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subsistence. If we conceive' it is an operation only’, then must it only be actuated and not act; and when it is not actuated, it must not be at all. If we say, that it is a quality, and not a substance; we say that it is that, which we cannot prove to have any being. It seemeth to me strangely unreasonable, that men should be so earnest in endeavouring to prove that the Holy Ghost which sanctifieth them, is no substance, when they cannot be assured that there is any thing operative in the world beside substantial beings; and consequently if they be not sanctified by that, they can be susceptible of no holiness. By what reason in nature can they be assured, by what revelation in Scripture can they be confident, that there is a reality deserving the name of quality distinguished from all substance, and yet working real and admirable effects? If there were no other argument but this, that we are assured by the Christian faith that there is an Holy Ghost existing; and we cannot be assured, either by reason or faith, that there is a quality really and essentially distinguished from all substance; it would be sufficient to deter us from that boldness, to assert the Holy Ghost, in whose name we are baptized, to be nothing else but a quality.
But we are not left to guess at the nature of the Spirit of God; the word of God, which came from that Spirit, hath sufficiently delivered him as a person. It is indeed to be observed, that in the Scriptures there are some things spoken of the Holy Ghost, which are proper and peculiar to a person, as the adversaries confess; others which are not properly and
θεόν, οι δε ουκ έγνωσαν οπότερον τούτων αιδοί της γραφής, ώς φασιν, ως ουδέν έτερον σαφώς δηλωσάσης. Οrat. xxxvii. (xxxi. & 5. Vol. 1. p. 559 A.] These were the three particular and opposite opinions: either the Spirit is an operation, or a created substance, or God; the fourth is but a doubt or hesitation which of the three is true. The first of these is thus propounded by way of question : Το Πνεύμα το άγιον ή των καθ' εαυτό ύφεστηκότων πάντως υποθετέον, ή των εν ετέρω θεωρουμένων, ών το μεν ουσίαν καλούσιν οι περί ταύτα δεινοί, το δε συμBeßnkós. Ibid. [§ 6. p. 559 D.] Either it is subsisting in itself, as a sub
stance; or in another, as an accident. This was the first question then, and still is.
[ conceived, 3rd Ed.]
2 This is the argument of the Same Father : Ει μεν ούν συμβέβηκεν, ενέργεια τούτο αν είη θεου· τί γαρ έτερον, ή τίνος; τούτο γάρ πως μάλλον, και φεύγει σύνθεσιν" και ει ενέργεια, , ενεργηθήσεται δηλονότι, ουκ ενεργήσει, και μου το ενεργηθήναι παύσεται" ' τοιούτον γάρ ή ενέργεια.
OUV ενεργεί, και τάδε λέγει, και αφορίζει, και λυπείται, και παροξύνεται, και όσα κινουμένου σαφώς εστίν, ου κινήσεως ; Ibid. (8 6. p. 559 D.]
primarily to be attributed to a person, as we cannot deny:
Holy Ghost as a person, by such attributes and expressions as 310 cannot be understood to be spoken of the Spirit of God any
other way than as of a person : secondly, That whatsoever attri-
First then, The Holy Ghost, or good Spirit of God, is
xviii, 20 21.
Again, The New Testament doth describe the Holy Ghost by such personal dispositions, and with such operations, as are as evident marks and signs of a person as any which are attributed to the Father or the Son, which are unquestionable persons; and wbatsoever terms are spoken of the Spirit by
way of quality, are spoken as well of those which are acknowCeph. iv. 30. ledged persons. We are exhorted by the apostle not to grieve
the Spirit of God; and grief is certainly a personal affection,
of which a quality is not capable. We are assured that the Rom. vil. 26. same Spirit maketh intercession for us with groanings which
cannot be uttered; and we can understand what are interceding persons, but have no apprehension of interceding or groan
ing qualities. The operations of the Spirit are manifest, and 1 Cor. ii. 10. as manifestly personal; for he searcheth all things, yea, even 1 Cor. ii. 11. the deep things of God; and so he knoweth all things, even the
things of God, which can be no description of the power of 1 Cor. xii. 11. God; he worketh all the spiritual gifts, dividing to every man
severally as he will, in which the operation, discretion, distribution, and all these voluntary, are sufficient demonstrations of a person. He revealeth the will of God, and speaketh to the sons of men, in the nature and after the manner of a person; for the Spirit said unto Peter, Behold, three men seek thee; arise therefore, and get thee down, and go with them,
doubting nothing ; for I have sent them. And the Holy Ghost Acts xiii. 2 said unto the prophets and teachers at Antioch, Separate me
Barnabas and Saul for the work whereunto I have called them.
than by the description given by Christ which sent him : and John xiv. 26; he said thus to his disciples, The Comforter (or the Advocate), vi . 7, 8, 13, which is the Holy Ghost, whom the Father will send in my
name, he shall teach you all things;...he shall testify of me:
also shall bear witness....If I go not away, the Comforter will not come unto you; but if I depart, I will send him unto you. And when he is come, he will reprove the world, and he will guide you into all truth; for he shall not speak of himself ; but whatsoever he shall hear, that shall he speak; and he shall shew you things to come. He shall glorify me; for te shall receive of mine, and shall shew it unto you. All which words are nothing else but so many descriptions of a person; a person hearing, a person receiving, a person testifying, a person speaking, a person reproving, a person instructing.
Acts x. 19.
The adversaries to this truth', acknowledging all these 311 personal expressions, answer that it is ordinary in the Scrip
tures to find the like expressions, which are proper unto per-
1 The present adversaries to this (Rom. iii. 19.), et Scripturæ quod
persone et simul ipsius Dei sunt
virtue, power, and efficacy of God, the Father of our Lord
Ghost, by that virtue, power, and efficacy in himself, which is
Peter, Behold, three men seek thee : arise therefore, and get thee down, and go with them, doubting nothing; for I have sent them: we must understand that God the Father was the person which spake those words, and which sent those men; but because he did so by that virtue which is the Holy Ghost, therefore the Holy Ghost is said to speak those words, and
send those men. In the same manner when we read, The Acts xiii. 2. Holy Ghost said unto those at Antioch, Separate me Barnabas
and Saul for the work whereunto I have called them: we must conceive it was God the Father who spake those words, who had called Barnabas and Saul, and to whom they were to be separated; but because God did all this by that power within him, which is his Spirit, therefore those words and actions are attributed to the Holy Ghost. This is the sum of their answer; and more than this I conceive cannot be said in answer to that argument which we urge from those personal expressions attributed to the Spirit of God, and, as we believe, as to a person.
But this answer is most apparently insufficient, as giving no satisfaction to the argument. For if all the personal actions, attributed in the Scriptures to the Spirit, might proceed from the person of God the Father, according to the power which is in him, then might this answer seem satisfactory: but if these actions be personal, as they are acknowledged, and cannot be denied; if the same cannot be attributed to the person of God the Father, whcse Spirit it is; if he cannot be said to do that by the power within him, which is said to be done by the Holy Ghost; then is that defence not to be defended, then must the Holy Ghost be acknowledged a per
But I shall clearly prove, that there are several personal attributes given in the sacred Scriptures expressly to the Holy Ghost, which cannot be ascribed to God the Father; which God the Father, by that power which is in him, cannot be said to do; and consequently cannot be any ground why 312 those attributes should be given to the Spirit if it be not a person.