. Laert. in Vit. Aristot. & 16. And in general they invocated God under the notion of Σωτήρ, as Plato in Timeo: θεόν δή και νυν επ' αρχή των λεγομένων σωτήρα εξ ατόπου και αήθους διηγήσεως προς το των είκότων δόγμα διασώζειν ημάς επικαλεσάμενοι, πάλιν αρχώμεθα λέγειν. [p. 48 D.]
1 This was the constant title of the first Ptolemy, the son of Lagus, given to him by the Rhodians. Ονόματα μέν δή κατά τα αυτά Πτολεμαίοι σφισιν, άλλη δε επίκλησις άλλων και γάρ Φιλομήτορα καλούσι, και Φιλάδελφον έτερον, τον δε του Λάγου Σωτήρα, παραδόντων "Ροδίων το όνομα. Paus. in Atticis, C. viii. & 6. Which name first given him by the Rhodians was no way expressed in his usage of the Syrians, as is observed by Josephus: ως και την Συρίαν άπασαν υπό Πτολεμαίου του Λάγου σωτήρος τότε χρηματίζοντας τα εναντία παθείν αυτου τη επικλήσει. Antiq. Jud. l. xii. c. 1. This was 80 familiar, that Tertullian useth the
title instead of the name. Post eum [Alexandrum) regnavit illic in Alexandria Soter annis xxxv.' Adv. Judæos, c. 8. Thus Antigonus was first called by the Greeks their Ευεργέτης, or benefactor, then Σωτήρ, or Saviour: ου μόνον εκρίθη παρ' αυτόν τον καιρόν Ευεργέτης, αλλά και μεταλλάξας, Σωtýp. Polyb. 1. v. c. 9. Thus we read of Demetrius, who restored the Athenians to their liberty: άνεκρότησαν και βοώντες εκέλευον αποβαίνειν τον Δημήτριον, Ευεργέτης και Σωτήρα προσαγοpeúovtes. Plut. in Vita, c. 9. And not only so, but numbered Demetrius and Antigonus among their Dii Soteres; and instead of their annual archon, whose name they used in their distinction of years, they created a priest of these Dii Soteres, as the same author testibeth: μόνοι δε Σωτηρας ανέγραψαν θεούς, και τον επώνυμον και πάτριον άρχοντα καταπαύσαντες, ιερέα Σωτήρων έχειροτόνουν καθ' έκαστον ενιαυτόν. C. 10. Appian relates of Demetrius that he received this title from the Babylonians: Τίμαρχον επανιστάμενον ανελών, και τάλλα πονηρώς της Βαβυλώνος ηγούμενον, εφ' ή και Σωτηρ αρξαμένων των Βαβυλωνίων ωνομάσθη. De Bell. Syriac. c. 47. Lucian's mistake in his Salutation [c. 9.] tells us of 'Αντίοχος ο Σωτήρ, and Appian gives us the routing of the Gauls as the cause of that title : os και Σωτήρ επεκλήθη Γαλάτας εκ της Ευρώπης ες την Ασίαν εμβαλόντας εξελάσας. Ιb. c. 65. And in process of time this title grew so customary and familiar, that the Sicilians bestowed it upon Verres their oppressor. 'Itaque eum non solum patronum illius insulæ, sed etiam Sotera inscriptum vidi Syracusis,' says Cicero, Verrin. 2. (Act. ii. lib. 2. c. 63.]
So the Septuagint .לבני ישראל ויושיעם
of Israel were called no less than their saviours. When the Judg. iii. 9. children of Israel cried unto the Lord, the Lord raised up a deliverer to the children of Israel, who delivered them, even Othniel the son of Kenaz. And again, When they cried unto Judg. iii. 15. the Lord, the Lord raised them up a deliverer, Ehud the son of Gera. Where, though in our translation we call Othniel and Ehud delirerers, yet in the original they are plainly
termed saviours'. 73 Now what the full import and ultimate sense of the title
of saviour might be, seemed not easy to the ancients : and the best of the Latins thought the Greek word so pregnant 1 Heb. Jud. iii. 9. yvir 707Op', At least Tacitus did conceive that
Conservator is as much as Soter: clearly : Και ήγειρε κύριος Σωτήρα το when speaking of Milichus, who de'Ισραήλ, και έσωσεν αυτούς, τον Γοθο tected the conspiracies to Nero, he Dina viòr Kevés: Qui suscitavit eis saith: 'Milichus præmiis ditatus Salvatorem, et liberavit eos, Othoniel. Conservatoris sibi nomen, Græco Again: και ήγειρε κύριος αυτοϊς Σω ejus rei vocabulo, adsumpsit.' Annal. τηρα τον 'Aώδ, υιόν Γηρά: Qui susci 1. xv. c. 71. He took to himself the tarit eis Salvatorem vocabulo Aioth, name of Conservator, in a Greek word filium Gera. Vet. Transl. Upon which which signifies so much: and without place St Augustine notes: *Adverten question that must be Σωτήρ. Howdum est autem quod Salvatorem dicat ever, the first Christians of the Latin etiam hominem, per quem Deus salvos Church were some time in doubt faciat.' Quæst. 1. vii. c. 18. [Vol. III. what word to use as the constant p. 601 E.)
