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in the last days he sent his Son: and it were as incongruous and inconsistent with the divine generation, that the Son should send the Father into the world. As the living Father John vl. 57. hath sent me, and I live by the Father, saith our Saviour, intimating, that by whom he lived, by him he was sent, and therefore sent by him, because he lived by him; laying his generation as the proper ground of his mission. Thus he which begetteth sendeth, and he which is begotten is sent?. For I am from him, and he hath sent me, saith the Son : from John vil. 29. whom I received my essence by communication, from him also received I this commission. As therefore it is more worthy to give than to receive, to send than to be sent; so in respect of the Sonship there is some priority in the divine paternity: from whence divers of the ancients' read that place of St John with this addition, the Father (which sent me) is greater John xiv. 28. than I. He then is that God who sent forth his Son, made of a woman, that God who hath sent forth the Spirit of his Son Gal. iv. 4, 6. into our hearts, crying, Abba, Father. So that the authority

S. August. Serm. contra Arian. c. 4. (Vol. viii. p. 627 F.] 'Qui mittit, potestatem suam in eo quod mittit, ostendit.' S. Hilar. de Trin. l. viii. c. 19. [p. 958 D.)

1.Si voluisset Deus Pater per sub jectam creaturam visibiliter apparere, absurdissime tamen aut a Filio, quem genuit, aut a Spiritu Sancto, qui de illo procedit, missus diceretur.' S. August. de Trin, lib. iv. cap. ult. [Vol. FIII. P. 832c.)

3 'Filius est igitur a Patre missus, non Pater a Filio; quia Filius est a Patre natus, non Pater a Filio. Ful. gent. fragm. 1. viii. contra Fabianum, in Collect. Theodul. de S. S. [frag. 29. p. 626.] Quis autem Christianus ignorat quod Pater miserit, missusque sit Filius? Non enim genitorem ab eo quem genuit, sed genitum a geni. tore mitti oportebat.' S. August. contra Mazimin. lib. ij. C. 14. [$ 8. Vol. ydi. p. 707 F.), 'Ubi audis, Ipse me misit, noli intelligere naturæ dissimilitudinem, sed generantis auctoritatem. Id. Tract. 31. in Ioan. & 4. [Vol. dl. p.521 r.] Eyraūda oiv o átoστείλας και ο αποστελλόμενος, ίνα δείξη

των πάντων αγαθών μίαν είναι την πηγήν, ,
TOUTÉOTI TOV Tatépa. S. Epiphan. Ha-
res. lxix. $ 54. [Vol. 1. p. 776 D.] Hence
the language of the Schools: •Missio
importat-processionem originis:' as
Thom. A quin. Par. i. q. 43. art. 1. ad
prim, or, ‘auctoritatem Principii:' as
Durand. 1. i. dist. 15. q. 1. 8 7.

3 Λέγουσι γάρ το ρητόν του Ευαγ-
γελίου κακώς ερμηνεύοντες, ότι ο απο-
στείλας με πατήρ μείζων μου εστί, saith
Epiphanius of the Arians; and answer.
ing, grants in these words which fol.
low: και πρώτον μεν ο αποστείλας με
πατήρ, φάσκει, και ουχ, ο κτίσας με.
Hæres. lxix. & 53. [Vol. 1. p. 775 B.]
To the same purpose Athanasius de
Hum. Nat. susc. [$ 4. Vol. 1. p. 873 D),
and Cyril of Alexandria, Thesaur. As-
sertio. xi. (Vol. v. p. 85 B), read it, ó
πέμψας με πατήρ. And St Basil makes
Eunomius read it so, in his first book
against him, c. 21, and with that ad-
dition answers it. So the second
confession of the council of Sirmium,
both in the Latin original, and Greek
translation. S. Hilar, de Syn. § 11.
S. Athanas. de Synod. [$ 28. Vol. 1.
p. 744] et Socrat. 1. ii. c. 30.

of sending is in the Father: which therefore ought to be

acknowledged, because upon this mission is founded the 1 John iv. 10. highest testimony of his love to man; for herein is love (saith

St John), not that we loved God, but that he loved us, and sent
his Son to be the propitiation for our sins.

