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and said, Behold, I see the heavens opened, and the Son of man standing on the right hand of God. He appeared standing unto Stephen, whom we express sitting in our CREED; but this is rather a difference of the occasion, than a diversity of position. He appeared standing to Stephen', as ready to assist him, as ready to plead for him, as ready to receive him : and he is oftener expressed sitting, not for any positional
variation, but for the variety of his effect and operation. 279 This phrase then to sit, prescinding from the corporal pos
ture of session, may signify no more than habitation, possession, permansion, and continuance; as the same word in the Hebrew and Greek languages often signifies?. And thus our Saviour
1 Επεί το ειπείν καθήσθαι φορτικόν Magn. Hom. 29. in Evang. [S 7. Vol. 1. αυτοίς ήν, τέως τον περί της αναστά p. 1572 D.) Maximus Taurin. de σεως κινεί λόγον, και φησίν αυτών ίστα Pentec. Hom. 2. (Hom. 62, p. 198.] obal. S. Chrysost. Hom. 18. in Act. moves the question: Quæ sit ratio, Apost. [8 1. Vol. ix. p. 143 E.) 'Si quod idem Dominus a David sedens major gratia et manifestior intelli. prophetatur, stans vero a Stephano gentia in Novo est quam in Vetere prædicatur?' and then renders this Testamento, quare Isaias Propheta reason: Ut modo ejus omnipotentia, sedentem in throno Majestatis vidit modo misericordia describatur. Nam Deum Sabaoth?-in novo autem utique pro potestate Regis sedere dici. Stephanus primus Martyr stantem tur, pro bonitate Intercessoris stare se vidisse ait Jesum a dextris Dei? suggeritur. Ait enim beatus ApostoQuid est istud, ut hic subjectus lus, quia Advocatum habemus apud videatur post triumphos, et illic quasi Patrem, Jesum Christum. Judex ergo Dominus antequam vinceret? Prout est Christus, cum residet: Advocatus causa fecit, ita et Dominus se os est cum assurgit. Judex plane Judæis, tendit. Prophetæ enim visus est Advocatus Christianis. Hic enim stans quasi rex corripiens plebem; et hoc apud Patrem, Christianorum licet pecse ostendit quod erat, hoc est, seden cantium causas exorat; ibi residet cum tem: in pace enim erat causa Divini. Patre Pharisæorum persequentium tatis ejus. Stephano autem ut stans peccata condemnans. Illis indignans appareret, fecit calumnia Judæorum.
vehementer ulciscitur; his interveIn Stephano autem Salvatoris causa niens leniter miseretur. Hic stat ut vim patiebatur. Ideo sedente Judice suscipiat Stephani Martyris spiritum; Deo stans apparuit, quasi cui causam ibi residet ut condemnet Judæ prodiceret : et quia bona causa ejus est, ditoris admissum. Ibid. ad dexteram Judicis erat; Omnis qui ? 22" which properly signifieth to causam dicit, stet necesse est. S. Au sit, is familiarly used for permansit, gust. Quæst. in Nov. Test. 88.* (Vol. and habitavit; as Judges v. 17, 70X III. part 2. App. p. 80 D.) Sedere o'rganib av. LXX. 'Aonpékádle tapajudicantis est, stare vero pugnantis λίαν θαλασσών, Asher continued on the vel adjuvantis.-Hunc post assum sea-shore; Leviticus viii. 35. 5778 noor tionem Marcus sedere describit, quia post ascensionis suæ gloriam Judex επί την θύραν της σκηνής του μαρτυρίου in fine videbitur. Stephanus vero in καθήσεσθε επτά ημέρας, ήμέραν και labore certaminis positus, stantem vÚKTA• Therefore shall ye abide at the vidit, quem adjutorem habuit,' Greg. door of the tabernacle of the congrega
* This treatise is not by St Augustine.
Kat מועד תשבו יומם ולילה שבעת ימים
Mic. iv. 4.
Heb. xii. 2
Psal. cx. 1.
is set down at the right hand of God in heaven; because he which dwelt with us before on earth, is now ascended up into heaven, and hath taken his mansion or habitation there, and so hath he seated himself, and dwelleth in the highest heavens'.
Again, the notion of sitting implieth rest, quietness, and indisturbance; according to that promise in the prophet, They shall sit every man under his fig-tree, and none shall make them afraid. So Christ is ascended into heaven, where, resting from all pains and sorrows, he is seated free from all disturbance and opposition; God having placed him at his right hand, until he hath made his enemies his footstool.
Thirdly, This sitting implieth yet more than quietness or continuance, even dominion', sovereignty, and majesty; as when Solomon sat in the throne of his father, he reigned over Israel after the death of his father. And thus Christ is set down at the right hand of the throne of GodAnd St Paul did well interpret those words of the prophet, Sit thou on my
right hand, until I make thine enemies thy footstool, saying, 1 Cor. xv. 25. He must reign till he hath put all enemies under his feet.
