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hath begotten a Son of a nature and essence so totally like, so totally the same, that no accidental disparity can imaginably consist with that identity?

That God is the proper and eternal Father of his own 34 eternal Son is now declared: what is the eminency or excellency of this relation followeth to be considered. In general then we may safely observe, that in the very name of father there is something of eminence which is not in that of son'; and some kind of priority we must ascribe unto him whom we call the first, in respect of him whom we term the second person; and as we cannot but ascribe it, so must we endeavour to preserve it”.

Now that privilege or priority consisteth not in this®, that the essence or attributes of the one are greater than the essence or attributes of the other (for we shall hereafter demonstrate them to be the same in both); but only in this, that the Father hath that essence of himself, the Son by communication from

the Father. From whence he acknowledgeth that he is from John vii

. 29. him, that he liveth by him, that the Father gave him to have John V. 26. life in himself, and generally referreth all things to him, as

received from him. Wherefore in this sense some of the John xiv. 28. ancients have not stuck to interpret those words, the Father

is greater than I, of Christ as the Son of God, as the second


1 Αυτό το όνομα του πατρός μείζον “Ο πατήρ μου μείζων μου έστι, καθο εστι του υιού. Syn. Sardic. Theod. 1. ii. πατήρ δηλονότι. το δε πατήρ τι άλλο c. 8. 'Insinuatur nobis in Patre auc σημαίνει, ή ουχί το αιτία είναι και αρχή toritas, in filio nativitas.' S. August. του εξ αυτού γεννηθέντος; S. Basil. [Serm. 71. 8 18. vol. v. p. 392 Ε.] contra Eunom. 1. i. 8 25. [Vol. Ι.

Τα μεν αγεννήτη πατρί οικείον p. 236 c.] And the same S. Basil αξίωμα φυλακτέον, μηδένα του είναι doth not only acknowledge this to be αυτό τον αίτιον λέγοντας. Αlex. apud true in respect of the divine nature of Theod. 1. i. c. 4.

Christ, but thinketh the divinity of 3 Ημείς δε κατά μέν τήν των αιτίων the Son may be proved from hence: προς τα εξ αυτών σχέσιν, προτετάχθαι 'Εγώ δε και εκ ταύτης της φωνής, το του υιού τον πατέρα φαμέν, κατά δε την ομοούσιον είναι τον υιόν τω πατρί δητης φύσεως διαφοράν ουκέτι. S. Basil. λούσθαι πεπίστευκα, τας γαρ συγκρίcontra Eunom. 1. i. 8 20. [Vol. 1. p. σεις οίδα κυρίως επί των της αυτης 232 Β.]

φύσεως γινομένας άγγελον γαρ αγγέ4 Μείζων, είπεν, ου μεγέθει τινί, λου λέγομεν μείζονα, και ανθρωπον ανουδε χρόνο αλλά δια την εξ αυτού του θρώπου δικαιότερον, και πτηνών πτηνού πατρος γέννησιν. S. Athanas. contra ταχύτερον. εί τοίνυν αι συγκρίσεις επί Arianos, 1. i. $ 58. [Vol. 1. p. 462 Ε.] των ομοειδών γίνονται, μείζων δε κατά Λείπεται τοίνυν κατά τον της αιτίας σύγκρισιν είρηται ο πατήρ του υιού, λόγον ενταύθα το μείζον λέγεσθαι. επει ομοούσιος τω πατρί ο υιός. Ad Cesaδη γάρ από του πατρός η αρχή τώ υιώ, rienses Epist. 141. (viii. § 5. vol. 11I. κατά τούτο μείζων ο πατήρ, ως αίτιος p. 84 Β.] Το μείζον μέν έστι της αιτίας, και αρχή. διο και ο κύριος ούτως είπεν, το δε ίσον της φύσεως. S. Greg. Nat.

person in the blessed Trinity; but still with reference not unto his essence, but his generation, by which he is understood to bave his being from the Father, who only hath it of himself, and is the original of all power and essence in the Son. I can John v. 30. of mine own self do nothing, saith our Saviour, because he is not of himself'; and whosoever receives his being, must receive his power from another, especially where the essence

