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on them. Thus the Athanasian Creed, “They that have done good shall go into life everlasting, and they that have done evil into everlasting fire.'

The next relation of this Article to the former, is in reference to the resurrection of the just; and then the life everlasting is not to be taken in a vulgar and ordinary sense', but raised to the constant language of the Scriptures, in which it signifieth all which God hath promised, which Christ hath purchased, and with which man shall be rewarded in the world to come.

Now this life eternal may be looked upon under three considerations; as initial, as partial, and as perfectional. I 395 call that eternal life initial, which is obtained in this life, and

is as it were an earnest of that which is to follow: of which
our Saviour spake, He that heareth my word, and believeth on John v. 24.
him that sent me, hath everlasting life, and shall not come into
condemnation ; but is passed from death unto life. I call that
partial, which belongeth, though to the nobler, yet but a part
of man, that is, the soul of the just separated from the body.
I dispute not whether the joys be partial as to the soul, I am
sure they are but partial as to the man. For that life con-
sisteth in the happiness which is conferred on the soul de-
parted in the fear, and admitted to the presence, of God. St
Paul had a desire to depart, and to be with Christ; he was Phil. i. 23.
willing rather to travel and be absent from the body, and to be 2 Cor. V. 8.
present and at home with the Lord. And certainly where
St Paul desired to be when he departed, there he then was,
and there now is, and that not alone, but with all them which
ever departed in the same faith with him, and that is with
Christ who sitteth at the right hand of God. This happiness
which the Saints enjoy between the hour of their death and

1. Eam quippe vitam æternam dicimus, ubi est sine fine felicitas. Nam si anima in pænis vivit æternis, quibus et ipsi spiritus cruciabuntur immundi, mors est illa potius æterna quam vita. Nulla quippe major et pejor est mors, quam ubi non moritur mors.' S. August. de Civit. Dei, 1. vi. C. 12. [Vol. VII. p. 162 A.] Quia vita æterna ab his, qui familiaritatem non habent cum Scripturis sanctis, potest accipi etiam malorum vita;


vel secundum quosdam etiam philo-
sophos, propter animæ immortalita.
tem; vel etiam secundum fidem nos.
tram, propter pænas interminabiles
impiorum, qui utique in mternum
cruciari non poterunt, nisi etiam
vixerint in æternum; profecto finis
Civitatis hujus, in quo summum
habebit bonum, vel pax in vita æter-
na, vel vita æterna in pace dicendus
est, ut facilius ab omnibus possit in.
telligi.' Idem, l. xix. c. 11. [p. 554 B.]


the last day, is the partial life eternal. Thirdly, I call that

perfectional, which shall be conferred upon the elect immediMatt. xxv. 31. ately after the blessing pronounced by Christ, Come, ye blessed

children of my Father, receive the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world.

This eternal life is to be considered in the possession, and in the duration : in the first, as it is life; in the second, as it is eternal. Now this life is not only natural, that is, the union of the soul to the body, which is the life of the repro

bate; but spiritual, which consisteth in the union of the soul 1 John v. 12 to God', as our Saviour speaks, He that hath the Son hath life,

and he that hath not the Son hath not life. And it is called after an especial manner life, because of the happiness which attendeth it?: and therefore to understand that life is to know, so far as it is revealed, in what that happiness doth consist.

1 Duæ vitæ sunt, una corporis, And St Paul, 1 Thess. iii. 8. *(71 vûy altera animæ; sicut vita corporis ani ξωμεν, εάν υμείς στήκητε εν Κυρίω. ma, sic vita animæ Deus. Quo modo Thus life of itself is often taken in si anima deserat, moritur corpus: sic the Scriptures for a happy and glorious anima moritur, si deserat Deus.' S. life, even that which is eternal, as St August. in Psal. 70. [Serm. ii. § 3. Austin observeth upon these words of Vol. iv. p. 736 A.]

the 119th Psalm: Veniant mihi ? For life is taken for happiness, miserationes tuæ et vivam: Tunc and to live for being happy. As enim vere vivam, quando nihil potero among the Greeks and Latins, šūv timere ne moriar. Ipsa enim et sine and vivere were taken for living a cheer ullo additamento dicitur vita, nec inful and a merry life, as “Vivamus, telligitur nisi æterna et beata, tammea Lesbia,' in Catullus, [Carm. V. 1.] quam sola dicenda sit vita, in cujus and in Martial, [1. i. epigr. 16. ver. comparatione ista quam ducimus, 12.]

