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a perfect Redeemer of the whole man, so he was a complete sufferer in the whole; in his body, by such dolorous infirmities as arise internally from human frailties, and by such pains as are inflicted by external injuries; in his soul, by fearful apprehensions, by unknown sorrows, by anguish unexpressible. And in this latitude and propriety I believe our Saviour SUFFERED.
UNDER PONTIUS PILATE. AFTER the substance of this part of the Article, consisting in our Saviour's passion, He suffered, followeth the circumstance of time, declared by the present governor, under Pontius Pilate. Which, though the name of a stranger to the commonwealth of Israel and the Church of Christ, is well preserved to eternal memory in the sacred articles of our CREED. For as the Son of God by his determinate counsel, was sent into the world to die in the fulness of time, so it concerns the Church to be assured of the time in which he died. And because the ancient custom of the world was, to make their computations by their governors, and refer their historical relations to the respective times of their government: therefore, that we might be properly assured of the actions of our Saviour which he did, and of his sufferings (that is, the actions which others did to him), the present governor is named, in that form of speech which is proper to such historical or chronological narrations, when we affirm that he suffered under Pontius Pilate'.
1 'Έπί Ποντίου Πιλάτου. Which words are capable of a double construction. First, as they are used by St Paul, 1 Tim. vi. 13: 'Indoù, Toll μαρτυρήσαντος επί Ποντίου Πιλάτου την καλήν ομολογίαν, Who before Pontius Pilate witnessed a good confession; that is, standing before him, as before a judge. As of the same person, Matt. XXviii. 14: Και εάν ακουσθή τούτο επί Toll vyeubvos, If this come to be tried before the procurator. Thus Festus propounded it to St Paul, Acts xxv. 9: θέλεις-κρίνεσθαι επ' εμού; and St Paul answered in the same propriety of speech: επί του βήματος Καίσαρος εστώς elu. Thus Christ tells his apostles, Mark xiii. 9: él nyeuóvwv kal Basi
λέων σταθήσεσθε. And in this sense dil is often used by the Greeks. Secondly, étl II Xárov is under Pilate, that is, in the time of his government, when and while he was procurator of Judea; 88 επ’ αρχιερέων 'Αννα και Kaiáoa, Luke iii. 2. and émi 'AB.dbap Too dextepểus, Mark ii. 26. Which is also according to the custom and language of the Greeks: as, Karaklvo. μός επί Δευκαλίωνος εγένετο. Marm. Arundel. Ούτοι δ' ήσαν των επί του Λαομέδοντος εξαναστάντων Τρώων. Ρlat. Epist. ad Archytam. [Epist. xii. p. 359 D.) And éil Toúrou BaoiletOVTOS, in this king's reign, is the common phrase of Pausanias. Thus the Athenians among their nine
And because he not only suffered under him as the present governor, but also was arraigned and condemned by him as a judge; therefore it will be necessary, for the illustration of the manner, and confirmation of the truth, of our Saviour's sufferings, to declare what hath been left and derived to our knowledge, both concerning his person and his office.
For the first, we find him described by two names: nor is any other name of his extant, although, according to the general custom of the Romans', he should have three. first of these two is Pontius“, the name descended to him from "Αρχοντες had one who was called 1 Pausanias, speaking the Ro’Ebrupos, because his name was used mans, saith: Tpla ónote OXZylota, kal for the denotation of that year; and έτι πλέονα ονόματα εκάστω τίθενται. . the phrase was usually, επί του δείνα, [Achaic. c. 7.8 4.] And although DioOr επί του δείνα άρχοντος, as I find it medes and Plutarch [Vit. Caii Marii, thrice in one place: 'O Mèv ydp ('100 c. 1.] have observed, that even among κράτης) επί Λυσιμάχου, Πλάτων δε επι the Romans there were some διώνυμα, , "Αμεινίου γέγονεν, εφ' ου Περικλής έτε yet the prænomen was never omitted, Teútno ev. Diog. Laert. in Platone, [83.]