Orat. 36. [Orat. 30 % 7. Vol. 1. p. 544 E.) et Orat. 40. [$ 43. p. 725 D.] ου κατά την φύσιν το μείζον, την αιτίαν 86. Vide S. Epiphan. in Ancor. C. 17. [Vol. 11. p. 22.] El de Néyol TIS μείζονα είναι τον πατέρα καθό αίτιος του vloû, È TOÛTO dvtepoñuev. S. Chrys. Homil. in Ioan. 75. (Vol. viii. p. 443 D.] Ίσος τοιγαρούν κατά τον της ουσίας λόγον υπάρχων ο υιός τω πατρί, και όμοιος κατά πάντα, μείζονα αυτόν φησιν ως άναρχον, έχων αρχών κατά μόνον το εξ ου, ει και σύνδρομον αυτό Tìv Úrapčiv čxol. S. Cyril. Alex. Thesaut, c. xi. [Vol. v. p. 85 E.) And Isidore Pelusiota [1. iii. Epist. 334, p. 386] cites this saying of an ancient father: Και το μείζον ίσταται η γεννήτωρ, και το ίσον καθ' ο θεός και ομοούσιος. So Vigilius professes to believe the Son: 'æqualem per omnia Patri, excepto eo quod ille ingenitus est, et iste genitus.' De Trin. l. xi. [p. 285.] . Ideo totum quod habet, quod potest, non tribuit sibi, sed Patri, quia non est a seipso, sed a Patre. Æqualis est enim Patri, sed hoc quoque accepit a Patre.' S. August. Epist. 66. [Ep. 170. $ 8. Vol. 11. p. 610 r.) Necesse est quodammodo prior sit, qua Pater sit; quoniam aliquo pacto antecedat necesse est, eum qui habet originem, ille qui originem nescit. Simul ut hic minor sit, dum in illo esse se scit habens originem, quia nascitur.' Notatianus de Trin. c. 31. 'Major itaque Pater filio est, et plane major, cui tantum donat esse quantus ipse est, cui innascibilitatis esse imaginem sa. cramento nativitatis impertit, quem ex se in formam suam generat.' S. Hilar. de Trin. 1. ix, c. 54. [p. 1020 E.] Non præstantem quemquam cuiquam genere substantiæ, sed subjectum alte

rum alteri nativitate naturæ. Patrem in eo majorem esse quod pater est, Filium in eo non minorem esse quod filius est.' Id. de Synod. contra Arianos, c. 64. [p. 1187 D.] 'Quis non Patrem potiorem confitebitur, ut ingenitum a genito, ut Patrem a Filio, ut eum qui miserit ab eo qui missus sit, ut volentem ab eo qui obediat? et ipse nobis erit testis, Pater major me est.' Id. de Trin. 1. iii. c. 12. [p. 813 E.] 'In eo enim quod in sese sunt, Dei ex Deo divinitatem cognosce; in eo vero quod Patermajor est, confessionem paternæ auctoritatis intellige.' Id. l. xi. C. 12 [p. 1089 D.] And before all these Alexander bishop of Alexandria: Το δε αγέννητον τώ πατρί μόνον ιδίωμα παρεϊναι δοξάζοντες, άτε δή και αυτού φάσκοντος του σωτήρος, “Ο πατήρ μου MelSwy pov doti. Theodor. Hist. 1. i. c. 4. Lastly, we have the testimony of Photius, that many of the ancient fathers s0 expounded it: Τήν, “Ο πατήρ μου μείζων μου εστί, του ευαγγελίου φωνήν, διαφόρως οι πατέρες ημών εξειλήφασιν.-οι μεν γάρ φασι τω αιτίφ μείsova eipnofal. Epist. 176. [ad Amph. Quæst. 95. vol. 1. 605.] ‘Æqualis Patri; sed major Pater, quod ipse dedit ipsi omnia, et causa est ipsi Filio ut sit, ut isto modo sit.' Victor. Afer adv. Arium, l. i. c. 13. 'Pater, inquit, major me est; merito major, quia non Ipse descendit in Virginem.' Phæbadius, [contra Arianos, c. 13.]

"Quicquid Filius habet ut faciat, a Patre habet ut faciat. Quare habet a Patre ut faciat? quia a Patre habet ut Filius sit. Quare a Patre habet ut Filius sit? quia a Patre habet ut possit: quia a Patre habet ut sit.' S. August. Tract. 20. in Ioan. § 4. [Vol. III. Part 2. p. 450 D.]


John v. 19.

and the power are undeniably the same, as in God they are. The Son then can do nothing of himself, but what he seeth the Father do, because he hath no power of himself but what the Father gave': and being he gave him all the power, as com- 35 municating his entire and undivided essence, therefore what things soever he doeth, these also doeth the Son likewise, by the same power by which the Father worketh, because he had received the same Godhead in which the Father subsisteth. There is nothing more intimate and essential to any thing than the life thereof, and that in nothing so conspicuous as in the Godhead, where life and truth are so inseparable, that there can be no living God but the true, no true God but the living. The Lord is the true God, he is the living God, and

an everlasting King, saith the prophet Jeremy: and St Paul 1 Thess. 1 9. putteth the Thessalonians in mind, how they turned from

idols to serve the living and true God. Now life is otherwise in God than in the creatures : in him originally, in them derivatively; in him as in the fountain of absolute perfection, in

them by way of dependence and participation; our life is in John v. 26. him, but his is in himself; and as the Father hath life in him

self, so hath he given to the Son to have life in himself"; both

Jer. 1. 10.

