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be found in the note below.' Clemens connects with Themis a somewhat similar representation.”

2 These representations were never considered by the ancients as licentious exhibitions. They were not intended to provoke lust on the contrary, the initiated were obliged, during the days that the ceremonies lasted, to keep themselves pure from all venereal connexions. They had a synibolical and an historical import. They were taken along with the mysteries from Egypt. In that country, Osiris, according to Plutarch, was considered as the cause of generation. This idea is connected with bis history. Typhon, Plutarch tells us, when he tore the body of Osiris to pieces, threw bis generative member into the Nile: Isis, who could not find this part of her husband, made an image of it and caused it to be worshipped, and instituted the rites of the Phallus; and hence, he tells us, were attributed to Osiris the first spermatic power, and the cause of generation. Thus we find that all the Phallic rites, as well as those of Priapus, originated from these mysteries : for Priapus was the sanie as Dionysus. Exactly the same history of the Phallus is connected with Dionysus, the Grecian Osiris, as torn to pieces by the Titans.

Herodotus seems to suppose that the Bacchic rites were altered in their introduction into Greece, and that Phænician

1 Αδε γε μυστηρια τουτων, οίον αντικα τα Ελευσινια, τον μυθικον υποκρινεται Δια μιγνυμενον τη Δηοι, η τη Δημητερι, και τη θυγατερι ταυτης Φερσεφαττη τη και Κορη. Επειδη δε εμελλον και αφροδισιοι επι τη μνησει γινεσθαι συμπλοκαι, αναδυεται πως η Αφροδιτη απο τινων πεπλασμενων μηδεων πελαγιος. Ειτα δε γαμηλιος επι τη Κορη υμεναιος. Και επαδουσιν οι τελουμενοι, εκ τυμπανου εφαγον, εκ κυμβαλων επιoν, εκερνοφορησα υπο τον παστον εισεδυν. Υποκρινεται δε και τας Δηους ωδινας. Ικετηριαι γουν αυτικα Δηους. Και χολης ποσις, και καρδιαλγιαι.--Επι πασιν αι του Διονυσου τιμαι, και η κυστις, και τα πολυομφαλα ποπανα, και οι τα Σαβαζιω τελουμενοι, κληδονες τε και μιμαλωνες, και τις ηχων λεβης Θεσπρωτειος και Δωδωναιον χαλκειον, και Kορυβας αλλος και Κουρης ετερος, δαιμονων μιμηματα. Εφ' οίς ή Βαυβω τους μηρους ανασυρομενη, και ο γυναικος κτεις, ούτω γαρ ονομαζουσι την αιδω αισχυνομενοι. Psellus, Ms. τινα περι δαιμονων δοξαζουσιν Ελληνες.

2 Και προσετι της Θεμιδος τα απορρητα συμβολα, οριγανον, λυχνος, ξιφος, κτεις γυναικειος και εστιν, ευφημως και μυστικως ειπειν, μοριον γυναικειον. Protrept. p. 24.

3 Οι γαρ σοφώτεροι των ιερεων-Οσιριν μεν απλως απασην την υγροποιον αρχην και δυναμιν, αιτιαν γενεσεως και σπερματος ουσιαν νομιζοντες. Ρlutarch. de ls. et Os. p. 269.

4 Και γαρ και προστιθεμενος τη μυθω λογος, ώς του Οσιριδος και Τυφων το αιδοιον ερριψεν εις τον ποταμον, ήδΙσις ουχ εύρεν, αλλ' εμφερες αγαλμα θεμενη και κατασκευασασα, τιμαν και φαλληφορειν εταξεν, ενταύθα γε παραχωρει διδασκων, ότι το γονιμον και το σπερματικον του θειου πρωτον εσχεν όλην την υγροτητα, και δι' υγροτητος ενεκράθη τοις πεφυκασι μετεχειν γενεσεως. Ρlut. ibid. p. 270. See Synesius de Providentia.