Again, the dignity of the Father will farther yet appear
from the order of the persons in the blessed Trinity, of which
he is undoubtedly the first. For although in some passages

of the apostolical discourses the Son may first be named (as in 2 Cor. xii. 14. that of St Paul, the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, and the

love of God, and the communion of the Holy Ghost be with you
all; the latter part of which is nothing but an addition unto
his constant benediction); and in others the Holy Ghost pre-
cedes the Son, (as Now there are diversities of gifts, but the same
Spirit; and there are differences of administrations, but the
same Lord; and there are diversities of operations, but it is the
same God which worketh all in all); yet where the three Per-
sons are barely enumerated, and delivered unto us as the rule 37
of faith', there that order is observed which is proper to them;
witness the form of baptism, In the name of the Father, and of
the Son, and of the Holy Ghost : which order hath been per-
petuated in all confessions of faith, and is for ever inviolably
to be observed”. For that which is not instituted or invented
by the will or design of man, but founded in the nature of
things themselves, is not to be altered at the pleasure of man.
Now this priority doth properly and naturally result from the
divine paternity; so that the Son must necessarily be second
unto the Father", from whom he receiveth his origination, and

1 Cor. xil 4- 6.


1 Παραδιδούς ο κύριος την σωτήριον πίστιν τους μαθητευομένοις τώ λόγω, το πατρί και τώ υιώ συνάπτει το πνεύμα το άγιον. S. Basil. Epist. 80. [Epist. 189. $ 5. Vol. III. p. 278 n]

2 'Ακίνηταν και απαρεγχείρητον φυλάσσειν προσήκει την ακολουθίαν, ήν εξ αυτής του κυρίου της φωνής παρελάβομεν, είπόντος, Πορευθέντες μαθητεύσατε πάντα, αc. S. Basil. Epist. 78, [Epist. 125. 8 3. Vol. III, p. 217 Α.]

3 Έστι τι τάξεως είδος ουκ εκ της παρ' ημών θέσεως συνιστάμενον, αλλ' αυτή τη κατά φύσιν ακολουθία συμβαί

ως το πυρί προς το φώς εστί το εξ αυτού· εν τούτοις γάρ πρότερον το αίτιον

λέγομεν, δεύτερον δε το εξ αυτού.–πώς
ούν εύλογον αρνείσθαι την τάξιν εφ' ών
εστι πρότερον και δεύτερον, ου κατά την
ημετέραν θέσιν, άλλ' εκ της κατά φύσιν
αυτοίς ενυπαρχούσης ακολουθίας; S.
Basil. advers. Eunom. I. i. ($ 20. Vol.
1. p. 232 Α.]

4 Δευτερεύει μεν ο υιός του πατρός
αιτίου: δευτερεύει δε και το πνεύμα του
υιού κατά τον της αιτίας λόγον. S. Basil.
apud Georg. Pachym. Hist. 1. vii. (de
And. Ρal. 1. i. c. 9. p. 16 D.] Ως γάρ
ο υιός τάξει μεν δεύτερος του πατρός, ότι
απ' εκείνου, και αξιώματι, ότι αρχή και
αιτία του είναι αυτού ο πατήρ, [τω είναι
αυτου πατέρα, ed. Bened.] και ότι δι'


the Holy Ghost unto the Son. Neither can we be thought to want a sufficient foundation for this priority of the first person of the Trinity, if we look upon the numerous testimonies of

the ancient doctors of the Church, who have not stuck to call 38 the Father the origin', the cause', the author', the root", the

fountain', and the head of the Sono, or the whole Divinity.


