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sisteth properly in this, that as the branch is from the root, and river from the fountain, and by their origination from
et radicis fruticem, et fontis fluvium, tatem, et Spiritus Sanctus proceset solisradium,' Tertul.adv. Praxeam, sionem accepit. Fons ergo ipse et 0. 8. 'Nec frutex tamen & radice, origo est totius divinitatis.' Concil. To. nec fluvius a fonte, nec radius & sole letan. xi. [Praefatio. Labbe, Vol. VΙ. discernitur; sicut nec a Deo Sermo.' p. 511 A.] 'Quanto magis Dei vocem Ibid. "Έστι μέν γάρ ο πατήρ τέλειον credendum est et manere in æternum, έχων το είναι και ανενδεές, ρίζα και et sensu ac virtute comitari, quam de πηγή του υιού και του αγίου πνεύματος. Deo Patre tamquam rivus de fonte S. Basil. Ηom. 26. [24.8 4. Vol. II. p.
traduxerit?' Lactan. de ver. Sap. 193 D.] “Dominus Pater, quia radix [Div. Inst.] l. iv. c. 8. et rursus, c. 29. est Filii,' S. Ambros. in Luc. l. x. “Cum igitur et Pater Filium faciat, et ο. 1. [8 5. Vol. 1. p. 1505 Β.] ut et de Filius Patrem, una utrique mens, unus Fide, 1. iv. c. 5. [c. 10. 8 132. Vol. II. spiritus, una substantia est: sed ille p. 545.] St Cyril of Alexandria speak. quasi exuberans fons est, hic tam. ing of the baptismal institution: Triv quam defluens ex eo rivus; ille tam. μεν γαρ ανωτάτω ρίζαν, ής επέκεινα το quam sol, hic quasi radius a sole σύμπαν ουδέν, έννοήσεις τον πατέρα porrectus.' τον δέ γε της ανωτάτω ρίζης εκπεφυκότα 6 «Caput quod est principium om. και γεγεννημένον παραδέξη τον υιόν. nium, Filius: caput autem, quod est De S. Trin. Dial. 2. [Vol. v. p. 422 E.] principium Christi, Deus.' Concil.
και "Αναρχος ο πατήρ, πηγή του της Sirm, accepted and expounded as orδικαιοσύνης ποταμού, του μονογενούς και thodox by St Hilary: 'Caput enim πατήρ. S. Cyril. Hieros. Catech. 11. omnium Filius est, sed caput Filii [c. 20. p. 159.] 'In hac ergo natura Deus est.' de Synod. c. 60, p. 1185 c. filius est, et in hoc originis fonte sub [See also Labbe, Vol. II. p. 786 Α. sistens processit tanquam ex sapiente *Caput enim et principium omnium sapientia, ex forti virtus, ex lumine Filius est. Caput vero et principium splendor.' Vigil. Taps. Disp. [Dial. Christi, Deus.' Prima Confessio Sir. contra Arianos etc. l. ii. c. 25. p. 165.] miana, cap. ΧΧV. Κεφαλή γάρ έστι “Ως πνεύμα θεού και εξ αυτού πεφηνός, και αρχή πάντων ο υιός κεφαλή δέ εστι αίτιον αυτόν έχον, ως πηγήν εαυτού, του Χριστού ο θεός. Concil, Antioch. κακείθεν πήγαζον. S. Basil. Homil. Labbe, Vol. II. p. 594 c.) Cum sit 28*. Λέγει περί του υιού η θεία γραφή, ipse omnium caput, ipsius tamen Κλίνω, φησίν, επ' αυτους ως ποταμός caput Pater est.' Ruff. in Symb. 8 6. ειρήνης εκπορευόμενος δηλονότι εκ της [p. 63.] "Tu capitis primique caput, αληθούς πηγής της ζωής, της του πατρός tu fontis origo. S. Hilar, ad Leo. θεότητος. Αct. Concil. Nic. 1. ii. c. 22. nem. [v. 9, p. 1369 Β.] Ούτε δύο εισιν [Labbe, Vol. 11. p. 213 E.) And St αρχαι, αλλά κεφαλή του υιού ο πατήρ, Cyril of Alexandria, who often useth μία ή αρχή. S. Cyril. Hieros. Catech. this expression, gives us the full sig. 11. [8 14, p. 156.] “Caput Filii Pater nification of it in these words, upon est, et caput Spiritus Sancti Filius, the first chapter of St John, p. 12. quia de ipso accepit.' S. August. [John 1. 1. Vol. IV. p. 12 Α.] 'Αδικήσει Quæst. Vet. Test. 9. (Quæst. Nov. δε όλως ουδέν τό, ως εν πηγή, το πατρι Test. 87, Vol. III., App. p. 80 σ.] τον υιόν υπάρχειν εννοείν μόνον γάρ το St Chrysostom is so clearly of the εξ ου το της πηγής εν τούτοις όνομα opinion that 1 Cor. xi. 3 is to be σημαίνει. Ρatrem quidem non ge understood of Christ as God, that nitum, non creatum, sed ingenitum from thence he proves him to have profitemur; ipse enim a nullo ori. the same essence with God: Ει γάρ ginem ducit, ex quo et Filius nativi. κεφαλή γυναικός ο ανήρ, ομοούσιος δε η
* This Homily is not given in more recent editions, it will be found p. 434, ed. 1532.
