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selves so styled, so adored ? Neither temples, nor statues, nor sacrifices have seemed too much glory to the greatness of their selflove. Now, none of all their actions could be either evil or unbeseeming: nothing could proceed from them, worthy of censure, unworthy of admiration: their very spots have been beauty ; their hunoirs, justice; their errors, witty; their paradoxes, divine; their excesses, lieroical. O the damnable servility of false minds; which persuade others of that, which themselves laugh to see believed! () the dangerous credulity of self-love, which entertains all advantages if never so evil, never so impossible!
How happy a service shall you do to this whole world of ours, if you shall still settle in that princely mind a true apprehension of himself: and shall teach him, to take his own height aright; and, even from his childhood, to hate a parasite, as the worst traitor: to break those false glasses, that would present him a face pot his own: to applaud plain truth, and bend' his brows upon excessive praises ! This aifected, he may bid vice do her worst
. Thus, shall he strive with virtue, whether shall more honour each other. Thus, sincere and solid glory shall, every where, follow and crown him. Thus, when he hath but his due, he shall have so much, that he shall scorn to borrow the false colours of adulation. Go on happily, in this worthy and noble employment. The work cannot but succeed, that is furthered with so many prayers.
TO SIR THOMAS CHALLONER.
d Report of some Observations in my Travel.
BESIDE my hopes, not my desires, I travelled of late: for knowledge, partly; and, partly, for health. There was nothing, that made not my journey pleasant, save the labour of the way: which yet was so sweetly deceived, by the society of Sir Edmund Bacon, à Gentleman truly honourable beyond all titles, that I found small cause to complain.
The sea brooked not me, nor I it; an unquiet element, made only for wonder and use, not for pleasure. Alighted once from that wooden conveyance and uneven way, I bethought myself how fondly our life is committed to an unsteady and reeling piece of wood, fickle winds, restless waters; while we may set foot, on steadfast and constant earth.
Lo, then every thing taught me, every thing delighted me: so ready are we to be affected with those foreign pleasures, which, at
home, we should overlook. I saw much, as one might in such a span of earth, in so few months. The time favoured me : for, now newly had the key of peace opened those parts, which war had before closed; closed, I say, to all English, save either fugitives or captives. All civil occurrences; as what fair cities, what strange fashions, entertainment, dangers, delights we found; are fit for other ears, and winter evenings : what I noted, as a divine, within the sphere of my profession, my paper shall not spare, in some part, to report; and that to yourself, which have passed a longer way, with more happy fruit of observation. Even little streams empty themselves into great rivers; and they, again, into the sea. Neither do I desire to tell you, what you know not:'it shall be sufficient, that I relate ought, which others shall think memorable.
Along our way, how many churches saw we demolished ! Nothing left, but rude heaps, to tell the passenger, there had been both devotion and hostility: Oh, the miserable footsteps of war, besides bloodshed, ruin and desolation! Fury hath done that there, which Covetousness would do with us; would do, but shall not: the truth within, shall save the walls without. And, to speak truly, whatever the vulgar exclaim, idolatry pulled down those walls; not rage. If there had been no Hollander to raze them, they should bave fallen alone ; rather than hide so much impiety, under their guilty roof. These are spectacles, not so much of cruelty, as jus. tice; cruelty of man, justice of God.
But, which I wondered at, Churches fall, and Jesuits' Colleges rise, every where : there is no city, where those are not either rearing or built. Whence cometh this? Is it, for that devotion is not so necessary, as policy? Those men, as we say of the fox, fare best, when they are most cursed: none, so much spited of their own; none, so hated of all; none, so opposed by ours : and yet these ill weeds grow. Whosoever lives long, shall see them feared of their own, which now hate them; shall see these seven lean kine devour all the fat beasts, that feed on the meadows of Tiber. I prophesy, as Pharaoh dreamed: the event shall justify my confidence.