1 “Non alia potentia est in Filio, posse nativitas.' S. Hilar, de Trin. et alia substantia; sed ipsa est poten 1. vii. c. 21. [p. 929 c.] 'Dum non tia quæ et substantia; substantia ut ab se facit, ad id quod agit secundum sit, potentia ut possit. Ergo quia nativitatem sibi Pater auctor est.' Filius de Patre est, ideo dixit, Filius Ibid. l. xi. c. 12. [p. 1089 e.] Aucnon potest a se facere quicquam; quia torem discrevit cum ait, Non potest non est Filius a se, ideo non potest a ab se facere: obedientiam significat se.' Ibid. [p. 450 F.] "Totum quod cum addit: Nisi quod viderit paest, de Patre est; totum quod potest, trem facientem. Id. de Syn. c. 75. de Patre est; quoniam quod potest et [p. 1192 c.] est, hoc unum est, et de Patre totum 3 Sicut habet Pater vitam in semetest. Ibid. [$ 8. p. 452 F.] Non potest ipso, sic dedit et Filio vitam habere in Filius a se facere quicquam, nisi quod semetipso: ut hoc solum intersit inter viderit Patrem facientem: quia de Patrem et Filium, quia Pater habet Patre est totus Filius, et tota sub vitam in semetipso quam nemo ei destantia et potentia ejus ex illo est qui dit, Filius autem habet vitam in semetgenuit eum. Id. Tract. in Ioan. 21. ipso quam Pater dedit.' S. August. § 2. [p. 456 c.] 'Et primum Filium Tract, 19. in Ioan. § 11. [Vol. III. cognosce, cum dicitur, Non potest p. 442 c.] 'Incommutabilis est vita Filius ab se facere quidquam, nisi quod Filii, sicut Patris, et tamen de Patro viderit Patrem facientem. Habes na est: et inseparabilis est operatio Pativitatem Filii, quæ ab se nihil possit tris et Filii; sed tamen ita operari facere nisi videat. In eo autem quod Filio de illo est, de quo ipse est, id ab se nihil potest, innascibilitatis ad est, de Patre. Id. de Trin. 1. ü. c. 1. imit errorem. Ab se enim non potest (8 3. Vol. VIII. p. 773 E.]

the same life, both in themselves, both in the same degree, as the one, so the other; but only with this difference, the Father giveth it, and the Son receiveth it". From whence he

professeth of himself, that the living Father sent him, and that he Jolin vi 57. liveth by the Father?

We must not therefore so far endeavour toinvolve ourselves in the darkness of this mystery, as to deny that glory which is clearly due unto the Father; whose pre-eminence undeniably consisteth in this, that he is God not of any other, but of himself, and that there is no other person who is God, but is God of him. It is no diminution to the Son, to say, he is from another, for his very name imports as much; but it were a diminution to the Father to speak so of him; and there must be some pre-eminence, where there is place for derogation. What the Father is he is from none; what the Son is, he is from him: what the first is, he giveth ; what the second is, he receiveth. The first is a Father indeed by reason of bis Son, but he is not God by reason of him; whereas the Son is not so only in regard of the Father, but also God by reason of the same.


1 'Sicut habet, dedit; quod habet dedit; qualem habet, talem dedit; quantam habet, tantam dedit.' Id. contra Maxim. l. ii. c. 14. [$ 7. Vol. VII. p. 706 F.] 'Ergo quod dicitur dedit Filio, tale est ac si diceretur, genuit Filium; generando enim dedit. Quomodo dedit ut esset, sic dedit ut vita esset, et sic dedit ut in semetipso vita esset.' Id. Tract. 22. in Ioan. $ 10. (Vol. III. part 2, p. 4696.] Connecti. tur tali confessione originis suæ, indis. cretæ naturæ perfecta nativitas. Quod enim in utroque vita est, id in utroqne significatur essentia. Et in vita quæ generatur ex vita, id est, essentia quæ de essentia nascitur, dum non dissimilis nascitur, scilicet quia vita ex vita est, tenet in se originis suæ indissimilem naturam; quia natæ et gignentis essentiæ, id est, vitæ quæ habetur et data est, similitudo non discrepet.' S. Hilar, de Synod. advers. Arianos, c. 16. (p. 1160 c.] Quia ergo apparet vita Patris hoc esse quod ipse est; sicut habet vitam in se, sic dedit; sic dedit Filio habere vitam, id est,


sic est Esse Filii, sicut Esse Patris.'
Vigil. Taps. Disput. [Dial, contra
Arianos etc. l. ii. c. 13, p. 155.] 'In
vita nature et essentiæ significatio
est: quæ sicut habetur, ita data esse
docetur ad habendum.' S. Hilar. de
Synod. c. 19. (p. 1163 A.]