αυτου η πρόσοδος και προσαγωγή προς τον θεόν και πατέρα, φύσει δε ουκέτι δεύτερος, διότι η θεότης εν εκατέρω μία ούτω δηλονότι και το πνεύμα το άγιον, ει και υποβεβηκε τον υιόν τη τε τάξει και τα αξιώματι, -ουκέτ' αν είκότως ώς άλ. λατρίας υπάρχον φύσεως. S. Basil. contra Eunom. 1. iii. 8 1. [Vol. 1. p. 272 B.] 'Si unum Deum singulariter nominamus, excludentes vocabulum secundæ personæ, farorem ejus hæresis approbamus quæ ipsum asserit Patrem passum.' Phæbad. contra Arian. (c. 22.) Illi cui est in Filio secunda persona, est et tertia in Spiritu Sancto.' Ibid. "Sic alius a Filio Spiritus, sicut a Patre Filius: sic tertia in Spiritu, at in Filio secunda persona.' Ibid. 'Omne quod prodit ex aliquo, secundum sit ejus necesse est de quo prodit, non ideo tamen est separatum. Secundus autem ubi est, duo sunt; et tertius ubi est, tres sunt: tertius enim est Spiritus a Deo et Filio.' Tertull. advers. Praxeam, C. 8. 'Sic alium a se Paracletum, quomodo et nos a Patre alium Filium; ut tertium gradum ostenderet in Paracleto, sicut nos seoundum in Filio.' Ibid. c. 9. 'Hic interim acceptum a Patre munus effudit Spiritum Sanctum, tertium nomen divinitatis, et tertium gradum majestatis.' Ibid. 6. 30. Ο δε ως εξ αιτίου γεγονώς υιός, δεύτερος ου έστιν υιος καθεστηκε, παρά του πατρός και το είναι και τοιόσδε είναι ειληφώς. Εuseb. Dem. Evang. 1. iv. e. 3. 'Et quidem confessione communi, secunda quidem ab auctore nativitas est, quia ex Deo est; non tamen separabilis ab auctore, quia in quantum sensus noster intelligentiam tentabit nativitatis excedere, in tantam necesse est etiam generationis excedat.' S. Hilar. de Trinit, 1. xii.

c. 51. [p. 1139 Ε.] Tua enim res est, et unigenitus tuus est-filius ex te Deo Patre Deus verus, et a te in naturæ tuæ unitate genitus, post te ita confitendus, ut tecum, quia æternæ originis suæ auctor æternus es. Nam dum ex te est, secundus & te est. Ibid. c. 54. (p. 1141.] This by the Schools is called ordo natura, ordo originis, ordo naturalis præsuppositionis. Which being so generally acknowledged by the fathers, when we read in the Athanasian creed, In this Trinity none is afore or after other, we must understand it of the priority of perfection or time.

Μικρών γάρ αν είη και αναξίων αρχή, μάλλον δε μικρώς τε και αναξίως, μη θεότητος ών αρχή και αγαθότητος, της εν υιό και πνεύματι θεωρουμένης. S. Greg. Νaz. Οrat. 1. [2. 8 38. Vol. 1. p. 30 D. et Οrat. 20.] et 29. Μη χρονικής αρχήν του υιού καταδέξη τινός λέγοντος, αλλά άχρονον άρχήν γίνωσκε τον πατέρα αρχή γάρ υιού άχρονος, ακατάληπτος. S. Cyril. Hier. Catech. 11. [S 20. p. 159.] 'Αρχή μεν ούν πατρος ουδεμία, αρχή δε του υιού και πατήρ. S. Basil. contra Eunom. 1. ii. 8 12. [Vol. 1. p. 247 σ.] Φαίνεται λοιπόν ο μακάριος ευαγγελιστής σαφέστερον ημίν ερμηνεύων το της αρχής όνομα" ουδέν γάρ έτερον, ως εικός, την αρχήν είναι φησιν, ή αυτόν τον Πατέρα, αφ' ουπερ ο ζων εξέλαμψε Λόγος, καθάπερ εξ ηλίου το φώς-ουκούν αρχή τη Υιώ ο Πατήρ. S. Cyril. Ales. Thesaur. c. 32. [Vol. v. p. 312 c.] “Cum dixisset, quem mittet Pater, addidit, in nomine meo: non tamen dixit, quem mittet Pater a me, quemadmodum dixit, quem ego mittam vobis a Patre; videlicet ostendens quod totius Divinitatis, vel, si melius dicitur, Deitatis, principium Pater est.'

For by these titles it appeareth clearly, first, that they made a considerable difference between the person of the

S. August. de Trin, 1. 4. c. 20. [$ 29. prodivi; hæc est enim nativitas perVol. VΙΙΙ. p. 829 Ε.] Unum principium fecta Sermonis, hoc est principinm ad creaturam dicitur Deus, non duo sine principio; hic est ortus habens vel tria principia. Ad se autem in. initium in nativitate, in statu non vicem in Trinitate, si gignens ad id habens.' Phæbad, contra Arian. (c. quod gignit principium est, Pater ad 11.] Sicut in creaturis invenitur Filium principium est, quia gignit principium primum et principium eum.' S. August. de Trin. 1. v. c. 13. secundum; ita in personis divinis8 14, 15. [Vol. VΙΙΙ. p. 840 F.] “Pater invenitur principium non de principio, ergo principium Deitatis.' Gennad. de quod est Pater, et principium a prinEccles. Dogmat. c. 1. In this sense cipio, quod est Filius.' Tho. Aquin. the Greek fathers used avapxos as Par. 1. q. 33. art. 4. And to this all proper to the Father (in the same the Schoolmen writing on his Sums notion with αγέννητος, with relation agree, as all upon the Sentences. I. to the principium productionis'),