them receive that being which they have; whereas the root receiveth nothing from the branch, or fountain from the river; so the Son is from the Father, receiving his subsistence by generation from him; the Father is not from the Son, as being what he is from none.
Some indeed of the ancients may seem to have made yet a farther difference between the persons of the Father and the Son, laying upon that relation terms of greater opposition. As if, because the Son hath not his essence from himself, the Father had ; because he was not begotten of himself, the Father? had been so; because he is not the cause of him
self, the Father were. Whereas, if we speak properly, God 39 the Father hath neither his being from another, nor from
himself; not from another, that were repugnant to his paternity; not from himself, that were a contradiction in itself. And therefore those expressions are not to be understood positively and affirmatively, but negatively and exclusively, that κεφαλή τω σώματι κεφαλή δέ του semetipso sit accipias, nemo sibi ipso Χριστου ο θεός, ομοούσιος ο υιός το et munerator et munus est.' S. Hilar. τατρέ. [Ηom. 262. in 1 Cor. Vol. X. de Trin. 1. ii, c. 7. [p. 792 D.] “Qui p. 229 B.] So likewise Theodoret putat ejus esse potentiæ Deum ut αpon the same place [Vol. III. p. 233.] seipsum ipse genuerit, eo plus errat, “Η δε γυνή ου ποίημα του ανδρός, αλλ' quod non solum Deus ita non est, sed εκ της ουσίας του ανδρός. ουδε ο υιός nec spiritalis nec corporalis creaάρα ποίημα του θεού, αλλ' εκ της ουσίας tura : nulla enim omnino res est του θεού. So St Cyril: Κεφαλή του quæ seipsam gignat ut sit. [Et ideo Χριστού ο θεός, ότι εξ αυτού κατά non est credendum, vel dicendum, φύσιν" γεγέννηται γάρ ο λόγος εκ του quod Deus genuit se*.'] S. August. θεού και πατρός. Αd Regin. Ep. Ι. [de Trin. i. 1. Vol. VΙΙΙ. p. 749 Ε.] [de Recta Fide, Vol. v. part 2, p. 5 This appeareth by those exposi. 64 Α.]
tions which have been given of such 1 Lactan. Div. Inst. l. i. 6. 7. words as seem to bear the affirmation; 8. Hilar. de Trin. 1. ii. c. 6, p. 791 α. 88 αυτογενεθλος, αυτοφυής, αυτόγονος, Zach. Mitylen. [p. 284.]
αυτογενής, αο. Αυτογενής, αυτογένεθ. * Lactan. ib. Synes. Hymn. iii. 148. λος, ουκ έκ τινος γεννώμενος. Ηesych.
3 S. Hieron, Inc. 3. ad Eph. [Deus And Aυτολόχευτος, θεός αγέννητος, αυvero qui semper est, nec habet aliunde Toyévvntos. Idem. And after him Sui. principium, et ipse sui origo est, sux das: Αυτολόχευτος, αυτογέννητος, ο que causa substantiæ, non potest intel. θεός ο αγέννητος. And if αυτογέννητος ligi aliunde habere quod substitit.' be not αυτόθεν γεννητός, no more is Comment. in Ephes. iii. Vol. VII. αυτόθεος to be taken for αυτόθεν, or εξ p. 600 ε.]