5 Παρ' ενιοις δε, και αυτος εστι τη Διονυσω. Schol. in Theocrit. Ιd. α'. ν. 21.--Τιμαται παρα Λαμψακηνοις και Πριαπος, και αυτος ων τφ Διονυση, εξ επιθετου καλουμενος ούτως, ως θριαμβος και Διθυραμβος. Αthenaeus, Deipnosophist. lib. 1.

fables were mixed with the worship that Melampus brought from Egypt.' But in truth they were all nearly the same; and although we have less direct testimony that Adonis or Thammuz was considered as a generative principle, yet we have abundant evidence that the Phoenician Aphrodite was so. She was fabled to have been produced from the generative organs of Cronus, when they fell into the ocean, or primitive chaos:

Μηδεα θ' ως τοπρωτον αποτμηξας, αδαμαντον
Καββαλ' επ' Ηπειροιο πολυκλυστω ενι ποντω.
Ως φερετ' αμπελαγος πουλυν χρονον αμφι δε λευκος
Αφρος απ' αθανατου χρoος ωρνυτο, το δ' ει κουρη
Eθρεφθη πρωτον δε Κυθηροισι ζαθεοισιν
Eπλετο, ενθεν επειτα περιρρυτον ικετο Κυπρoν.
Εκ δ' εβη αιδοιη καλη θεος αμφι δε ποιη
Ποσσιν υπο ραδινοισιν αεξετο την δ' Αφροδιτης,
Αφρογενειαν τε θεαν, εύστεφανον Κυθερειαν
Κικλησκουσι θεοι τε και ανερες, oύνεκ' εν αφρω

θρεφθη. And we find from the account of Lucian before cited, that the Byblian women offered their chastity to Aphrodite, just as the ladies of Chaldea sacrificed theirs in honor of the Babylonian Mylitta. The same custom was prevalent at Carthage.* But Venus, as Libera, was the same as Proserpine. And thus Porphyry, after showing that the art of weaving was symbolical of the descent of the soul into the body, and that the body is as it were a vest for the soul, adds, “ thus also in Orpheus, Proserpine, who presides over all seminal powers, is introduced weaving.

And Demeter also is represented peculiarly as generative principle.6

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1 Herodotus, lib. ii. p. 122. 2 See Villoison, Anecdota Græca, tom. i. p. 13. 3 Hesiod. Theogon. v. 188.

4 Cui gloriæ Punicarum fæminarum, nt ex comparatione turpius appareat, dedecus subnectam. Siccæ enim fanum est Veneris, in quod se matronæ conferebant; atque inde procedentes ad quæstum, dotes corporis injuria contrahebant, honesta nimirum tam inhonesto vinculo conjugia juncturæ. Val. Max. lib. ii. c. 6. extern. exemp. 15.-The same practice existed in Cyprus, where the Punic and Syrian rites were prevalent. Mos erat Cypriis, virgines ante nuptias statutis diebus, dotalem pecuniam quæsituras, in quæstum ad littus maris mittere, pro reliqua pudicitia libamenta Veneri soluturas. Justin. Histor. lib. xviii. c. 5.

5 Ουτω και παρα το Ορφει η Κορη, ήπερ εστι παντος του σπειρομενου εφορος, ιστουργουσα παραδιδοται. Porphyr. de Antro Nymphar. p. 259.--And so Proclus : Και γαρ άπτεσθαι των περιφορων ο Σωκρατης ελεγε, και εν Κρατυλφ, την εγκοσμιον Κορην, την τφ Πλουτωνι συνουσαν, και πασαν την γενεσιν επιτροπευουσαν, άπτεσθαι της φερομενης ουσιας ετιθετο. In Platon. Theolog. lib. vi. c. 24. p. 411.

6 Της γε μην ζωογονικης εξαρχει μεν η Δημητηρ, όλως απογεννωσαν παντα εγκοσ. μιoν ζωην, την τε νοεραν, και την ψυχικην, και την αχωριστον του σωματος. Ρroclus in Platon. Theolog. lib. vi. c. 22. p. 403.

Δηοι παμμητειρα, θεα, πολυωνυμε δαιμον,

Σεμνη Δημητηρ, κ. τ. λ. The arcane exhibitions of the mysteries, then, were symbolical of generation, as introduced into the world by these divinities. And Jamblichus represents the Phallic rites, and the obscene discourses, as so many allusions to the generative power as derived from the gods. All these indecent exhibitions in the mysteries, the history of Ceres and Baubo, are represented as secondary consequences of the rape of Proserpine, as the Phallic worship was a secondary consequence of the fall of Osiris, or Dionysus. Generation was introduced when Proserpine was ravished out of Paradise.