At Bruxilles *, I saw some Englishwomen profess themselves Vestals; with a thousand rites; I know not whether more ridiculous, or magical. Poor souls ! they could not be fools enough at home. It would have made you to pity, laugh, disdain, I know not which more, to see, by what cunning slights and fair tences, that weak sex was fetched into a wilful bondage: and, if those two can agree, willingly constrained to serve a master, whom they must and cannot obey; whom they neither may forsake for their vow, nor can please for their frailty. What follows hence ? Late sorrow, secret mischief, misery "irremediable. Their forwardness for will-worship, shall condemn our coldness for truth.
I talked there, in more boldness perhaps than wisdom, with Costerus, a famous Jesuit; an old man, more testy than, subtle,
* Brussels. EDITOR.
and more able to wrangle than satisfy. Our discourse was long and roving; and, on his part, full both of words and vehemency. He spake, as at home; I, as a stranger: yet so, as he saw me modestly peremptory. The particulars would swell my letter too much : it is enough, that the truth lost less, than I gained.
At Gaunt *, a city that commands reverence for age and wonder for the greatness, we fell upon a Capuchin Novice, which wept bitterly, because he was not allowed to be miserable. His head had now felt the razor ; his back, the rod : all that Laconical discipline pleased him well; which another, being condemned to, would justly account a torment. What hindered then? Piety, to his mother, would not permit this, which he thought piety to God. He could not be a willing beggar, unless his mother must beg unwillingly. He was the only heir of his father, the only stay of his mother : the comfort of her widowhood depended on this her orphan; who now, naked, must enter into the world of the Capuchins, as he came first into this ; leaving his goods to the division of the fraternity: the least part whereof should have been her's, whose he wished all. Hence those tears, that repulse. I pitied his ill-bestowed zeal; and rather wished, than durst, teach him more wisdom. These men for devout, the Jesuits for learned and pragmatical, have engrossed all opinion, from other Orders. Ohypocrisy! No Capuchin may take or touch silver: for these are, you know, the quintessence of Franciscan spirits. This metal is as very an anathema to these, as the wedge of gold to Achan: at the offer whereof he starts back, as Moses from the serpent : yet, he carries a boy with him, that takes and carries it; and never complains, of either metal or measure. I saw, and laughed at it; and, by this open trick of hypocrisy, suspected more, more close. How could I choose? while, commonly, the least appears of that which is; especially of that which is loathsome in appearance, much more in nature. At Namur, on a pleasant and steep hill-top, we found one, that was termed a married hermit; approving his wisdom above his fellows, that could make choice of so cheerful and sociable a solitariness.
Whence, after a delightful passage up the sweet river Mosa t, we visited the populous and rich clergy of Leodium I. That great city might well be dichotomized into cloisters and hospitals. If I might adventure, I could here play the critic; after all the ruins of my neglected philology. Old monuments, and after them our Lipsius, call this people Eburones. I doubt whether it should not rather be written Ebriones; yet, without search of any other records, save my own eyes : while yet I would those streets were more moist with wine, than with blood; wherein no day, no night is not dismal to some.
No law, no magistrate lays hold on the known murderer, if himself list: for, three days after his fact, the gates are open, and justice shut: private violence may pursue him; public justice cannot : whence, some of more hot temper carve them.
* Chent. EDIT.
+ The Maes, Edit."
selves of revenge; others take up with a small pecuniary satisfaction. O England, thought I, happy for justice, happy for security! There, you shall find, in every corner, a maumet; at every door, a beggar; in every dish, a priest.
From thence we passed to the Spa, a village famous for her medicinal and mineral waters, compounded of iron and copperas; the virtue whereof yet the simple inhabitant ascribes to their beneficial Saint, whose heavy foot hath made an ill-shaped impression, in a stone of his Savenir *; a water more wholesome than pleasant, and yet more famous than wholesome.
The wide deserts, on which it borders, are haunted with three kinds of ill cattle; freebooters, wolves, witches: although these two last are ofttimes one. For, that savage Ardenna is reputed to yield many of those monsters, whom the Greeks call Auxáv9pwars; they, Lougarous; we, if you will, Witch-wolves: witches, that have put on the shape of those cruel beasts. We saw a boy there, whose half-face was devoured by one of them, near the village : yet so, as that the ear was rather cut, than bitten off. days before our coming, at Limburgh, was executed one of those miscreants, who confessed, on the wheel, to have devoured two and forty children in that form. It would ask a large volume, to scan this problem of lycanthropy. The reasons, wherewith their relation furnished me, on both parts, would make an epistle tedious. This, in short, I resolved: a substantial change is above the reach of all infernal powers ; proper to the same hand, that created the substance of both : herein the Devil plays the double sophister; yea, the sorcerer with sorcerers: he both deludes the witch's conceit, and the beholders' eyes.
