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Thirdly, to come yet nearer to the particular acknowledgment of this truth, we shall farther shew that the promised Messias was not only engaged to suffer for us, but by a certain and express agreement betwixt him and the Father, the measure and manner of his sufferings were determined, in order to the redemption itself which was thereby to be wrought; and what was so resolved, was before his coming in the flesh revealed to the prophets, and written by them, in order to the reception of the Messias, and the acceptation of the benefits to be procured by his sufferings.
That what the Messias was to undergo for us was predetermined and decreed, appeareth by the timely acknowledgment of the Church unto the Father: Of a truth, against thy holy child Jesus, whom thou hast anointed, both Herod 185 and Pontius Pilate, with the Gentiles, and the people of Israel, were gathered together, for to do whatsoever thy hand and thy
id est, putative imaginatum, sed [Vol. 1. p. 70 c.) •A Judæis non
* These words are rejected by the Benedictine editors. See Vol. viii. p. 6, notes b, f.
counsel determined before to be done. For as when the two goats were presented before the Lord, that goat was to be offered for a sin-offering upon which the lot of the Lord should fall; and that lot of the Lord was lift up on high in the hand of the high-priest, and then laid upon the head of the goat which was to die; so the hand of God Lev. xvi. 8. is said to have determined what should be done unto our Saviour, whose passion was typified by that sin-offering. And well may we say that the hand of God, as well as his counsel, determined his passion, because he was delivered by the de- Acts ii. 23. terminate counsel and foreknowledge of God.
And this determination of God's counsel was thus made upon a covenant or agreement between the Father and the Son, in which it was concluded by them both what he should suffer, and what he should receive. For beside the covenant made by God with man, confirmed by the blood of Christ, we must consider and acknowledge another covenant from eternity, made by the Father with the Son. Which partly is expressed, If he shall make his soul an offering for sin, he shall Isai. lili. 10. see his seed, he shall prolong his days; partly by the apostle, Then said I, Lo, I come (in the volume of the book it is written Hob. x. 7. of me) to do thy will, O God. In the condition of making his soul an offering for sin, we see propounded whatsoever he suffered; in the acceptation, Lo, I come to do thy will, O God, we see undertaken whatsoever was propounded. The determination therefore of our Saviour's passion was made by covenant of the Father who sent, and the Son who suffered.
And as the sufferings of the Messias were thus agreed on by consent, and determined by the counsel of God; so they were revealed by the Spirit of God unto the prophets, and by them delivered to the Church; they were involved in the types, and acted in the sacrifices. Whether therefore we consider the prophecies spoken by God in the mouths of men, they clearly relate unto his sufferings by proper prediction ; or whether we look upon the ceremonial performances, they exhibit the same by an active representation. St Paul's apology was clear, that he said none other things but those Acts xxvi. 22. which the prophets and Moses did say should come, that Christ should suffer. The prophet said in express terms, that the Messias whom they foretold, should suffer: Moses said so in those ceremonies which were instituted by his PEARSON.
ministry. When he caused the passover to be slain, he said
Now all these sufferings which were thus agreed, deter-
which he felt not. When the appointed time of his death Luke xviii. approached, he said to his apostles, Behold, we go up to
Jerusalem, and all things that are written by the prophets concerning the Son of man shall be accomplished. When 186
he delivered them the blessed sacrament, the commemoration Luke xxii. 22. of his death, he said, Truly the Son of man goeth as it was
determined". After his resurrection, he chastised the dulness
that they could not look back upon the antecedent predictions; Luke xxiv. saying unto them, O fools, and slow of heart to believe all
that the prophets have spoken! Ought not Christ to have
1 Κατά το ωρισμένον.
Acts iii. 18.
ferings of the Messias, was all fulfilled by that Jesus whom we believe to be, and worship as, the Christ. Which is the fourth and last assertion propounded to express our Saviour's passion in relation to his office.
Having considered him that suffered in his office, we are next to consider him in his person. And being in all this Article there is no person expressly named or described, we must look back upon the former, till we find his description and his name. The Article immediately preceding leaves us in the same suspension; but for our satisfaction refers us to the former, where we find him named Jesus, and described the only-begotten Son of God.
Now this Son of God we have already shewed to be therefore truly called the only-begotten because he was from all eternity generated of the essence of the Father, and therefore is, as the eternal Son, so also the eternal God. Wherefore by the immediate coherence of the Articles, and necessary consequence of the CREED', it plainly appeareth, that the eternal Son of God, God of God, very God of very God, suffered under Pontius Pilate, was crucified, dead, and buried. For it was no other person which suffered under Pontius Pilate, than he which was born of the Virgin Mary; he which was born of the Virgin Mary, was no other person than he which was conceived by the Holy Ghost; he which was conceived by the Holy Ghost, was no other person than our Lord; and that our Lord no other than the only Son of God: therefore by the immediate coherence of the Articles it followeth, that the only Son of God, our Lord, suffered under Pontius Pilate. That Word which was in the beginning, which then was with God, and was God, in the fulness of time being made flesh, did suffer. For the princes of this world crucified the Lord of glory; and God purchased his 1 Cor. Il 8. Church with his own blood'. That Person which was begotten of the Father before all worlds, and so was really the Lord of glory, and most truly God, took upon him the nature of man, and in that nature being still the same Person which
Acts xx. 28.
1 This is that inseparabilis connexio in the Creed, which Cassianus urgeth 80 much against Nestorius, De Incarn. I. vi. [Ita enim sibi connexa et concorporata sunt omnia, ut aliud sine alio stare non possit. Cassianus
de Incarn. lib. vi. c. 17.)
• Dominum passum symboli tenet auctoritas, et Apostolus tradidit, dicens, Si enim cognovissent, nunquam Dominum gloriæ crucifixissent.' Vigil. advers. Eutych. 1. ii. [S 8. p. 20.]
before he was, did suffer. When our Saviour fasted forty days, there was no other person hungry, than that Son of God which made the world: when he sat down weary by the well, there was no other person felt that thirst, but he which was eternally begotten of the Father, the fountain of the Deity: when he was buffeted and scourged, there was no other person sensible of those pains, than that eternal Word which before all worlds was impassible : when he was crucified
and died, there was no other person which gave up the ghost, 1 Tim. vi. 16. but the Son of him, and so of the same nature with him, who
only hath immortality. And thus we conclude our first consideration propounded, viz. Who it was which suffered : affirming that, in respect of his office, it was the Messias ; in respect
of his person, it was God the Son. Howie di Ukut
But the perfect probation and illustration of this truth de
! requireth first a view of the second particular propounded,
How, or in what he suffered. For while we prove the person 187
Whereas then the humanity of Christ consisteth of a soul and body, these were the proper subject of his passion; nor could he suffer any thing but in both or either of these two. For as the Word was made flesh, though the Word was never made? (as being in the beginning God), but the flesh, that is, the humanity, was made, and the Word assuming it
1 Ο λόγος σάρξ εγένετο, -ίνα και tápov kai äoov érißás. S. Athanas. de ο λόγος αεί η λόγος, και σάρκα έχη και Incarn. Dom. cont. Apol. l. i, c. 12. λόγος έν ή το πάθος και τον θάνατον [Vol. 1. p. 932 B.] ανεδέξατο, έν μορφή τη ανθρωπίνη μέχρι
Jolin i 11.