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made it; being God hath not only written himself in the lively characters of his creatures, but hath also made frequent

patefactions of his Deity by most infallible predictions and 26 supernatural operations: therefore I fully assent unto, freely acknowledge, and clearly profess, this truth, that there is a God.

Again, being a prime and independent Being supposeth all other to depend, and consequently no other to be God; being the entire fountain of all perfections is incapable of a double head, and the most perfect government of the universe speaks the supreme dominion of one absolute Lord; hence do I acknowledge that God to be but one, and in this unity, or rather singularity of the Godhead, excluding all actual or possible multiplication of a Deity, I BELIEVE IN GOD.


1 Cor. viii. 6.

As therefore recen

AFTER the confession of a Deity, and assertion of the divine unity, the next consideration is concerning God's paternity; for that one God is Father of all, and to us there is Eph. iv. 6. but one God, the Father.

Now, although the Christian notion of the divine paternity be some way peculiar to the evangelical patefaction; yet 'wheresoever God hath been acknowledged, he hath been understood and worshipped as a Father : the very heathen poets so describe their gods, and their vulgar names did carry fathers in them, as the most popular and universal notion.

This name of Father is a relative; and the proper founda- breváy tion of paternity, as of a relation, is generation.

Greeze 1 Omnem Deum qui ab homine omnibus Diis nomen Paternum ad

dia de colitur, necesse est inter solemnes ditur, ut fiant venerabiliores : And ritus et precationes Patrem nuncu. before him Lucilius: pari; non tantum honoris gratia, *Ut nemo sit nostrum, quin pater optimu' verum etiam rationis, quod et an

Ut Neptunu' Pater, Liber, Saturnu' Pater, tiquior est homine, et quod vitam,

Mars, salutem, victum præstat, ut pater. Janu', Quirinu' Pater nomen dicatur ad unum.' Itaque et Jupiter a precantibus Pater

Lactan. Ib. vocatur, et Saturnus, et Janus, et 3 As Jupiter, which is Jovis Pater, Liber, et cæteri deinceps.' Lactan, de or Zeutrátwp, otherwise Diespiter, or ver. Sap. [Div. Inst.] 1. iv. c. 3. Alimátwp: and Marspiter, of whom

9 That so frequent in Homer, Servius, 'apud Pontifices Marspiter πατήρ ανδρών τε θεών τε· eundem dicitur,' Æneid. ). ii. v. 35. So appellans dicit (Ennius]: Divumque Semipater for Semo, and Eapootrátwp hominumque pater rex.' Var. de L. for Sardus, the proper Deity of Sar. L. 1. v. c. 10, p. 71. As Servius dinia. Ptolem. Geogr. I. iii. c. 3. observes of Virgil: "A poeta pene


Gen. ii. 4.


the phrase of generating is diversely attributed unto several acts of the same nature with generation properly taken, or by consequence attending on it; so the title of Father is given unto divers persons or things, and for several reasons unto the same God. These are the generations of the heavens and the earth, when they were created, in the day that the Lord God made the earth and the heavens, saith Moses. So that the creation or production of any thing by wbich it is, and

before was not, is a kind of generation, and consequently the Job uxvili creator or producer of it a kind of Father. Hath the rain a

father? Or who hath begotten the drops of dew? by which words Job signifies, that as there is no other cause assignable of the rain but God, so may he as the cause be called the Father of it, though not in the most proper sense', as he is the Father of his Son: and so the philosophers of old, who

thought that God did make the world, called him expressly, as 1 Cor. viii. 6. the Maker, so the Father of it. And thus to us there is but

one God, the Father, of whom are all things; to which the
words following in the CREED may seem to have relation, the
Father Almighty, Maker of heaven and earth. But in this
mass of creatures and body of the universe, some works of
the creation more properly call him Father, as being more
rightly sons : such are all the rational and intellectual offspring
of the Deity. Of merely natural beings and irrational agents 27
he is the creator; of rational, as so, the Father also : they

1 Ετέρως γάρ τις υετου πατέρα χόντα το σπέρμα, καίπερ εκ του σπέρθεον ακούει, και ετέρως υιού. Severus, ματος γεγονότος. Νon enim agri Cat. Patr. in Job. c. 26. p. 551. pater, si Chrysippo credimus, is

9 Plutarch of Plato, calling God dicitur qui eum consevit, quanquam πατέρα των πάντων και ποιητήν, says: e semine deinde fruges nascantur: as τη μεταφορα χρώμενος, ώσπερ είωθε, the Latin translation most absurdly. τον αίτιον πατέρα του κόσμου κέκληκεν.