One thing I may not omit, without sinful oversight; a short, but memorable story, which the Greffier of that town, though of different religion, reported to more ears than ours. When the last Inquisition tyrannized in those parts, and helped to spend the faggots of Ardenna ; one of the rest, a confident Confessor, being led far to his stake, sung psalms along the way, in a heavenly courage and victorious triumph. The cruel officer, envying his last mirth, and grieving to see him merrier than bis tormentors, commanded him silence: he sings still, as desirous to improve his last breath to the best : the view of his approaching glory, bred his joy; his joy breaks forth into a cheerful confession. The enraged Sheriff causes his tongue, drawn forth to the length, to be cut off near the roots. Bloody wretch! It had been good music, to have heard his shrieks; but, to hear his music, was torment. The poor Martyr dies in silence, rests in peace. Not many months after, our butcherly officer hath a son born with his tongue hanging down upon his chin, like a deer after long chase ; which never could be gathered up, within the bounds of his lips. O the divine hand, full of justice, full of revenge! Go now, Lipsius, and write the new miracles of
* The name of the upper well of the Spa.
thy goddess; and confirm superstition, by strange events. Judge, you that have seen, if ever the chapel of Halle or Zichem have yielded ought more notable.
We met, every where *, pilgrims to those his Ladies : two Ladies, shall I call them; or one Lady, in two shrines? If two, why do they worship but one? If but one, why doth she that cure at Zichem, which at Halle she could not? Oh, what pity it is, that so high a wit should, in the last act, be subject to dotage! All the masculine brood of that brain we cherished, and, if need were, admired : but these his silly virgins, the feeble issue of distempered age, who can abide ? One of his darlings, at Louan t, told me, from his own mouth, that the elder I of these two daughters, was by him, in ten days, got, conceived, born, christened. Í believed; and wondered not. These acts of superstition have an invisible father and midwife: besides, that it is not for an elephant three years
with a mouse. It was told me, in the shop of his Moretus, not without some indignation, that our king, when he had well viewed the book, and read some passages, threw it to the ground, with this censure; “Damnation to him, that made it; and to him, that believes it :" whether a true story, or one of their legends, I enquire not: I am sure, that sentence did not so much discontent them, as it joyed me.
Let me tell you yet, ere I take off my pen, two wonders more, which I saw in that wonder of cities, Antwerp.
One, a solemn mass in a shambles, and that on God's day : while the house was full of meat, of butchers, of buyers, some kneeling, others bargaining, most talking, all busy. It was strange, to see one house sacred to God and the belly; and how those two services agreed. The priest did eat flesh, the butchers sold flesh; in one roof, at one instant. The butcher killed, and sold it by pieces; the priest did sacrifice, and orally devour it whole: whether was the more butcher? The like we might have seen at Malines $.
The other, an Englishman ||, so madly devout, that he had wilfully mured up himself as an anchorite ; the worst of all prisoners : there sat he, pent up, for his further merit; half hunger-starved, for the charity of the citizens. It was worth seeing, how manly he could bite-in his secret want; and dissemble his over-late repen. tance. I cannot commend his mortification, if he wish to be in heaven, yea, in purgatory, to be delivered from thence. I durst not pity him; because his durance was willing, and, as he hoped, meritorious : but, such encouragement as he had from me, such thank shall he have from God; who, instead of an “ Euge,” which he looks for, shall angrily challenge him, with “Who required this?” I leave him now, in his own fetters; you, to your worthy and honourable employments.
* Histoire et Miracles, &c. “Que le 8. jour du mois de Septembre au dict an. 1603. etant Feste de la Nativité de notre Dame, le nombre de pelerins a etè environ 20000." l'age 35. of Louvaine. Epit. # Virgo Hallensis, $ Mechlinia. H One Goodwin, a Kentish-man.