Now I consider that when two traditions amongst two different people are similar to one another, and they can easily have been derived from one common source, we may be allowed to suppose that they are both of one origin. If, therefore, it can be shown, that nutions that have any connexion with these originated out of the Mosaic history of the fall, we can scarcely doubt, when we review the other proofs of identity between the two histories, that the more arcane parts of the fable of Ceres and Proserpine, as well as all the rest, were intended originally to record Eve's transgression.

It appears to have been the opinion of our poet Milton, that the eating of the forbidden fruit introduced into the world carnal Just.

But that false fruit
Far other operation first display'd,
Carnal desire inflaming: he on Eve
Began to cast lascivious eyes, she him
As wantonly repaid ; in lust they burn.

Par. Lost, Book ix. But the Rabbinical writers, who have preserved to us the popular notions and traditions of the Jews, went still further : they imagined that all generation was introduced by the fall. I will instance a few. “ Aben Ezra,” says one account, “ said,

1 Orph. Hymn. xl. Anunt pos.

2 Τα δε εν τοις καθεκαστα επιoντες, την μεν των φαλλων στασιν της γονιμου δυναμεως συνθημα τι φαμεν, και ταυτην προσκαλεισθαι νομιζομεν εις την γενεσιουργιαν του κοσμου διοπερ δη τα πολλα τα ηρι καθιερoυται, δτε δη και ο πας κοσμος δεχεται απο των θεων της γενεσεως όλης την απογεννησιν· τας δ' αισχρολογιας της περι την ύλην στερησεως των καλων, και της προτερον ασχημοσυνης των μελλοντων διακοσμεισθαι ήγουμαι το ενδειγμα παραδεχεσθαι, άπερ οντα ενδεη του κοσμεισθαι, εφιεται τοσουτον μαλλον, δσω πλεον καταγινωσκει της περι ταυτα απρεπειας. Jainblichus, de Mysteriis, sect. i.c. il. p. 21. Ed. Gale.

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that Adam was full of wisdom, for God had hidden nothing from him : of one thing, however, he was ignorant, that was copulation. And Aben Ezra himself tells us, that “the tree of knowlege produced venereal desire ; and thence it was that Adam and his wife covered their secret parts. And Abarbanetis had a similar idea,3 The Greeks represented the seduction of Proserpine as a venereal congress, and she became the wife of Pluto. And a rabbinical writer has asserted, that the serpent intended no other than that Adam should first eat of the fruit and die, and that he should take Eve to wife. And a more modern writer imagines, that God had destined Eve to be the mother of the human race, to conceive her own offspring, not by carnal copulation, and in the manner of brutes, nor at the will of the man, but from God or the obumbration of the Holy Spirit alone, in the same manner as the Saviour was conceived ; that is, the virginity of the mother remaining pure, and the womb closed, she should produce without pain ; and that she was created superior to man.s The notions of the rabbinical writers on this subject are innumerable ; but enough has been adduced for my purpose. Some believed that God had created Adam originally androgynous, or an hermapbrodite, with the parts of both sexes. Others thought that he was made double, consisting of a man and woman joined together; and that when God is said to have taken the rib from Adam's side, it is signified that he divided the female side from him. According to others, he was a man before and a woman behind. Some

כהבן עזרא על זה כי אדם מלא רעתהיה כי השם לא יצוה לאשר אין דעת לו רק 1 דעת טוב ורע ברבר אה' לבדו לא ידע ע"כי וה הדבר אח' שלא דע ר"ל חמשגלי

עץ הדעת יוליד האוה המשגל ועל כן כסו האדם ואשתו ערותם וכו .c& 2

אדם שיאכל הוא תחלה ותשא את חוא :•

אתה לא כה כוונת אלא שימות

'' Aben Ezra dicit, quod homo fuerit sapientia plenus, nam Deus nihil præciperet ei, qui omnia scientia curet; unicam vero rem ignoraverit, coitum nempe. Mekor Chajim. fol, . col. 1.