mors potius sit appellanda quam 'Sera nimis vita est crastina, vive hodie.' vita ; quale illud est in evangelio, Si And as it is an old inscription, AMICI vis venire ad vitam, serva mandata. DUM VIVIMUS VIVAMUS, and in the con Numquid addidit, æternam vel beavivial wish, Zňoelas, mentioned by Dio tam? Item de resurrectione carnis in the life of Commodus, [1. lxxii. c. cum loqueretur, Qui bene fecerunt, 18.] : so in the language of the Scrip. inquit, in resurrectionem vita; neque tures, and a religious notion, they hic ait, aterna seu beatæ. Sic et hic, signify an happy and a blessed life: Veniant, inquit, mihi miserationes as i Sam. X. 24. yon into Let the king tue, et vivam : Neque hic ait, in live, is translated by the Chaldee æternum vivam, vel beate vivam ; ,

quasi aliud non sit vivere quam sine prosper. And when David sent unto

ullo fine, et sine ulla miseria vivere.' Nabal, he said, Thus shall ye say to Serm. xix. $ 4. Vol. 1v. p. 13 27 A.] him that liveth in prosperity, which is Thus St Austin. And again : Non in the original (1 Sam. xxv. 6.) no est vera vita, nisi ubi feliciter vivitur; thing but ns. So the Psalmist is nec vera incorruptio, nisi ubi salus to be understood, Psal. lxix. 32. The nullo dolore corrumpitur.' Enchir. humble shall see this and be glad, and de Fid. ad Laurent. c. 92. [Vol. VI. your heart shall live that seek God. p. 230 F.]

Let the king יצלח מלכא ,paraphrast


To begin with that which is most intelligible; the bodies of the Saints, after the resurrection, shall be transformed into spiritual and incorruptible bodies. The flesh is sown in cor- 1.Cor, xv. ruption, raised in incorruption ; sown in dishonour, raised in glory; sown in weakness, raised in power; sown a natural body, raised a spiritual body. This perfective alteration shall be made by the Son of God, who shall change our vile Phil. ii. 21. body, that it may be fashioned like unto his glorious body, according to the working whereby he is able even to subdue all things unto himself. Thus, when we come into that other world, the world of spirits, even our bodies shall be spiritual.

As for the better part of man, the soul, it shall be highly exalted to the utmost perfection in all the parts or faculties 396 thereof. The understanding shall be raised to the utmost

capacity, and that capacity completely filled. Now we see 1 Cor. xiii. 12.
through a glass, darkly; but then face to face: now we know
but in part; but then shall we know even as also we are
known. And this even now we know, that when God shall 1 John iii. 2.
appear we shall be like him; for we shall see him as he is.
Our first temptation was, that we should be like unto God in
knowledge, and by that we fell; but being raised by Christ,
we come to be truly like him, by knowing him as we are
known, and by seeing him as he is. Our wills shall be per-
fected with absolute and indefective holiness, with exact con-
formity to the will of God, and perfect liberty from all servi-
tude of sin: they shall be troubled with no doubtful choice,
but with their radical and fundamental freedom shall fully
embrace the greatest good! Our affections shall be all set
right by an unalterable regulation, and in that regularity shall
receive absolute satisfaction; and all this shall be effected,

1 "Sicut prima immortalitas fuit, quam peccando Adam perdidit, posse non mori, novissima erit non posse mori; ita primum liberum arbitrium posse non peccare, novissimum non posse peccare. Sic enim erit inamissibilis voluntas pietatis et æquitatis, quomodo est felicitatis. Nam utique peccando nec pietatem nec felicitatem tenuimus, voluntatem vero felicitatis nec perdita felicitate perdidimus. Certe Deus ipse numquid quoniam peccare non potest, ideo liberum arbitrium habere negandus est? Erit

ergo illius civitatis et una in omnibus et inseparabilis in singulis voluntas libera, ab omni malo liberata, et impleta omni bono, fruens indeficienteræternorum jocunditategaudiorum, oblita culparum, oblita pænarum, nec tamen ideo suæ liberationis oblita, ut liberatori suo non sit grata.' S. August. de Civit. Dei, 1. xxii. c. 30. [8 3. Vol. VII. p. 701 A.] Vide eundem, Tractatu de Epicuris et Stoicis, prope finem. [Serm. cl. § 10. Vol. v. p. 716 D.]

Luke xvi. 9.
2 Cor. v. 1.
1 Pet. v. 10.
Heb. v. 9.
Heb. ix. 15.
1 Pet. i. 4.

that we may be thereby made capable, and then happy by a full fruition.