as Priscian affirmed: 'Ex illo conIn the same manner did the Lace suetudo tenuit, ut nemo Romanus sit dæmonians make their historical absque prænomine.' I. ii. & 23. accounts by their Ephori, and the 2 Pontius and Pilatus were his noArgivi by the priestesses of Juno: men and cognomen, in the same man'Επί Χρυσίδος εν "Αργει τότε πεντήκοντα ner as Julius and Cæsar are described δυοίν δέοντα έτη ιερωμένης, και Αινησίου by Suetonius: “Non Cæsare et Bibuεφόρου εν Σπάρτη, και Πυθοδώρου έτι lo, sed Julio et Cæsare, Coss., actum dúo uñas äpxovtos 'Aonvalous. Thucyd. scriberent, bis eundem præponentes, 1. ü. c. 2. And as the Greeks thus nomine atque cognomine.' Jul.c. 20. referred all actions to the times of Thus without a prænomen or agnomen, these governors, so did the Jews he is only known to us by his nomen under the Roman government, to properly called, and his cognomen. the procurators of Judæa; as ap The nature of which two is thus peareth by Josephus, who mentioning described by the ancients: Nomen the first of that office, Coponius, pre proprium est gentilicium, id est, quod sently relates the insurrection of Judas originem familiæ vel gentis declarat, Galilæus in this manner: 'E TOÚTOV ut Porcius, Cornelius; cognomen est (Κωπωνίου) τις ανήρ Γαλιλαίος, Ιούδας quod uniuscujusque proprium est, et όνομα εις απόστασιν ενήγε τους επιχω nominibus gentiliciis subjungitur, ut plovs. De Bell, Jud. 1. ii. c. 8. § 1. Cato, Scipio.' Diomedes, de Orat. l. then names his successor Ambivius, i. p. 321. "Nomen, quod familiæ εφ' ου και Σαλώμη-Ιαμνιάν καταλείπει: originem declarat, ut Cornelius; cogafter him Rufus, εφ' ού δή και τελευτα nomen, quod nomini subjungitur, ut Kaioap. Antiq. Jud. I. xviii. c. 2.
Scipio.' Charisius, Inst. Gramm. I. § 2. And in the same manner in ii. c. 6. The first of these Dionysius the Creed, παθόντα επί Ποντίου Πι calls το συγγενικών και πατρωνυμικόν, , Nárov, our Saviour suffered under Plutarch [Vit. Caii Marii, c. 1.] oiklas Pontius Pilate, that is, at the time η γένους κοινόν, and κοινόν από συγwhen he was procurator of Judæa; as γενείας" the second he calls προσηIgnatius fully, εν καιρό της ηγεμονίας γορικόν εξ επιθέτου. Thus Pontius IIov ríov II Aátov. Epist. ad Magnesios, was his nomen gentis or gentilitium,
and Pilatus his cognomen. As there
the original of his family, which was very ancient; the second Pilatus, as a cognominal addition distinguishing from the rest descending from the same original.
He was by birth a Roman; by degree of the equestrian order, sent by Tiberius the emperor to be a governor of Judæa. For about threescore years before our Saviour's birth, the Jews by Pompey the Great were made tributary to the Romans. And although during the life of Hyrcanus the highpriest, the reign of Herod and his son Archelaus, the Roman state suffered the Jews to be ruled by their own laws and governors; yet when Archelaus was banished by Augustus, they received their governors from the Roman emperor, being made a part of the province of Syria-, belonging to his care. In the life of Augustus there was a succession of three, Coponius, Ambivius, and Rufus. At the beginning of the reign of Tiberius, they were governed by Valerius Gracchus, and at his departure by Pontius Pilate.