*Propter Patrem vivit Filius,
quia ex Patre Filius est: propter
Patrem, [quia unius substantiæ cum
Patre:propter Patrem]quia eructatum
est Verbum ex Patris corde, quia a
Patre processit, quia ex paterno gene-
ratus est utero, quia fons Pater Filii
est, quia radix Pater Filii est.' S. Am-
bros. de Fide, 1. iv. c. 10. (8 126. Vol.
II. p. 545 B.]

3 Pater de nullo patre, Filius de Deo Patre: Pater quod est, a nullo est; quod autem Pater est, propter Filium est. Filius vero et quod Filius est, propter Patrem est, et quod est, a Patre est.' S. August. Tract. 19. in Ioan. [§ 13. Vol. III. p. 443 D.] 'Filium dicimus Deum de Deo; Patrem autem Deum tantum, non de Deo. Unde manifestum est, quod Filius habeat


Matt. XXL

Upon this pre-eminence (as I conceive) may safely be 36 grounded the congruity of the divine mission. We often read

that Christ was sent, from whence he bears the name of an Heb. fil. 1. Apostle himself, as well as those whom he therefore named

so, John 11. 21. because as the Father sent him, so sent he them; the Holy

Ghost is also said to be sent, sometimes by the Father, sometimes by the Son: but we never read that the Father was sent at all', there being an authority in that name which seems

inconsistent with this mission. In the parable, a certain 33, &c

householder which planted a vineyard, first sent his servants to the husbandmen, and again other servants, but last of all he sent unto them his son: it had been inconsistent even with the literal sense of an historical parable, as not at all consonant to the rational customs of men, to have said, that last of all the son sent his father to them. So God, placing man in the

vineyard of his Church, first sent his servants the prophets, by Heb. 11, whom he spake at sundry times and in divers manners, but

alium de quo sit, et cui Filius sit; Pater autem Deus, sed non de Filio:
Pater autem non Filium de quo sit Pater Filii, non Deus de Filio; ille
habeat, sed tantum cui Pater sit. autem Filius Patris, et Deus de Patre.'
Omnis enim filius de patre est quod Id. Tract. 29. in Ioan. (8 5. p. 514 F.)
est, et patri filius est: nullus autem Hoc tamen inter Patrem et Filium
pater de filio est quod est.' Id. de interest, quia Pater & nullo hoc ac-
Trin. 1. ii. c. 1. [8 2. Vol. VIII. p. 773 cepit, Filius autem per generationem
A.] •Filius non hoc tantum habet omnia Patris accepit.' S. Ambros. in
nascendo, ut Filius sit, sed omnino ut Epist. ad Eph. c. 2. [v. 3. Inter spuria.
sit.' Ibid. 1. v. c. 15. [§ 16. p. 841 D.] Vol. II. App. p. 234 F.] 'Est ergo
‘Filius non tantum ut sit Filius quod Deus Pater omnium, institutor, et
relative dicitur, sed omnino ut sit, creator, solus originem nesciens.'
ipsam substantiam nascendo habet.' Novat. de Trinit. c. 31; whereas he
Ibid. c. 15. [$ 16.] “Pater non habet speaks after of the Son: 'Est ergo
Patrem de quo sit; Filius autem de Deus, sed in hoc ipsum genitus, ut
Patre est ut sit, atque ut illi coæternus esset Deus. “Pater est Deus de quo
sit.' Ibid. 1. vi. c. 10. ($ 11. Vol. vin. Filius est Deus, de quo autem Pater
p. 850 D.) “Ab ipso, inquit, sum; quia nullus est Deus. S. August. Epist.
Filius de Patre, et quicquid est Filius, 66. [Ep. 170. § 7. Vol. viii. p. 610 E.)
de illo est cujus est filius. Ideo Do 1.Pater enim solus nusquam legi-
minum Jesum dicimus Deum de Deo, tur missus.' S. August. de Trin. l. ii.
Patrem non dicimus Deum de Deo, c. 5. (S 8. Vol. VIII. p. 776 A.]
sed tantum Deum; et dicimus Domi. 2.Solus Pater non legitur missus,
num Jesum Lumen de Lumine, Patrem quoniam solus non habet auctorem &
non dicimus Lumen de Lumine, sed quo genitus sit, vel & quo procedat.
tantum Lumen. Ad hoc ergo pertinet Et ideo non propter naturæ diversita-
quod dixit, Ab ipso sum.' Id. Tract. 31, tem, quæ in Trinitate nulla est, sed
in Ioan. [8 4. Vol. 111. Pt. 2, p. 521 F.] propter ipsam auctoritatem, solus Pa-
*Pater non est si non habeat Filium, ter non dicitur missus: non enim
et Filius non est si non habeat Pa splendor aut fervor ignem, sed ignis
trem: sed tamen Filius Deus de Patre, mittit sive splendorem sive fervorem.'

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