εαυτού θεός. Eusebius in his Panegy4 "Αναρχος ούν ο πατήρ, ου γάρ rical Oration gives this title to the ετέρωθεν αυτώ, ουδε παρ' εαυτού το Son: Oια του καθόλου θεού παιδα firai. S. Greg. Naz. Orat. [20. § 7. γνήσιον και αυτόθεον προσκυνείσθαι. Vol. 1. p. 380 c.] Ο αγέννητος ου Hist. I. X. C. 4. And in his Evangeliγεγέννηται, ούθ' υφ' εαυτού, ούθ' ύφ cal Demonstration calls him: autoετέρου. 8. Athan. “Sirursum quod a νούν, και αυτολόγον, και αυτοσοφίαν, και
* The words in brackets do not belong to the citation from St Augustine.
he hath his essence from none, that he is not begotten of any, nor hath he any cause of his existence. So that the
ει τι δε αυτόκαλον και αυτοάγαθον. 1. iv. the Father), for he denieth those C. 2. and in the thirteenth chapter of words, “I live by the Father,” (John the same book with relation to the vi. 57,) to be spoken of Christ accordformer words: του θεού λόγος αυτοζωή ing to his divine nature, and that τυγχάνων, και αυτοφώς νοερόν, και όσα only for this reason, that if it were άλλα προκατείλεκται. Τheodoret terms so understood he could not be called bim: αυτοδύναμον και αυτοζωήν και αυτοζωή: Ει διά τον πατέρα ο υιός ζη, αυτοσοφίαν. contra Anathem. quartum δι' έτερον και ου δι' εαυτόν η, ο δε δι' Cyrilli. [Vol. v. p. 23.) St Basil: έτερον των αυτοζωή είναι ου δύναται αυτοζωήν, 1η Psal. xlviii. [c. 4. Vol. Ι. from whence he concludeth: εις την p. 181 D.) et de Spiritu Sancto, c. 8. ενανθρώπησιν ουν και ουκ εις τήν θεό8 19. And αυτοδικαιοσύνην, Ep. 141.
τητα, το ειρημένον νοείν δεί. contra [Ep. 8. 8 7. Vol. III, p. 85 c.] St Eunom. 1. iv. [Vol. 1. p. 290 D.] But Chrysostom: αυτοαθανασίαν, αυτομα because the authority of that book is καριότητα. [Ηom. 18. 1η 1 Τim. 8 1. questioned*, I shall produce the same Vol. XI. p. 654 B). St Athanasius author upon the same Scripture, gives him them, and many more to speaking to the same purpose, in his the same purpose. [Αληθινός υιός, &c. 141st epistle, [Ep. 8. 8 4. Vol. II. Athanas. Oratio contra Gentes. $ 46. p. 83 E.] which is unquestionably Vol. 1. p. 46 A. et B.] And before all genuine: 'Ενταύθα δε το ρητόν ου την these Origen: “Ον μεν νομίζομεν και προαιώνιον, ώς oίμαι, ζωήν ονομάζει πεπεισμεθα αρχήθεν είναι θεόν, και παν γάρ το δι' έτερον ών αυτοζωή είναι νιόν θεού, ούτος ο αυτολόγος εστί, και ου δύναται. Το which testimoniesI η αυτοσοφία, και η αυτοαλήθεια. c. Cels. answer, first, that those words of his, 1. iii. 5 41. [Vol. Ι. p. 474 Α.] And ws oiual (as I think) shew that he doth again: Tις μάλλον της Ιησου ψυχής, η not absolutely deny these words of καν παραπλησίως κεκόλληται τω Κυρίω, Christ to be understood of his Divinity, το αυτολόγω, και αυτοσοφία και αυτο of which the rest of the fathers quoted αληθεία και αυτοδικαιοσύνη; 1. vi. 8 47. before did understand it; and not only [p. 669 F.] Εικών μέν του θεού ο
πρω they, but St Basil himself, in his book τότοκος πάσης κτίσεώς έστιν ο αυτολόγος, de Spiritu Sancto, c. 8. & 19. [Vol. III. και η αυτοαλήθεια, έτι δε και η αυτο p. 16 E.] hath delivered a clear resoluσοφία. Ιbid. 8 63. [p. 680 D.] And tion of this point according to that incertainly in the same sense that aŭtos terpretation, wholly consonant to his is joined with one attribute, it may doctrine of the Trinity in other parts be joined with any other, and with of his works: “Όμως μέντοι, ίνα μήποτε the Godhead: because all the attri. εκ του μεγέθους των ενεργουμένων περιbutes of God are really the same, σπασθώμεν εις το φαντασθήναι άναρχον not only with themselves, but with είναι τον κύριον, τί φησίν ή αυτοζωή; the essence. But in what sense it 'Εγώ ζω διά τον πατέρα, και η του Θεού ought to be understood, when thus