Dist. 29. and denied it to the Son: 'Ooè viós, 2 Αιτία εστίν ή του θεού φύσις και εάν μεν ως αίτιον τον πατέρα λαμβάνης,

του υιού, και του αγίου πνεύματος, και ουκ άναρχος, αρχή γάρ υιού ο πατήρ ως της κτίσεως πάσης. S. Athanas. Orthoαίτιος: εάν δε την από χρόνου νοής αρχήν, doxi et Anomæi Arianistæ [De Triniκαι άναρχος. S. Greg. Νaz. Οrat. 29. tate, Dial. ii. S 23. Vol. II. p. 502 F.]* [20. 8 7. Vol. 1. p. 380 c.] Ει τις ά. 'Αλλά τίς έστι δύναμις αγεννήτως και γέννητον και άναρχον λέγοι τον υιόν ως ανάρχως υφεστωσα, ήτις έστιν αιτία δύο άναρχα, και δύο αγέννητα λέγων, και της απάντων των όντων αιτίας" εκ γαρ δύο ποιών θεούς, ανάθεμα έστω. Synod. του πατρός ο υιός, δι' ου τα πάντα. S. Sirm. Confessio prim. [Socrates, 1. ii. Basil. Epist. 43. [38. 8 4. Vol. III. p. c.30. Labbe, Vol. II. p. 594 c. p. 786Α.] 117 c.] And upon that place, this thus first translated into Latin: 'Si day have I begotten there: 'Αλλά το quis innascibilem et sine initio dicat μέν, γεγέννηκα, την αιτίαν αφ' ής έχει Filium, tanquam duo sine principio, αρχήν του είναι σημαίνει. Ιd. contra et duo innascibilia, et duo innata Eunom. 1. ii. 8 17. [Vol. 1. p. 252 D.] dicens: duos faciat deos: Anathema Πώς ουδεμίαν διαφοράν καταλείπει, ουδε sit.' S. Hilar. de Synod. art. xxvi. την τοις αιτίοις προς τα εξ αυτών ενυπ. c. 38. [p. 1177 B.] In which sense άρχουσαν; Ιd. 1. i. 8 23. [p. 234 Ε.] the Platonists did understand αγέν. . Προς το, ότι εγώ ήλθον εν τω ονόματι νητος οf God: "Ωστε ουκ αγαθόν τη του πατρός μου, εκείνο είδέναι χρή, ότι λεγομένη ύλη το κοσμείσθαι, είπερ αγέν. αρχήν εαυτού και αιτίαν επιγραφόμενος νητος είη μη από χρόνου μόνον, αλλά τον πατέρα ταύτα λέγει. Ιd. Epist. και το από αιτιού καθ' και σημαινόμενον 64. [Ep. 210. 8 4. Vol. III. p. 315 D.] και τον θεόν αγέννητον λέγομεν. Hie Διαφοράν των υποστάσεων έν μόναις ταις rocles de provid. [p. 248.] And the τρισίν ιδιότησι, τη αναιτίω και πατρική, Latins attributingthe term principium και τη αιτιατη και υιϊκή, και τη αιτιατη to the Son, do it with the addition of και εκπορευτη, επιγινώσκομεν. Dade or ex principio. “Pater principium masc. de Fide Orthod. 1. iii. C. 5. non de principio, Filius principium Τον πατέρα του λόγου και της σοφίας, de principio.' S. August. contra και προβολέα του πνεύματος του αγίου, Maxim. 1. ii. C. 17. [8 4. Vol. VΙΙΙ. την πρώτην αιτίαν και αρχήν φαμεν p. 716 E.] 'Principium ex principio της θεότητος είναι. Zachar. Mitglen. et unum est, et initio caret.' Faustus De Mundi Opificio [p. 285 E.] And Rheg. Epist. 16. [Ep. 3.] 'Ex ore, although Thomas Aquinas, and Euinquit, (Ecclus. xxiv. 5.) Altissimi genius bishop of Rome, in the defini

* This work is put inter spuria in the Benedictine edition.