interpretation of Ewtúp, so frequent 2 So Cicero in the place beforecited, and essential to Christianity. Tertulhaving said he saw Verres inscribed lian useth Salutificator, or, as some Sotera, goes on: 'Hoc quantum est ? books read it, Salvificator : Ergo jam ita magnum est, ut Latine uno verbo non unus Deus, nec unus Salutificator, exprimi non possit.' But though in si duo salutis artifices, et utique alter Cicero's time there was no Latin word altero indigens.' De carne Christi, c. used in that sense; yet not long after 14. and shews it was so translated in it was familiar. For as in the Greek the Philippians, iii. 20. Et quidem inscriptions we read often dedications de terra in cælum, ubi nostrum muniAlt EwTipe so in the Latin we find cipatum Philippenses quoque ab Apooften Jovi Servatori, or Conservatori, stolo discunt; Unde et Salutificatorem sometimes Jovi Salvatori, or Salutari: nostrum exspectamus Jesum Christum.' all which are nothing else but the Latin De Resur. Carnis, c. 47. St Hilary expressions of the Greek inscriptions. thought Salutaris a sufficient interAnd without question Ewrýp might pretation : 'Est autem Salutaris ipso have been rendered Sospitator, and illo nomine quo Jesus nuncupatur. even Sospes, as it was used in the days Jesus enim secundum Hebraicam linof Ennius. “Sospes, salvus :–Ennius guam Salutaris est.' In Psal. cxviii. videtur servatorem significare.' Festus [Lit. xi. 3. c. 1. p. 305 c.] St Augusp. 243. Neither indeed could the Sici tine is indifferent between that and lians mean any more of Verres, by Salvator: 'Deus salvos faciendi Domi. the word Sotera, than Tully spake of nusestJesus, quod interpretatur Salvahimself, when he styled himself Ser. tor, sive Salutaris.'[De Civ. Dei,l. xvii. vatorem Reipublice, Pro Planc. c. 36. c. 18. § 2. Vol. VII. p. 482 B.] And so
Acts iv. 12
and comprehensive, that the Latin tongue had no single word able to express it.
But whatsoever notion the heathen had of their gods or men which they styled saviours, we know this name belongeth
unto Christ in a more sublime and peculiar manner. Neither I
is there salvation in any other; for there is none other name
under heaven given among men, whereby we must be saved. Elanish karena It remaineth therefore that we should explain how and
autisme, for what reasons Christ truly is, and properly is called, our uw au aflration
Saviour. First then, I conceive, one sufficient cause of that appellation to consist in this, that he hath opened and declared unto us the only true way for the obtaining eternal salvation, and by such patefaction can deserve no less than the name of Saviour. For if those apostles and preachers of the Gospel, who received the way of salvation from him, which they delivered unto others, may be said to save those persons which were converted by their preaching; in a far more
eminent and excellent manner must he be said to save them, Rom. xi 11. who first revealed all those truths unto them. St Paul
provoked to emulation them which were his flesh, that he might 1 Cor. iz 22. save some of them; and was made all things to all men, that he 1 Tim. iv. 16. might by all means save some. He exhorted Timothy to take
heed unto himself, and unto the doctrine, and continue in them;
for in doing this he should both save himself and them that heard James v. 19, him. And St James speaks in more general terms; Brethren,
if any of you do err from the truth, and one convert him; let him know, that he which converteth the sinner from the error of his way, shall save a soul from death. Now if these are so expressly said to save the souls of them which are converted by the doctrine which they deliver, with much more reason must Christ be said to save them, whose ministers they are, and in whose name they speak. For it was he which came and preached peace to them which were afar off, and to them that were nigh. The will of God concerning the salvation of man was revealed by him. No man hath seen God at any
Eph. ii. 17.
John i 18.
Lactantius. (Div. Inst. 1. iv. c. 12.]
word of his was rather followed by his imitator St Cyprian, after whom Arnobius used it, after him his disciple Lactantius; and from thence it continued the constant language of the church, till the late innovators thrust it out of the Latin translation,
time: the only-begotten Son, which is in the bosom of the Father,
I must not be denied, even in this first respect, the title of
Aniel Sarlina Saviour.
in that the worm 74 Secondly, This Jesus hath not only revealed, but also pro
cured, the way of salvation; not only delivered it to us, but