Fourthly, This sitting doth yet more properly and particularly imply the right of judicature, and so especially extion, day and night, seven days. Upon the Latins as the Hebrews. "Qui which place St Augustine: 'Quid est (venti) si essent nos Corcyra non quod dicit Moyses ad Aaron et filios sederemus.' Cic. Epist. ad Fam. l. ejus, cum sanctificantur ad ineundum xvi. Ep. 7. 'Id (præsidium) horreum sacerdotium, Ad ostium tabernaculi fuit Pænis sedentibus ad Trebiam.' testimonii sedebitis septem dies, die Liv. l. xxi. c. 48. et nocte, ne moriamini ? Numquid. 1 Sedet ad dexteram Patris, crenam credibile est, situ corporis uno dite. Sedere, intelligite habitare; loco sedere præceptos per dies septem quomodo dicimus de quocumque die et nocte, unde se omnino non homine, in illa patria sedit per tres commoverent? Nec tamen hinc tam. annos. Dicit illud et Scriptura, sequam allegorice aliquid significatum, disse quemdam in civitate tantum quod non fieret, sed intelligeretur, tempus. Numquid sedit, et num. cogendi sumus accipere, sed potius quam surrexit? Ideo hominum habi. agnoscere locutionem Scripturarum, tationes sedes dicuntur. Ubi haben. ubi sessionem pro habitatione et tur sedes, numquid semper sedetur? commoratione ponit. Non enim quia Non surgitur, non ambulatur, non jadictum est de Semei, quod sederet in cetur? Et tamen sedes vocantur. Sic Hierusalem annos tres, ideo putan ergo credite habitare Christum in dex. dum est, per totum illud tempus in tera Dei Patris: ibi est. S. August. sella sedisse et non surrexisse. Hino de Symb. ad Catech. 1. i. [c. 4. § 10. et sedes dicuntur, ubi habent commo Vol. vi. p. 553 c.] rationem quorum sedes sunt; habi. 2 'Ipsum verbum sedere regni sig. tatio quippe hoc nomen accepit.' nificat potestatem.' S. Hier. Com. Quæst. super Levit. 24. [Vol. III, ad Eph. i. 20. [Vol. vii. p. 565 p.) p. 500 F.) And this is as familiar with
presseth a king, that sitteth in the throne of judgement; as it Prov. IX. 8.
significations are usual?.
at last we find the substance of the doctrine, which is, that
. ii. 8–
1.Sedere quod dicitur Deus, non membrorum positionem, sed judiciariam significat potestatem, qua illa Majestas numquam caret, semper digna dignis tribuendo; quamvis in extremo judicio multo manifestius inter homines Unigeniti Dei Filii Judicis vivorum atque mortuorum claritas indubitata futura sit.' S. August. de Fide et Symb. c. 7. (S 14. Vol. vi. p. 157 E.] 'Hoc quod Filius dicitur sedere ad dexteram Patris, demonstratur quod ipse homo, quem suscepit Christus, potestatem acce. perit judicantis.' Auctor l. iii. de Symb. ad Catech. (S 7. Vol. vi. p. 573 D.]
Most anciently sedere did signify
Luco tum forte parentis
Sedebat, ut Asper dicit, erat. Quæ
name of Jesus every knee should bow, of things in heaven, and things in earth, and things under the earth. And this obedi
ence and submission was and is due unto him, because God Epli . i 20– raised him from the dead, and set him at his own right hand
in the heavenly places, far above all principality and power, and might, and dominion, and every name that is named, not only in this world, but also in that which is to come, and hath put all things under his feet: and gave him to be the head over all things to the church.
There was an express promise made by God to David, 2 Sam. vii. 16. Thine house and thy kingdom shall be established for ever
before thee, thy throne shall be established for ever. This
promise strictly and literally taken was but conditional; and Psal. cxxxii. the condition of the promise is elsewhere expressed, Of the
fruit of thy body will I set upon thy throne. If thy children will keep my covenant and my testimony that I shall teach them, their children also shall sit upon thy throne for evermore. Notwithstanding this promise, this kingdom of David was intercepted, nor was his family continued in the throne: part of the kingdom was first rent from his posterity, next the regality itself; and when it was restored, translated to another family: and yet we cannot say the promise was not made good, but only ceased in the obligation of a promise, because the condition was not performed. The posterity of David did not keep the covenant and testimony of their God, and therefore the throne of David was not by an uninterrupted lineal succession established to perpetuity.
But yet in a larger and better sense, after these intercisions, the throne of David was continued. When they had sinned, and lost their right unto the crown, the kingdom was to be given unto him who never sinned, and consequently could never lose it; and he being of the seed of David, in him the throne of David was without interception or succes
sion continued. Of him did the angel Gabriel speak at his Luke i. 32, 33. conception, The Lord God shall give unto him the throne of
his father David, and he shall reign over the house of Jacob for ever, and of his kingdom there shall be no end. Thus the throne of Christ is called the throne of David, because it was promised unto David, and because the kingdom of David was a type, resemblance, and representation of it; insomuch that Christ himself, in respect of this kingdom, is often called David,
as particularly in that promise, I will set up one shepherd Jer, XXL. 9. over them, and he shall feed them, even my servant David; he 24, 25. shall feed them, and he shall be their shepherd. And I the Lord Jizek, xxxiv. will be their God, and my servant David a prince among them.
Now as David was not only first designed, but also 1 Sam. xvi. anointed king over Israel, and yet had no possession of the crown; seven years he continued anointed by Samuel, and had no share in the dominion ; seven years after he continued anointed in Hebron only king over the tribe of Judah ; at 2 Sam. ii. 4. last he was received by all the tribes, and so obtained full and absolute regal power over all Israel, and seated himself in the royal city of Jerusalem : so Christ was born King of the Jews, and the conjunction of his human nature with bis
divine, in the union of his person, was a sufficient unction 281 to his regal office, yet as the Son of man he exercised no such
dominion, professing that his kingdom was not of this world; Jolin xviii.
The immediate effect of this regal power, the proper
The enemies of Christ are of two kinds, either temporal or spiritual ; the temporal enemies I call such as visibly and actually oppose him and his apostles, and all those which profess to believe in his name. Such especially and princi