. Ibid. For there is neither corn, nor Platon. Quæst. ii. § 1. [Vol. v. p. field, nor any seed belonging to 1000, F.] And Alcimus: marnp de them, in the words of Plutarch. But εστι το αίτιος είναι πάντων. .

xipcov (not xwpiov) is the secunda*, 3 So Plutarch answers the ques the coat (or rather coats in the acception, why Plato terms God the Maker tation of Chrysippus, and the lanand Father of all things; "H TW Mèy guage of those times) in which the θεών των γεννητών και των ανθρώπων fatus is involved in the mother's πατήρ έστιν-ποιητής δε των αλόγων womb. Though therefore both the kal ayúxwv; Father of gods and men, secunda and the fætus be made of the Maker of all thin inanimate and seed of the male the philosophy irrational. Ου γαρ χορίου, φησί Χρύ of Chrysippus, yet he is not called σιππος, πατέρα καλείσθαι τον παρασ the father of the after- birth, but of

* So it is given in Wyttenbach's edition.


Luke iii. 38.

Con's in

are his creatures, these his sons. Hence he is styled the
Father of spirits, and the blessed angels, when he laid the Heb. xi. 9.
foundations of the earth, his sons; When the morning stars Job xxxviil
sang together, and all the sons of God shouted for joy:
hence man, whom he created after his own image, is called his
offspring, and Adam, the immediate work of his hands, the son Acts xvii. 28.
of God: hence may we all cry out with the Israelites taught
by the prophet so to speak, Have we not all one Father ? Mal. il. 10.
Hath not one God created us? Thus the first and most
universal notion of God's paternity in a borrowed or metapho-
rical sense is founded rather upon creation than procreation.

Unto this act of creation is annexed that of conservation,
by which God doth uphold and preserve in being that which is

cresce in at first he made, and to which he gave its being. As therefore it is the duty of the parent to educate and preserve the child as that which had its being from him; so this paternal education doth give the name of Father' unto man,

and conservation gives the same to God.

Again, redemption from a state of misery, by which a people voer ist ein hath become worse than nothing, unto a happy condition, is a kind of generation, which joined with love, care, and indulgence in the Redeemer, is sufficient to found a new paternity, and give him another title of a Father. Well might Moses tell the people of Israel, now brought out of the land of Egypt from their brick and straw, unto their quails and manna, unto their milk and honey, Is not he thy Father that hath bought Deut

. xxxil thee? hath he not made thee, and established thee? Well might God speak unto the same people as to his son, even his Exod. Iv. 22. first-born. Thus saith the Lord thy Redeemer, and he that Isai

, kliv. 24; formed thee from the womb, Hearken unto me, 0 house of Jacob, and all the remnant of the house of Israel, which are borne by me from the belly, which are carried from the womb. And just is the acknowledgment made by that people instructed by the prophet, Doubtless thou art our Father, Isai. Ixi. 18. though Abraham be ignorant of us, and Israel acknowledge us not; thou, O Lord, art our Father, our Redeemer, from everlasting is thy name. And thus another kind of pater


xlvi. 3.

the child; the one being endued with
life and reason, and the other not.
i So Eustathius observes out of


an ingenious etymologist: Ilarnp Oeds
μεν, ώς το παν τηρών: άνθρωπος δε, ως
TOUS Taíðas impôv. Od. 0. 480.


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nal relation of God unto the sons of men is founded on a restitution or temporal redemption.

Besides, if to be born causeth relation to a father, then to be born again maketh an addition of another: and if to generate foundeth, then to regenerate addeth a paternity. Now though we cannot enter the second time into our mother's

womb, nor pass through the same door into the scene of life John ii. 4. 8. again; yet we believe and are persuaded that except a man

be born again, he cannot see the kingdom of God. A double birth there is, and the world' consists of two, the first and the second man.

And though the incorruptible seed be the word of God, and the dispensers of it in some sense may say, as St 1 Cor. iv. 15. Paul spake unto the Corinthians, I have begotten you through

the Gospel : yet he is the true Father, whose word it is, and James i. 17, that is God, even the Father of lights, who of his own will 1 John v. 1. begat us with the word of truth. Thus whosoever believeth that

Jesus is the Christ, is born of God; which regeneration is as it were a second creation : for we are God's workmanship, created in Christ Jesus unto good works. And he alone who

did create us out of nothing, can beget us again, and make us 28 Gen. xxx. 1, of the new creation. When Rachel called to Jacob, Give me

children, or else I die ; he answered her sufficiently with this question, Am I in God's stead? And if he only openeth the womb, who else can make the soul? to bear? Hence hath he the name of Father, and they of sons who are born of him; and so from that internal act of spiritual regeneration another title of paternity redoundeth unto the Divinity.