To this internal perfection is added a proportionately happy condition, consisting in an absolute freedom from all pain, misery, labour, and want; an impossibility of sinning and offending God; an hereditary possession of all good, with an unspeakable complacency and joy flowing from it, and all this redounding from the vision and fruition of God: this is the life.

And now the duration of this life is as necessary as the life itself, because to make all already mentioned amount unto a true felicity, there must be added an absolute security of the enjoyment, void of all fear of losing it, or being deprived of it. And this is added to complete our happiness, by the adjection of eternity. Now that this life shall be eternal, we are assured who have not yet obtained it, and they much more who do enjoy it. He which hath purchased it for us,

and promised it unto us, often calleth it eternal life; it is Heb. xiii

. 14. described as a continuing city; as everlasting habitations, as

an house eternal in the heavens; it is expressed by eternal glory,

eternal salvation, by an eternal inheritance, incorruptible, unPELI . defiled, and that fadeth not away; by the everlasting kingdom

of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ. And lest we should be discouraged by any short or lame interpretation of eternity,

it is further explained in such terms as are liable to no misJohn viii. 51. take. For our Saviour hath said, If any man keep my saying, John xi. 26. he shall never see death. And whosoever liveth and believeth in

me shall not die. When God shall wipe away all tears from our eyes,

there shall be no more death; and where there is life and no death, there must be everlasting life : which is expressed by St Paul by way of opposition, calling it life and

immortality, and that together with the abolition of death, 2 Tim. i. 10. saying that our Saviour Jesus Christ hath abolished death, and

hath brought life and immortality to light through the Gospel.

The belief of this Article is necessary (as to the eternity of torment) to deter us from committing sin, and to quicken us to

holiness of life, and a speedy repentance for sin committed. Rom. vi. 23. For the wages of sin is death; nothing can bring us to those

everlasting flames but sin, no sin but that which is unrepented of; nothing can save that man from the never-dying worm, who dieth in his sins; and no other reason can bring him

Rev. xxi. 4.


397 thither, but because he sinned and repented not. They which

imagine the pains inflicted for sin to be either small or short',
have but a slender motive to innocence or repentance; but
such as firmly believe them sharp and endless, have by virtue
of that faith within themselves a proper and natural spur and
incitement to avoid them: for who can dwell in everlasting Isai. xxxiii.
burning3 ?

Secondly, The belief of eternal pains after death is neces-
sary to breed in us a fear and awe of the great God, a jealous
God, a consuming fire, a God that will not be mocked; and
to teach us to tremble at his word, to consider the infinity of
his justice, and the fierceness of his wrath, to meditate on the
power of his menaces, the validity of his threats, to follow
that direction, to embrace that reduplicated advice of our Sa-
viour, I will forewarn you whom ye shall fear: fear him, Luke xii. 5.
which after he hath killed, hath power to cast into hell; yea,
I say unto you, Fear him. And that exclusively of such fear
as concerns the greatest pairs of this life, which the martyrs
undervalued out of a belief of eternal torments.

Thirdly, This belief is necessary to teach us to make a fit estimate of the price of Christ's blood, to value sufficiently the work of our redemption, to acknowledge and admire the love of God to us in Christ. For he which believeth not the eternity of torments to come, can never sufficiently value that ransom by which we were redeemed from them, or be proportionately thankful to his Redeemer, by whose intervention we have escaped them. Whereas he who is sensible of the loss of heaven and the everlasting privation of the presence of God, of the torments of fire, the company of the devil and his

1 Tertullian recounting the advantages of the Christians towards innocence and holiness of life, which the heathens had not: •Recogitate ea etiam pro brevitate supplicii cujuslibet, non tamen ultra mortem remansuri. Sic et Epicurus omnem cruciatum doloremque depretiat, modicum quidem contemptibilem pronuntiando, magnum vero, non diuturnum. Enimvero nos qui sub Deo omnium speculatore dispungimur, quique æternam ab eo pænam providemus merito, soli innocentiæ occurrimus, et pro scientiæ plenitudine,

et pro latebrarum difficultate, et pro
magnitudine cruciatus, non diuturni,
verum sempiterni, eum timentes,
quem timere debebit et ipse qui ti.
mentes judicat, Deum, non Procon-
sulem, timentes.' Apol. c. 45.

2 So Polycarpus the Martyr an.
swered the Proconsul threatening to
consume him with fre: Πυρ απειλείς
το προς ώραν καιόμενον και μετ' ολίγον
σβεννύμενον. 'Αγνοείς γάρ το της μελ.
λούσης κρίσεως και αιωνίου κολάσεως
τοίς ασεβέσι τηρούμενον πύρ. Εpist. ad
Smyrn. Eccles. c. 11.

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