δύναμις; Ου δύναται ο υιός ποιείν αφ' used by the fathers, it will be neces. εαυτού ουδέν. και η αυτοτελής σοφία; sary to inquire, lest it be so attributed 'Εντολήν έλαβον, τί είπω και τι λαλήσω. to the Son, as it prove derogatory to Christ therefore as αυτοζωή spakethose the Father. St Basil, I confess, may words, “I live by the Father," and by seem so to speak, as if the Son were them shewed his origination from him, therefore αυτοζωή, because he hath from whom he received his life, power, life of himself, not from the Father and wisdom, as receiving his essence, (and consequently he may be termed which is the same with them : whereαυτόθεος, 88 God of himself, not from fore those former passages are to be
* The work is included among the genuine writings in the Benedictine edition,
notion of the Father in whom we believe is this, that he is a person subsisting eternally in the one infinite essence of the Godhead; which essence or subsistence he hath received from no other
but hath communicated the same essence, in looked upon, as if aŭrds in composition αυτοδικαιοσύνη ή ουσιώδης Χριστός έστι, did not deny origination, but parti [Vol. IV. p. 107 Ε.] as also ή αυτοcipation, or receiving by way of affec αλήθεια ή ουσιώδης, και ίν' ούτως είπω, tion. And that he understood it so, πρωτότυπος της εν ταις λογικαίς ψυχαίς appears out of the places themselves: αληθείας. Το conclude, there is 8 for in the first, after ο δι' έτερον ζών catholio sense in which the Son is αυτοζωή είναι ου δύναται, immediately termed αυτόθεος, αυτοσοφία, &c. by the followeth, ουδέ γάρ ο κατα χάριν άγιος ancient fathers; and another sense αυτοάγιος: and in the second, after there is in which these terms are so παν γάρ το δι' έτερον των αυτοζωή είναι proper and peculiar to the Father, that ου δύναται, followeth likewise, ώς ουδε they are denied to the Son. Indeed το υφ' ετέρου θερμανθεν αυτοθερμότης αυτόθεος, in the highest sense, αφ' εαυelvat. The meaning then of St Basil του θεός, positively taken, belongeth must be this, that he which receiveth neither to the Son nor to the Father, life from another merely as a grace or as implying a manifest contradiction; favour, as the saints receive their because nothing can have its being sanctity, cannot properly be termed actually from itself, as communicated αυτοζωή, no more than they αυτοάγιοι : to itself, and that by itself: but in a or if he receive it by derivation or negative way of interpretation, by participation, as water receiveth heat which that is said to be of itself, which from fire, he deserveth the same namo is and yet is not of or from another, no more than water heated to be called αυτόθεος belongs properly to the Faαυτοθερμότης. And this is fully con. ther, neither generated by, nor prosonant to the expressions of the rest ceeding from another; and in that of the ancients: as particularly Atha sense it is denied to the Son, because nasius, Ου κατά μετοχήν ταύτα ών, he is generated by the Father, as: eK ουδέ έξωθεν επιγινομένων τούτων αυτώ θεού θεός, εκ σοφου σοφία, εκ λογικού κατά τους αυτού μετέχοντας, και σοφι λόγος, και εκ πατρός υιός, saith St Athaζομένους δι' αυτού, και δυνατούς και nasius cont. Ar. Or. iv. § 1. [Vol. 1. λογικούς εν αυτώ γινομένους· αλλ' αυτο p. 618 B.] from whence he thus proσοφία, αυτολόγος, αυτοδύναμις ιδία του ceeds: εκτός ει μη αν τις είπoι αυτοπατρός έστιν, αυτοφώς, αυτοαλήθεια, σοφίαν είναι και αυτολόγον τον θεόν, αυτοδικαιοσύνη, αυτοαρετή. in the Pro αλλ' ει τούτο, είη αν αυτός εαυτού πα. trept. [Orat. contra Gentes § 46. Vol. τηρ και υιός. Ιbid. 3 2. [p. 618 D.] 1. p. 46 a.] And to the same purpose : And again: ει δε αυτοσοφία ο θεός, "Ότι ου