2 . Arbor scientiæ peperit concupiscentiam veneream, atque inde obtexerunt Adam ejusque uxor verenda sua, 8c. Aben Ezra, ad Gen. iii. 6.

3 Abarbanetis, fol. 6). *:

r Tu, o serpens, nil aliud intendisti, quam ut moreretur Adam, ipseque primum comederet, tu vero Evam in uxorem duceres. R. Isaac. ben Arama.

5 Deum ex suo beneplacito Evam creavisse, destinavisseque, ut esset totius humanitatis futura mater, suam conceptura prolem, non quidem ex copula carnali, ac brutorum more, neque ex concupiscentia carnis, aut voluntate viri, sed ex Deo sive ex obumbratione solius S. Spiritus, per modum quo concepta sit et nata humanitas, in qua et per quam regenerari oportet omnes salvandos ; id est, manente matris virginitate integra, et utero clauso, peperisset absque dolore ; eratque Eva constituta supra virum. Johan, Baptist. von Helmont, ap. Chemnitium de Arbore Scient. Boni et Mali, p. 37.

6 See the writers cited in Bartoloccius, Bibliotheca Rabbin. in verb. .

writers have supposed that Adam and Eve were created without any generative members at all ; but that these burst forth like excrescences when they tasted of the fatal fruit. But almost all are agreed that generation was a consequence of the fall : and, indeed, this may easily be conjectured from the very words of Moses; for Adam appears not to have known Eve till after that event.

And here, by the way, I must not forget a very remarkable similitude between a particular of the Mosaical record and a notion of Plato. Satan, according to the former, seduced Eve by the promise of superior wisdom and knowlege. And the serpent itself, under which Satan was concealed, is characterised as the most diny? subtle and cunning of all the beasts which God had created;} or, according to the Arabic version, the wisest.4 Now Plato and Proclus characterise Pluto as the supplier of wisdom to the soul.s But if I were inclined to adduce such instances as this, they are innumerable, and have been many of them observed by other writers, who do not appear to have had the least idea of applying the same mode of explanation to the mysteries as the present. I will just adduce one passage in illustration, from Christie's “ Disquisition on Etruscan Vases, p. 62.

more striking instance," he observes, may be noticed on a vase, plate xciv. in the third volume of D'Hancarville's Collection.” The painting of this, as far as it concerns Pan and Celmis, I have already explained : the remaining part also deserves notice. A naked male then approaches a tree, the trunk of which is embraced by two serpents, in the same way as the mundane egg is embraced by the

ós But a

1

ויאמר הנחש אל-האשה-ביום אכלכם ממנו ונפקחו עיניכם והייתם כאלהים ידעי

ותרא האשה כי טוב העץ למאכל וכי תאוה הוא לעינים ונחמד העץ-.5

.Gen

. iii .להשכיל ותקח מפריו ותאכל ותתן גם־לאישה עמה ויאכל

) y77 314. " And the serpent said unto the woman, in the day ye eat thereof, then your eyes shall be opened, and ye shall be as gods, knowing good from evil.” .

« And when the woman saw that the tree was good for food, and that it was pleasant to the eyes, and a tree to be desired to make one wise, she took of the fruit thereof, and did eat, and gave also unto her husband with her; and he did eat.” iii. 6.

? Only wise, prudent, ready-witted. In a bad sense, quick-witted, cunning, subtle, sharp.” Parkhurst.

3 Gen. iii. 1.

* See the Arabic version as given in No. LXXIX. Class. Journ. p. 68. not. 7. The Jerusalem Targum has-0475x * Sed serpens erat sapiens ad malum præ omnibus bestiis agri, quas fecerat Dominus Deus.

Και εστιν (ώς γε εκ του λογου τουτου) ο Θεος ούτος τελεος σοφιστης τε και μεγας ευεργετης των παρ' αυτω, δς γε και τους ενθασε τοσαντα αγαθα ανιησιν. Ρlato, Cratylus, p. 265 F.-Eπει και ο μεν Πλουτων, σοφιας εστι χορηγος, και νου ταις yuxais, kata Tov ev Kpatury Ewkpatou. Proclus in Platon. Theolog. lib. vi. c. 11.

והנחש והוא הוה חכים לביש מכל חיות ברא דעבד •

5

p. 371.

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