The office which this Pilate bare was the procuratorship of Judæa, as is most evident out of the history both of the Romans?, from whom he received his authority, and of the Jews,
fore Pontius Aquila, Pontius Comi rursus in Actis, [ib. p. 103.) Where nius, Pontius Herennius, Pontius he lets us understand that these Paulinus, &c., so also Pontius Pi. etymologies were made from the He. latus. Wherefore in vain have some brew language; and makes an excuse, of the ancients endeavoured to give because the letter P is here taken for an etymology of these names as they the Hebrew 9, to which the Latin F do of Greek and Hebrew names in the more properly answers: 'Sed sciendum Scripture, and think thereby to express est, quod apud Hebræos P litera non the nature or actions of them that habetur, nec ullum nomen est quod bare the names. As Isidorus Hispal, hoc elementum resonet: abusive igitur Orig. l. vii. c. 10.8 8: Pontius, Decli accipienda, quasi per F literam scripta nans concilium, utique Judæorum: sint.' [ib. p. 96.) Thus did they vainly accepta enim aqua lavit manus suas, strive to find an Hebrew original, and dicens, Innocens ego sum a sanguine that such a one as should represent the hujus justi.' And Eutychius, patri conditions of Pilate; when these two arch of Alexandria, deduced Pontius names are nothing else but the Roman from an island called Ponta, near to nomen and cognomen of that person. Rome. And St Jerome: Quod sig. 1 Της 'Αρχελάου εθναρχίας μεταπεnificat nomen Pilati, i.e. Malleatoris, gouons eis é mapxlav. Joseph. de Bell. i.e. qui domat ferreas gentes.' ad Jud.l.ii.c.9.91. Tîsoè'Apxeláov xwpas Matt. xv. 'Pilatus, Os malleatoris ; υποτελούς προσνεμηθείσης τη Σύρων. quia dum Christum ore suo et justificat Antiq. Jud. l. xvii, c. 13. & 5. Ilapiu et condemnat, more malleatoris utra δε και Κυρήνιος εις την Ιουδαίων προσque ferit.' Isidor. ibid. 'Pontius, θήκην της Συρίας γενομένην. Ιbid. 1. Declinans concilium; Pilatus, Os xviii. c. 1. & 1. malleatoris.' S. Hier, de Nom, Hebra 2 Tacitus speaking of the Chrisicis, in Luca, [Vol. III. p. 96.) et tians: 'Auctor nominis ejus Christus, PEARSON.
over whom he exercised his dominion. But what was the office of a procurator in those times', though necessary for
Tiberio imperitante per procuratorem as Tacitus testifies: 'Cn. Julius Agri. Pontium Pilatum supplicio affectus cola-utrumque avum procuratorem est.' Annal. 1. xv. C. 44. And Ter Cæsarum habuit, quæ equestris nobili. tullian, most skilful of their laws and tas est.' Invit. Jul. Agric. c. 4. Which customs, speaks thus of our Saviour: is to be understood concerning the im'postremo oblatum Pontio Pilato, perial provinces: for into those which Syriam tunc ex parte Romana pro were of the provinces of the people, curanti.' Apologet. c. 21. Whom St the procurators sent by Cæsar were of Cyprian follows: "Hinc magistri the Liberti. For the emperor sentinto eorum-ut postremo detentum Pontio
all the provinces his procurators, but Pilato, qui tunc ex parte Romana with this difference, as Dio observes: Syriam procurabat, traderent.' (Quod 'Es távra duolws tá čovn, tá te autoll Idola dii non sunt, § 13, p. 30.] δή και τα του δήμου, τους μεν εκ των Thus also Josephus for the Jews: ιππέων, τους δε και εκ των απελευθέρων, Πεμφθείς δε εις Ιουδαίαν επίτροπος υπό TÉUTEL. Hist. 1. liii. c. 15. Tißeplov IIilátos. De Bell. Jud. I. ii. i The Roman procurator is ordi[c. 9. § 2.] And Philo: IIilátos ñv narily in Greek authors expressed by των υπάρχων επίτροπος αποδεδειγμένος their'ETITpotos, as the Glossa LatinoTņis 'Iovdalas. De Virtut. et legat. ad Græca, Procurator, 'Exit Poros. But Caium, c. 38. [Vol. 11. p. 589.] And yet they are not of the same latitude therefore these words of St Luke, in their use;'ETIT Potos comprehendc. iii. 1, ηγεμονεύοντος Ποντίου Πιλάτου ing the notion of tutor, as well as της Ιουδαίας, were properly translated
procurator. Hesych.'Erlpotos, o tpoby the old interpreter, procurante στατών χωρίων, και όλης της ουσίας, Pontio Pilato Judæam. Thus Lucius kai óppavwv. Gloss. Vet. 'ETIT POTOS, Dexter ad annum Christi 28: 'Pontius