μεθεκτής έχει την δωρεάν αλλ' και το εκ τούτου άτοπον είρηται παρά αυτοπηγή και αυτόρριζα πάντων έστι των Σαβελλίω. [p. 618 E.] Lastly, in anoαγαθών, αυτοζωή, και αυτοφώς, και αυτο ther sense in which aŭtos in composialhoelain the MS. Catena in the tion is taken not in obliquo, but in King of France's Library. Petav. de recto, αυτόθεος, that is, αυτός ο θεός, Trin. 1. vi. c. 11. All therefore which God himself, and αυτοζωή, αυτή η ζωή, these compositions signify, is either & life itself : so all these terms are at. negation of a derivative participation, tributed to the Son as truly, really, or an affirmation of a reality and iden and essentially, as to the Father. And tity of substance, as yet farther ap that the fathers took it so appears, pears by St Epiphanius: autoovola because they did sometimes resolve έστιν ο θεός πατήρ και ο υιός, και το the composition: as when Eusebius άγιον πνεύμα, και ουχ έτερουσία: and calleth Christ αυτόθεον, in the PaneOrigen himself upon St John: o gyric before cited, presently after he
which himself subsisteth, by generation to another person, who by that generation is the Son.
Howsoever, it is most reasonable to assert that there is 40 but one Person who is from none; and the very generation of the Son and procession of the Holy Ghost undeniably prove, that neither of those two can be that Person. For whosoever is generated is from him which is the genitor, and whosoever proceedeth is from him from whom he proceedeth, whatsoever the nature of the generation or procession be. It followeth therefore that this person is the Father, which name speaks nothing of dependence, nor supposeth any kind of priority in another.
From hence it is observed that the name of God, taken
absolutely', is often in the Scriptures spoken of the Father ; Rom. viii
. 3. as when we read of God sending his own Son; of the grace of
our Lord Jesus Christ, and the love of God; and generally wheresoever Christ is called the Son of God, or the Word of God, the name of God is to be taken particularly for the
Father, because he is no Son but of the Father. From hence z.com will & he is styled one God; the true God; the only true God; the johessi... God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ.
Which, as it is most true, and so fit to be believed, is also a most necessary truth, and therefore to be acknowledged, for the avoiding multiplications and plurality of gods. For
2 Cor. xiii, 14.
2 Cor. i 3. Eph. 1 &
speaketh thus, Hist. Eccles. 1. 2. $ 4,
1 "Οθεν οι απόστολοι, και πάσα
3 • Unxit te Deus, Deus tuus. Id enim quod sit, tuus, ad nativitatem refertur; cæterum non perimit naturam. Et idcirco Deus ejus est, qui ex eo natus in Deum est. Non tamen per id quod Pater Deus est, non et Filius Deus est. Unxit enim te Deus, Deus tuus ; designata videlicet et auctoris et ex eo geniti significatione, uno eodemque dicto utrumque illum in
naturæ ejusdem et dignitatis nuncu. patione constituit.' S. Hilar, de Trin. 1. iv. c. 35. [p. 848 c.] 'Deo enim ex quo omnia sunt Deus nullus est, qui sine initio æternus est. Filio autem Deus Pater est, ex eo enim Deus natus est.' Ibid. c. 37. [p. 849 B.] 'Cum autem ex Deo Deus est, per id quoque Deus Pater Deo Filio et nativi. tatis ejus Deus est, et naturæ Pater : quia Dei nativitas et ex Deo est, et in ea est generis natura qua Deus est.' Id. l. xi. c. 11. (p. 1089 A.] So St Cyril of Jerusalem, Catech. xi. [c. 17, p. 158.) Oeds ó yevunoas, Deos ο γεννηθείς· θεός μεν των πάντων, θεόν δε εαυτου τον πατέρα επιγραφόμενος.
3 Μή μοι-είπητε, δύο θεούς κηρύτ. τει, πολυθεΐαν καταγγέλλει. ου δύο θεοί, ουδέ γάρ δύο πατέρες: ο μεν αρχάς εισάγων δύο, δύο κηρύττει θεούς. S. Ba