Father, of whom are all things, and the person of the Son, 1 Cor. viii 6. by whom are all things. Secondly, That the difference con

nition of the Council of Florence, singularis substantiæ qualitatem, que have observed that the Greeks in this

per naturam auctori suo jungatur:' case do use the term causa, but the [Contra Arianos, c. 21.] et paulo post : Latins only principium: yet the very Sed cum refertur ex ipso, certe ad Latin fathers in the twenty-fifth ses Patrem, ut ad rerum omnium respi. sion of the same Council have these citur auctorem.' St Hilary is known words: μίαν γινώσκομεν τον πατέρα to speak frequently of the authority αιτίαν, και ίξαν, και πηγήν της θεό of the Father, as of the author of his TITOS [Labbe, Vol. XIII. p. 461 2.) and Son; and several places have been we have before cited Victorinus Afer, already collected, especially by Pewho says: “Pater causa est ipsi Filio tavius, to which these may be added, ut sit.' (Lib. i. cont. Ar. C: 13.] So besides what have been already proSt Hilary : 'Deum nasci, non est aliud duced. 'In ipso quod Pater dicitur, quam in ea natura esse qua Deus est; ejus quem genuit auctor ostenditur.' quia nasci cum causam nativitatis De Trin. 1. iv. c. 9. [p. 831 E.] 'Cum ostendat, non disproficit tamen in ge potius honor Filii dignitas sit paterna, nere auctoris exsistere.' De Trin. I, xi. et gloriosus auctor sit ex quo is, qui c. 11. [p. 1089 A.] Ex Spiritu enim tali gloria sit dignus, exstiterit.' Ibid. Spiritus nascens, licet de proprietate c. 10. [p. 832 B.] Aliud est sine Spiritus, per quam et ipse Spiritus est, auctore esse semper æternum, aliud nascatur, non tamen alia ei præter quod Patri, id est, auctori, est comquam perfectarum atque indemuta ternum. Ubi enim Pater auctor est, bilium causarum ad id quod nascitur ibi et nativitas est. At vero ubi causa est. Et ex causa, licet perfecta auctor æternus est, ibi et nativitas atque indemutabili nascens, necesse æterna est: quia sicut nativitas ab est ex causa in causæ ipsius proprie auctore est, ita ab æterno auctore tate nascatur.' Id. l. xii. c. 8. (p. æterna nativitas est.' Ibid. 1. xii.c. 21. 1116 E.] Qui ex eo qui est natus est, (p.1123A.] 'Quod vero ex æterno natum intelligi non potest ex eo quod non est, id si non æternum natum est, jam fuit natus esse, quia ei is qui est ad non erit et Pater auctor æternus. Si id quod est causa est, non etiam id quid igitur ei qui ab æterno Patre natus quod non est origo nascendi est.' est ex æternitate defuerit, id ipsum Ibid. c. 17. [p. 1121 E.) 'Deus om auctori non est ambiguum defuisse.' nium quæ sunt causa est. Quod au Ibid. (p. 1123 c.] 'Natum non post tem omnium rerum causa est, etiam aliquid, sed ante omnia; ut nativitas sapientiæ suæ causa est, nec unquam tantum testetur auctorem, non præDeus sine sapientia sua. Igitur sem. posterum aliquid in se auctore signifi. piternæ sapientiæ suæ causa est sem cet.' Ibid. c. 51. (p. 1139 D.] Natus piterna. S. August. lib. de divers. autem ita, ut nihil aliud quam Te Quæst. lxxxiii. (quæst. 16. Vol. vi. [omnipotens Deus] sibi significet aucp. 4 F.] And as they called the Father torem.' Ibid.c.52. [p. 1140c.] 'Ipsius the cause of the Son, so they accounted tamen auctor est Pater generando sine it the propriety of the Father to be initio *' Ruff. in Symb. 8 6. «Si propwithout a cause; as appears out of

terea Deum Patrem Deo Filio dicis Alexander the bishop of Alexandria's auctorem, quia ille genuit, genitus est Epistle before produced.

iste, quia iste de illo est, non ille de * We have cited Phobadius speak. isto; fateor et concedo.' S. August. ing so before, to which may be added: contra Maxim. 1. ii. c. 14. [§ 6. Vol. *Si quis igitur adhuc et de Apostolo VIII. p. 706 A.] requirit dominicam statum, id est, 4. Nec dubitaverim Filium dicere

* These words are rejected from the text of Vallarsi (p. 63.]

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