Nor is this the only second birth or sole regeneration in a Christian sense; the soul, which after its natural being requires

a birth into the life of grace, is also after that born again into Matt. xix. 28. a life of glory. Our Saviour puts us in mind of the regene

ration, when the Son of man shall sit in the throne of his ' ro

glory. The resurrection of our bodies is a kind of coming out

of the womb of the earth, and entering upon immortality, a Luke IX. 85, nativity into another life. For they which shall be accounted

worthy to obtain that world, and the resurrection from the dead,

Eph. ii. 10




1 Totum genus humanum quodammodo sunt homines duo, primus et secundus.' Prosp. lib. Sententiar. ez August. sent. 301. al. 299.

2 Ου γαρ αντί θεου εγώ είμι, του

μόνου δυναμένου τας ψυχών μήτρας ανοιγνύναι, και σπείρειν εν αυταίς άρετάς, και ποιεϊν έγκύμονας και τικτούσας Td kald. Philo de Alleg. [1. iii. c. 63. vol. 1. p. 123.)

1 John iii. 2.

are the sons of God, being the sons of the resurrection, and then as sons, they become heirs, co-heirs with Christ, receiving Rom. viii 17. the promise and reward of eternal inheritance. Beloved, now Coli. 4 are we the sons of God, saith St John, even in this life by regeneration, and it doth not yet appear, or, it hath not been yet made manifest', what we shall be ; but we know, that when he shall appear?, we shall be like him : the manifestation of the deberri Father being a sufficient declaration of the condition of the invessons, when the sonship itself consisteth in a similitude of the Father. And blessed be the God and Father of our Lord 1 Pet. 1. 3, 4. Jesus Christ, which according to his abundant mercy hath begotten us again unto a lively hope, by the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead; to an inheritance incorruptible and undefiled, and that fadeth not away, reserved in heaven for us. Why may not then a second kind of regeneration be thought a fit aldition of this paternal relation ?

Neither is there only a natural, but also a voluntary and civil foundation of paternity; for the laws have found a way by which a man may become a father without procreation : and this imitation of nature is called adoption, taken in the general signification”. Although, therefore, many ways God be a Father; yet, lest any way might seem to exclude us from being his sons, he hath made us so also by adoption. voro é Others are wont to fly to this, as to a comfort of their solitary condition, when either nature hath denied them, or death bereft them of their offspring. Whereas God doth it not for

1 Και ούπω εφανερώθη.

[If he appear, dày pavepwon, in the 3rd Edition.]

‘Adoptio naturæ similitudo est, ut aliquis filium habere possit, quem non generaverit.' Caii Epit. Inst. I. tit. 5. § 1. (lib. I. tit. 7.] TL COTIV υιοθεσία και νομίμη πράξις μιμουμένη την φύσιν προς απαίδων παραμυθίαν επινεvonuérn. Theoph. Inst. I. t. 11. [Vol. 1. p. 109.]

4 Η υιοθεσία Ρωμαϊκή φωνή λέγεται άδοστίων αύτη ουσα γενικόν όνομα εις δύω διαιρείται, εις αδρoγατίoνα, και την ομώνυμον αδοπτίονα. Τheoph. ibid.

5 "Spadones autem qui generare non possunt, adoptare possunt; et, Licet filios generare non possint, quos adoptaverunt filios habere possunt.'

Caii Epit. Inst. I. tit. 5. § 4. [lib. I.
tit. 7. & 3.] 'Hi qui generare non
possunt, velut spado, utroque modo
possunt adoptare. Idem juris est in
cælibe.' Ulpian. tit. 9. & 5. [8. 8 6.]
Τυχόν ουκ έχων τις παϊδας διά το μή
ελθείν επί γάμον, ή ελθεϊν μέν, μη παι-
δοποιήσαι δέ, ή παιδοποιήσαι μέν, απο-
βάλεσθαι δε τούτους, το εκ της φύσεως
ελάττωμα ή και το συμβάν δυστύχημα
βουλόμενος επικουφίσαι, έλαβεν εις υιο-
Deglav Tuvd. Theoph. Inst. 1. tit. 11.
[Vol. 1. pp. 109, 110.) Tois dTuXOVOLV
απαιδίαν λύειν βουλόμενος το δυστύχημα
νόμος εν τώ υιοθετείσθαι προστάσσει και
γνώμη εκείνο κτάσθαι, και μη εύπορουν
λαβείν παρά της φύσεως. Leonis Novel.
27. [p. 484.]

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