procurator, tutor. 'ETIT Potos therePilatus procurator Judææ a Tiberio fore was used by the Greeks in both mittitur in Judæam.' And Justin notions, whereof procurator of the Martyr most properly: Tov otaupw. Latins is but one. And in the language Ρέντα επί Ποντίου Πιλάτου, του γενομέ of the Romans, he is a procurator νου εν Ιουδαία επί χρόνοις Τιβερίου which undertakes to manage the busiKaloapos é TiTpórov. Apol. i. (c. 13, ness of another man. •Procurator, si p. 60.] And again, speaking to the negotium suscipit,' saith Asconius in emperors, by whom the procurators Divinat. and Sex. Pompeius [Festus), were sent: Και Πιλάτου του υμετέρου Lib. iii. p. 44. "Procurator absentis παρ' αύτοϊς γενομένου επιτρόπου. [Ibid. nomine actor fit;' he to whom the c. 40, p. 78.] And again: Katà Toll care of another man's estate or affairs ονόματος Ιησού Χριστού, του σταυρω was committed. Gloss. Vet. 'Eyrolh, θέντος επί Ποντίου Πιλάτου, του γε Commissum, et 'Evroleús, Procurator. νομένου επιτρόπου της Ιουδαίας. Dial. In correspondence to these procurators cum Tryph. [c. 30, p. 247.] As also of the affairs and estates of private Eusebius: Δωδεκάτω ενιαυτό της Τι persons, there were made such as did βερίου βασιλείας, επίτροπος της Ίου take care in every province of the δαίας υπό Τιβερίου καθίσταται Πιλάτος. . imperial revenue; who, in respect of Hist. Eccl. l. i. c. 9. And St Jerome's the person whom they served, were translation of his Chronicon: Pi. called Procuratores Cæsaris, or Auguslatus procurator Judææ & Tiberio tales; in respect of the countries mittitur.' Thus it appears that where they served, were termed ProPilate, of the equestrian order, was curatores Provinciales. Their office properly procurator, as that office was is best described by Dio, Hist. 1. liii. ordinarily given to men of that order, c. 15: Τους επιτρόπους, ούτω γάρ τους
our present purpose, is not so easy to determine, because it was but newly introduced into the Roman government. For before the dominion of that city was changed from a commonwealth into an empire, there was no such public office in any of the provinces; and particularly in Judæa none till after the banishment of Archelaus some years after our Saviour's birth. When Augustus divided the provinces of the empire into two parts, one of which he kept for his own care, and left the other to the inspection of the senate; he sent, together with the president of each province, as the governorin-chief of the province, a procurator, whose office was to take an account of all the tribute, and whatsoever was due to the emperor, and to order and dispose of the same for his advantage. Neither was there, at the first institution of this
office, any other act belonging properly to their jurisdiction, 195 but such a care and disposal of the imperial revenue: which
they exercised as inferior and subordinate to the President, always supreme provincial officer.
Now Judæa being made part of the province of Syria, and consequently under the care of the president of that province, according to this institution, a particular procurator was assigned unto it, for the disposing the emperor's revenue. And because the nation of the Jews were always suspected of a rebellious disposition against the Roman state, and the president of Syria, who had the power of the sword, was forced to attend upon the other parts of his province: therefore the procurator of Judæa was furnished with power of life and death', and so administered all the power of the president,
τάς τε κοινάς προσόδους εκλέγοντας και
a Procuratoribus suis judicatarum, ac si ipse statuisset.' Annal. l. xii. c. 60. And in Suetonius: . Utque rata essent quæ Procuratores sui in judicando statuerent, precario exegit.' (Claud. c. 12.] The proper office therefore of the provincial procurator was, to receive the imperial revenue, and dispose of it as the emperor commanded, and to all intents and purposes to do such things as were necessary thereunto, with such authority, as if the emperor himself had done them.
1 This appeareth by Coponius, the first proper procurator of Judæa, who was brought in by Quirinus, Præses of